Publications by authors named "Patricia OʼBrien"

140 Publications

Cytotaxonomy of Gallinula melanops (Gruiformes, Rallidae): Karyotype evolution and phylogenetic inference.

Genet Mol Biol 2021 2;44(2):e20200241. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Instituto Evandro Chagas, Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos e Citogenética (SAMAM), Ananindeua, PA, Brazil.

Although Rallidae is the most diverse family within Gruiformes, there is little information concerning the karyotype of the species in this group. In fact, Gallinula melanops, a species of Rallidae found in Brazil, is among the few species studied cytogenetically, but only with conventional staining and repetitive DNA mapping, showing 2n=80. Thus, in order to understand the karyotypic evolution and phylogeny of this group, the present study aimed to analyze the karyotype of G. melanops by classical and molecular cytogenetics, comparing the results with other species of Gruiformes. The results show that G. melanops has the same chromosome rearrangements as described in Gallinula chloropus (Clade Fulica), including fission of ancestral chromosomes 4 and 5 of Gallus gallus (GGA), beyond the fusion between two of segments resultants of the GGA4/GGA5, also fusions between the chromosomes GGA6/GGA7. Thus, despite the fact that some authors have suggested the inclusion of G. melanops in genus Porphyriops, our molecular cytogenetic results confirm its place in the Gallinula genus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2020-0241DOI Listing
April 2021

Evolution of late-stage metastatic melanoma is dominated by aneuploidy and whole genome doubling.

Nat Commun 2021 03 4;12(1):1434. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Although melanoma is initiated by acquisition of point mutations and limited focal copy number alterations in melanocytes-of-origin, the nature of genetic changes that characterise lethal metastatic disease is poorly understood. Here, we analyze the evolution of human melanoma progressing from early to late disease in 13 patients by sampling their tumours at multiple sites and times. Whole exome and genome sequencing data from 88 tumour samples reveals only limited gain of point mutations generally, with net mutational loss in some metastases. In contrast, melanoma evolution is dominated by whole genome doubling and large-scale aneuploidy, in which widespread loss of heterozygosity sculpts the burden of point mutations, neoantigens and structural variants even in treatment-naïve and primary cutaneous melanomas in some patients. These results imply that dysregulation of genomic integrity is a key driver of selective clonal advantage during melanoma progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21576-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933255PMC
March 2021

Comparative chromosome painting in hummingbirds (Trochilidae).

Genet Mol Biol 2020 30;43(4):e20200162. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Evolutiva, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil.

Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are one of the most enigmatic avian groups, and also among the most diverse, with approximately 360 recognized species in 106 genera, of which 43 are monotypic. This fact has generated considerable interest in the evolutionary biology of the hummingbirds, which is reflected in a number of DNA-based studies. However, only a few of them explored chromosomal data. Given this, the present study provides an analysis of the karyotypes of three species of Neotropical hummingbirds, Anthracothorax nigricollis (ANI), Campylopterus largipennis (CLA), and Hylocharis chrysura (HCH), in order to analyze the chromosomal processes associated with the evolution of the Trochilidae. The diploid number of ANI is 2n=80 chromosomes, while CLA and HCH have identical karyotypes, with 2n=78. Chromosome painting with Gallus gallus probes (GGA1-12) shows that the hummingbirds have a karyotype close to the proposed ancestral bird karyotype. Despite this, an informative rearrangement was detected: an in-tandem fusion between GGA7 and GGA9 found in CLA and HCH, but absent in ANI. A comparative analysis with the tree of life of the hummingbirds indicated that this fusion must have arisen following the divergence of a number of hummingbird species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2020-0162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821849PMC
November 2020

Karyotypic divergence reveals that diversity in the Oecomys paricola complex (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from eastern Amazonia is higher than previously thought.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(10):e0241495. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Laboratório de Citogenética, Centro de Estudos Avançados da Biodiversidade, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, Pará, Brazil.

The genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) is distributed from southern Central America to southeastern Brazil in South America. It currently comprises 18 species, but multidisciplinary approaches such as karyotypic, morphological and molecular studies have shown that there is a greater diversity within some lineages than others. In particular, it has been proposed that O. paricola constitutes a species complex with three evolutionary units, which have been called the northern, eastern and western clades. Aiming to clarify the taxonomic status of O. paricola and determine the relevant chromosomal rearrangements, we investigated the karyotypes of samples from eastern Amazonia by chromosomal banding and FISH with Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME) whole-chromosome probes. We detected three cytotypes for O. paricola: A (OPA-A; 2n = 72, FN = 75), B (OPA-B; 2n = 70, FN = 75) and C (OPA-C; 2n = 70, FN = 72). Comparative chromosome painting showed that fusions/fissions, translocations and pericentric inversions or centromeric repositioning were responsible for the karyotypic divergence. We also detected exclusive chromosomal signatures that can be used as phylogenetic markers. Our analysis of karyotypic and distribution information indicates that OPA-A, OPA-B and OPA-C are three distinct species that belong to the eastern clade, with sympatry occurring between two of them, and that the "paricola group" is more diverse than was previously thought.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241495PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595413PMC
December 2020

Forming relationships through group art-making: An exploration with neurodivergent people living in regional Australia.

Health Promot J Austr 2020 Oct 11. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Centre for Disability Studies, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney School of Medicine, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Issues Addressed: Neurodivergent people have a strong history of raw creative expression in the arts, however they also have a history of being segregated from society. This segregation has obstructed pathways to building the connections that maintain both mental and physical health. This research sought to illuminate how group art-making impacts relationship formation with neurodivergent people in regional Australia.

Method: The study included nine participants with intellectual disability and one with an acquired brain injury who regularly attend art-making workshops, along with eight of their chosen arts advocates. A single iterative case-study design was employed using participatory action research (PAR) methodology. Methods included: three participant think aloud (T/A) groups, nine researcher observations, and nine third-party interviews. The data were thematically analysed then triangulated using three different sources.

Results: Making art in a group can form enriched relationships with (a) the artwork; (b) the self; (c) others; and (d) community. Facilitation supported how these relationships formed. The relationships increased agency, belonging and wellbeing.

Conclusion: These connections mitigate the numerous effects of marginalisation. Art-making has the capacity to enrich the health and wellbeing of neurodivergent populations. SO WHAT?: Art-making groups can provide a space that interrupts the isolation and social exclusion experienced by neurodivergent people. Art workshops offer both an emancipatory space to create where sense of self and relationships with others are enhanced, and an opportunity to reach beyond the studio to connect with communities. These rich connections contribute to better health outcomes for neurodivergent people, thus enhance the wellbeing of their communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpja.431DOI Listing
October 2020

Chromosomal Evolution in the Phylogenetic Context: A Remarkable Karyotype Reorganization in Neotropical Parrot (Psittacidae).

Front Genet 2020 10;11:721. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brazil.

is a small Neotropical parrot (Psittaciformes: Arini Tribe) from subtropical and temperate regions of South America. It has a diploid chromosome number 2 = 48, different from other members of the Arini Tribe that have usually 70 chromosomes. The species has the lowest 2 within the Arini Tribe. In this study, we combined comparative chromosome painting with probes generated from chromosomes of and , and FISH with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) selected from the genome library of with the aim to shed light on the dynamics of genome reorganization in in the phylogenetic context. The homology maps showed a great number of fissions in macrochromosomes, and many fusions between microchromosomes and fragments of macrochromosomes. Our phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Parsimony agree with molecular data, placing . in a basal position within the Arini Tribe, together with (short tailed species). In many chromosome rearrangements were found to represent autopomorphic characters, indicating that after this species split as an independent branch, an intensive karyotype reorganization took place. In addition, our results show that . probes generated by flow cytometry provide novel cytogenetic tools for the detection of avian chromosome rearrangements, since this species presents breakpoints that have not been described in other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366516PMC
July 2020

Improving Equity Through Primary Care: Proceedings of the 2019 Toronto International Conference on Quality in Primary Care.

Ann Fam Med 2020 07;18(4):364-369

Department of Family and Community Medicine, North York General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (O'Neill); Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (O'Neill, O'Brien, Kidd, Kiran); Department of Family and Community Medicine, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (Ferrer); UT Health School of Public Health, San Antonio, Texas (Ferrer); General Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (Watt); Department of Family and Community Medicine and Social Interventions Research and Evaluation Network (SIREN), University of California, San Francisco, California (Gottlieb); Department of Family and Community Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Pinto, Kiran); MAP Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Insti tute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Pinto, Kiran); Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium (Willems); Community Health Centre Watersportbaan, Gent, Belgium (Willems); Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Health Service Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (Currie, Leitch); Hearing Australia, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia (Currie); University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia (Leitch); Provincial Patient Family Advisory Council, Ontario, Canada (Zsager); Inner City Family Health Team, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Zsager); Canadian and Toronto Alliance to End Homelessness, Totonto, Ontario, Canada (Zsager); Homeless Connect Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Zsager); Coordinator, Voices from the Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Harriott); Principal Medical Advisor & Deputy Chief Medical Officer, Department of Health, Australia, Woden, Canberra, Australia (Kidd); Australian National University, Canberra, Australia (Kidd); World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Family Medicine and Primary Care, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Kidd, Kiran, O'Brien, O'Neill, Pinto); Murdoch Children's Research Institute, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia (Kidd); Southgate Institute for Health, Society and Equity, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia (Kidd); Health Quality Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Kiran); Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Kiran).

Health equity allows people to reach their full health potential and receive high-quality care that is appropriate for them and their needs, no matter where they live, what they have, or who they are. It is a core element of quality in health care. Around the world, there are many efforts to improve equity through primary care. In order to advance these efforts, it is important to share successes and challenges. Building on our work with international stakeholders to identify key primary care research priorities, we organized the Toronto International Conference on Quality in Primary Care that was held on November 16, 2019. Participants from 8 countries took part. Key recommendations included the establishment of continuous relationships between providers and patients over time, relationships between providers in the health and social sectors, and resources supported proportionally to patient need. Solutions must be generated using team-based approaches that explicitly include people with who have experienced discrimination. Progress will require confronting structural determinants including racism, capitalism, and colonialism. Conference participants suggested practical solutions, such as developing a public transportation program for rural residents to improve community building and the ability to attend medical appointments, and identifying patients who have recently missed clinic visits that may benefit from additional care. These approaches will need to be evaluated through high-quality research and quality improvement, with a knowledge translation that facilitates sustainability and expansion across settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.2560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358019PMC
July 2020

The molecular cytogenetic characterization of Conopophaga lineata indicates a common chromosome rearrangement in the Parvorder Furnariida (Aves, Passeriformes).

Genet Mol Biol 2020 12;43(3):e20200018. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil.

Cytogenetic analyses of the Suboscines species are still scarce, and so far, there is no karyotype description of any species belonging to the family Conopophagidae. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe and analyze the karyotype of Conopophaga lineata by chromosome painting using Gallus gallus (GGA) probes and to identify the location of the 18/28S rDNA cluster. Metaphases were obtained from fibroblast culture from two individuals of C. lineata. We observed a diploid number of 2n=78. GGA probes showed that most ancestral syntenies are conserved, except for the fission of GGA1 and GGA2, into two distinct pairs each. We identified the location of 18S rDNA genes in a pair of microchromosomes. The fission of the syntenic group corresponding to GGA2 was observed in other Furnariida, and hence may correspond to a chromosomal synapomorphy for the species of Parvorder Furnariida.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2020-0018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295152PMC
June 2020

Chromosomal evolution and phylogenetic considerations in cuckoos (Aves, Cuculiformes, Cuculidae).

PLoS One 2020 29;15(5):e0232509. Epub 2020 May 29.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, PPGBM, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

The Cuckoos have a long history of difficult classification. The species of this order have been the subject of several studies based on osteology, behavior, ecology, morphology and molecular data. Despite this, the relationship between Cuculiformes and species of other orders remains controversial. In this work, two species of Cuculidae, Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788) and Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766), were analyzed by means of comparative chromosome painting in order to study the chromosome evolution of this group and to undertake the first chromosome mapping of these species. Our results demonstrate high chromosomal diversity, with 2n = 76 in G. guira, with fission and fusion events involving ancestral syntenies, while P. cayana presented only fissions, which were responsible for the high diploid number of 2n = 90. Interestingly, there were no chromosomal rearrangements in common between these species. Our results, based on Giemsa staining, were compared with previous data for other cuckoos and also with taxa proposed as sister-groups of Cuculiformes (Otidiformes, Musophagiformes and Opisthocomiformes). Cytogenetic comparisons demonstrated that cuckoo species can be divided into at least three major groups. In addition, we found no evidence to place Cuculiformes close to the groups proposed previously as sister-groups.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232509PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259548PMC
July 2020

Chromosomal Signatures Corroborate the Phylogenetic Relationships within Akodontini (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 31;21(7). Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Laboratório de Citogenética, Centro de Estudos Avançados da Biodiversidade, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, Pará, 66075-750, Brazil.

Comparative chromosome-painting analysis among highly rearranged karyotypes of Sigmodontinae rodents (Rodentia, Cricetidae) detects conserved syntenic blocks, which are proposed as chromosomal signatures and can be used as phylogenetic markers. In the Akodontini tribe, the molecular topology (Cytb and/or IRBP) shows five low-supported clades (divisions: "", "", "", "", and "") within two high-supported major clades (clade A: "", "", and ""; clade B: "" and ""). Here, we examine the chromosomal signatures of the Akodontini tribe by using (HME) probes to study the karyotypes of (2n = 54, FN = 64) and (2n = 28, FN = 50), and compare these data with those from other taxa investigated using the same set of probes. We strategically employ the chromosomal signatures to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among the Akodontini. When we follow the evolution of chromosomal signature states, we find that the cytogenetic data corroborate the current molecular relationships in clade A nodes. We discuss the distinct events that caused karyotypic variability in the and genera. In addition, we propose that may constitute a species complex, and that the taxonomy should be revised to better delimit the geographical boundaries and their taxonomic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177754PMC
March 2020

Complex Structure of Sex Chromosomes, Sex Determination, and Intraspecific Autosomal Polymorphism.

Genes (Basel) 2020 03 30;11(4). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.

The mandarin vole, , is one of the most intriguing species among mammals with non-XX/XY sex chromosome system. It combines polymorphism in diploid chromosome numbers, variation in the morphology of autosomes, heteromorphism of X chromosomes, and several sex chromosome systems the origin of which remains unexplained. Here we elucidate the sex determination system in using extensive karyotyping, crossbreeding experiments, molecular cytogenetic methods, and single chromosome DNA sequencing. Among 205 karyotyped voles, one male and three female combinations of sex chromosomes were revealed. The chromosome segregation pattern and karyomorph-related reproductive performances suggested an aberrant sex determination with almost half of the females carrying neo-X/neo-Y combination. The comparative chromosome painting strongly supported this proposition and revealed the mandarin vole sex chromosome systems originated due to at least two autosomal translocations onto the ancestral X chromosome. The polymorphism in autosome 2 was not related to sex chromosome variability and was proved to result from pericentric inversions. Sequencing of microdissection derived of sex chromosomes allowed the determination of the coordinates for syntenic regions but did not reveal any Y-specific sequences. Several possible sex determination mechanisms as well as interpopulation karyological differences are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11040374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230192PMC
March 2020

Phylogenetic Analysis and Karyotype Evolution in Two Species of Core Gruiformes: and .

Genes (Basel) 2020 03 13;11(3). Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Tissue Culture and Cytogenetics, SAMAM, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Pará 67030-000, Brazil.

Gruiformes is a group with phylogenetic issues. Recent studies based on mitochondrial and genomic DNA have proposed the existence of a core Gruiformes, consisting of five families: Heliornithidae, Aramidae, Gruidae, Psophiidae and Rallidae. Karyotype studies on these species are still scarce, either by conventional staining or molecular cytogenetics. Due to this, this study aimed to analyze the karyotype of two species ( and ) belonging to families Rallidae and Psopiidae, respectively, by comparative chromosome painting. The results show that some chromosome rearrangements in this group have different origins, such as the association of GGA5/GGA7 in , as well as the fission of GGA4p and association GGA6/GGA7, which place close to and . In addition, we conclude that the common ancestor of the core Gruiformes maintained the original syntenic groups found in the putative avian ancestral karyotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11030307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140812PMC
March 2020

Novel insights into chromosome evolution of Charadriiformes: extensive genomic reshuffling in the wattled jacana (Jacana jacana, Charadriiformes, Jacanidae).

Genet Mol Biol 2020 17;43(1):e20190236. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular - PPGBM, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil.

The order Charadriiformes comprises three major clades: Lari and Scolopaci as sister group to Charadrii. Until now, only three Charadriiformes species have been studied by chromosome painting: Larus argentatus (Lari), Burhinus oedicnemus and Vanellus chilensis (Charadrii). Hence, there is a lack of information concerning the third clade, Scolapaci. Based on this, and to gain a better understanding of karyotype evolution in the order Charadriiformes, we applied conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches in a species belonging to clade Scolopaci - the wattled jacana (Jacana jacana) - using Gallus gallus and Zenaida auriculata chromosome-specific probes. Cross-species evaluation of J. jacana chromosomes shows extensive genomic reshuffling within macrochromosomes during evolution, with multiple fission and fusion events, although the diploid number remains at high level (2n=82). Interestingly, this species does not have the GGA7-8 fusion, which was found in two representatives of Charadrii clade, reinforcing the idea that this fusion may be exclusive to the Charadrii clade. In addition, it is shown that the chromosome evolution in Charadriiformes is complex and resulted in species with typical and atypical karyotypes. The karyotypic features of Scolopaci are very different from those of Charadrii and Lari, indicating that after divergence, each suborder has undergone different chromosome rearrangements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2019-0236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198006PMC
February 2020

Effects of an exercise-based oncology rehabilitation program and age on strength and physical function in cancer survivors.

Support Care Cancer 2020 Aug 11;28(8):3747-3754. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, University of Vermont, Given E-214, 89 Beaumont Ave, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.

Purpose: Cancer therapy diminishes strength and physical function in cancer survivors. Whether oncology rehabilitation (OR) exercise training following therapy can correct these deficits, and whether its effectiveness differs by age, is not clear. We examine the utility of a clinically based, 12-week, combined aerobic and resistance training intervention on muscle strength and physical function in two age groups of cancer survivors.

Methods: Strength and physical function measures were assessed in middle-aged (45 to 64 years) and older (≥ 65 years) patients following treatment for stage 0-III cancer before and after the OR training program.

Results: Older patients had lower physical function compared to middle-aged patients across a range of subjective and objective measures at baseline, and exercise improved all indices of physical function and strength in both age groups. Compared to the middle-aged individuals, older participants tended to have less improvement leg strength and the 5 time sit to stand (5TSTS) test as a result of OR. In models predicting post-intervention measures, older age contributed to less improvement in walking distance and power as well as the 5TSTS test.

Conclusion: Prior to beginning the OR exercise program, middle-aged patients had higher physical function compared to older patients. However, a 12-week aerobic and resistance training intervention improved physical function across both age groups, although older age did limit responsiveness in some physical function measures. The physical function and strength of middle-aged and older cancer survivors improve in response to an exercise-based OR program after cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-019-05163-8DOI Listing
August 2020

Chromosomal phylogeny and comparative chromosome painting among Neacomys species (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from eastern Amazonia.

BMC Evol Biol 2019 10 10;19(1):184. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Centro de Estudos Avançados da Biodiversidade, Laboratório de Citogenética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, Pará, Brazil.

Background: The Neacomys genus is predominantly found in the Amazon region, and belongs to the most diverse tribe of the Sigmodontinae subfamily (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Oryzomyini). The systematics of this genus and questions about its diversity and range have been investigated by morphological, molecular (Cytb and COI sequences) and karyotype analysis (classic cytogenetics and chromosome painting), which have revealed candidate species and new distribution areas. Here we analyzed four species of Neacomys by chromosome painting with Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME) whole-chromosome probes, and compared the results with two previously studied Neacomys species and with other taxa from Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes that have been hybridized with HME probes. Maximum Parsimony (MP) analyses were performed with the PAUP and T.N.T. software packages, using a non-additive (unordered) multi-state character matrix, based on chromosomal morphology, number and syntenic blocks. We also compared the chromosomal phylogeny obtained in this study with molecular topologies (Cytb and COI) that included eastern Amazonian species of Neacomys, to define the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa.

Results: The comparative chromosome painting analysis of the seven karyotypes of the six species of Neacomys shows that their diversity is due to 17 fusion/fission events and one translocation, pericentric inversions in four syntenic blocks, and constitutive heterochromatin (CH) amplification/deletion of six syntenic autosomal blocks plus the X chromosome. The chromosomal phylogeny is consistent with the molecular relationships of species of Neacomys. We describe new karyotypes and expand the distribution area for species from eastern Amazonia and detect complex rearrangements by chromosome painting among the karyotypes.

Conclusions: Our phylogeny reflects the molecular relationships of the Akodontini and Oryzomyini taxa and supports the monophyly of Neacomys. This work presents new insights about the chromosomal evolution of this group, and we conclude that the karyotypic divergence is in accord with phylogenetic relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-019-1515-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785907PMC
October 2019

Chromosome Translocations as a Driver of Diversification in Mole Voles (Rodentia, Mammalia).

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Sep 10;20(18). Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia.

The involvement of chromosome changes in the initial steps of speciation is controversial. Here we examine diversification trends within the mole voles , a group of subterranean rodents. The first description of their chromosome variability was published almost 40 years ago. Studying the G-band structure of chromosomes in numerous individuals revealed subsequent homologous, step-by-step, Robertsonian translocations, which changed diploid numbers from 54 to 30. Here we used a molecular cytogenetic strategy which demonstrates that chromosomal translocations are not always homologous; consequently, karyotypes with the same diploid number can carry different combinations of metacentrics. We further showed that at least three chromosomal forms with 2n = 34 and distinct metacentrics inhabit the Pamir-Alay mountains. Each of these forms independently hybridized with , 2n = 54, forming separate hybrid zones. The chromosomal variations correlate slightly with geographic barriers. Additionally, we confirmed that the emergence of partial or monobrachial homology appeared to be a strong barrier for hybridization in nature, in contradistinction to experiments which we reported earlier. We discuss the possibility of whole arm reciprocal translocations for mole voles. Our findings suggest that chromosomal translocations lead to diversification and speciation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769443PMC
September 2019

Rapid chromosomal evolution in enigmatic mammal with XX in both sexes, the Alay mole vole Vorontsov et al., 1969 (Mammalia, Rodentia).

Comp Cytogenet 2019 20;13(2):147-177. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia.

Evolutionary history and taxonomic position for cryptic species may be clarified by using molecular and cytogenetic methods. The subterranean rodent, the Alay mole vole Vorontsov et al., 1969 is one of three sibling species constituting the subgenus Ellobius Fischer, 1814, all of which lost the Y chromosome and obtained isomorphic XX sex chromosomes in both males and females. is evaluated by IUCN as a data deficient species because their distribution, biology, and genetics are almost unknown. We revealed specific karyotypic variability (2n = 52-48) in due to different Robertsonian translocations (Rbs). Two variants of hybrids (2n = 53, different Rbs) with Blasius, 1884 were found at the Northern slopes of the Alay Ridge and in the Naryn district, Kyrgyzstan. We described the sudden change in chromosome numbers from 2n = 50 to 48 and specific karyotype structure for mole voles, which inhabit the entrance to the Alay Valley (Tajikistan), and revealed their affiliation as by cytochrome and fragments of nuclear and genes sequencing. To date, it is possible to expand the range of from the Alay Valley (South Kyrgyzstan) up to the Ferghana Ridge and the Naryn Basin, Tien Shan at the north-east and to the Pamir-Alay Mountains (Tajikistan) at the west. The closeness of and is supported, whereas specific chromosome and molecular changes, as well as geographic distribution, verified the species status for . The case of species accented an unevenness in rates of chromosome and nucleotide changes along with morphological similarity, which is emblematic for cryptic species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/CompCytogen.v13i2.34224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597615PMC
June 2019

Genomic Organization of the Repetitive Sequences in (Perciformes, Centropomidae): Implications for Hybridization and Aquaculture Programs.

Zebrafish 2019 08 12;16(4):415-420. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

1Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Coastal Studies, Federal University of Pará. Bragança PA, Brazil.

The family Centropomidae includes a number of fish species of high commercial value. One of these species, , is a target of artisanal, industrial, and sports fisheries and has also considerable potential for captive breeding, which has led to its inclusion in several aquaculture programs. While the biology and ecology of are relatively well documented, few karyological data are available on this species, and they are still scarce for other centropomids. The few chromosomal data available on this family indicate a conserved karyotype  = 48, but it is unclear whether the chromosome microstructure is also conserved. In this study, new cytogenetic data are presented on from the Amazon coastal zone, including C-banding, Ag-NOR, hybridization with repetitive DNA probes (5S and 18S ribosomal genes), and telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences. The diploid number of the species was 2n = 48, with heterochromatic blocks in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions, as well as distal signals; the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were associated with the heterochromatic region. The 18S and 5S recombinant DNA (rDNA) clusters were located in the distal region of chromosome pairs 1 and 11, respectively. The similarities of the karyotype macrostructure found among the centropomid species reinforce their exceptional chromosomal stability. However, the presence of heterochromatic blocks and location of NORs suggest the occurrence of structural rearrangements, which indicates that evolutionary dynamics at the microstructural level in this group may be relatively complex and should be evaluated carefully in any study that targets the production of hybrids for aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2018.1724DOI Listing
August 2019

Squamate Chromosome Size and GC Content Assessed by Flow Karyotyping.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2019 23;157(1-2):46-52. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Chromosome homologies in reptiles have been investigated extensively by gene mapping and chromosome painting. Relative chromosome size can be estimated roughly from conventional karyotypes, but chromosome GC content cannot be evaluated by any of these approaches. However, GC content can be obtained by whole-genome sequencing, although complete data are available only for a limited number of reptilian species. Chromosomes can be characterized by size and GC content in bivariate flow karyotypes, in which the distribution of peaks represents the differences. We have analysed flow karyotypes from 9 representative squamate species and show chromosome profiles for each species based on the relationship between size and GC content. Our results reveal that the GC content of macrochromosomes is invariable in the 9 species. A higher GC content was found in microchromosomes, similar to profiles previously determined in crocodile, turtle, and chicken. The findings suggest that karyotype evolution in reptiles is characterized by unique features of chromosome GC content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497265DOI Listing
May 2019

Competency-based Professional Advancement Model for Advanced Practice RNs.

J Nurs Adm 2019 Feb;49(2):66-72

Author Affiliations: Nurse Practitioner (Dr Paul), Center for Motility and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders; Clinical Nurse Specialist (Ms Abecassis), Medical Intensive Care; Clinical Nurse Specialist (Ms Freiberger), Pulmonary/Pediatric Transplant Center; Clinical Nurse Specialist (Ms Hamilton), Medical Surgical Intensive Care; Nurse Practitioner (Ms Kelly), Urology and Urodynamics; Clinical Nurse Specialist (Ms Klements), Asthma and Medicine Patient Services; Nurse Practitioner (Dr LaGrasta), Cardiovascular Surgical Services; Nurse Practitioner (Mss Lemire, O'Donnell, and Phinney), General Surgery; Nurse Practitioner (Ms Patisteas), Orthopedic Surgery; Professional Development Specialist (Ms Conwell), Clinical Education and Informatics; Nurse Practitioner (Dr Saia), Cardiology; Nurse Practitioner (Ms Whelan), Cardiac Intensive Care; Senior VP, Patient Care Operations and Chief Nursing Officer (Dr Wood); and Nurse Practitioner (Ms O'Brien), Cardiology: Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts.

The process of developing a 3-tiered advanced practice RN (APRN) competency-based professional advancement model at Boston Children's Hospital is described. The model recognizes the contributions of entry-level and expert APRNs to advanced clinical practice and outcomes, impact, and leadership, while incorporating the tenets of Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Model and the American Association of Critical- Care Nurses Synergy Model of Care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000719DOI Listing
February 2019

Chromosomal polymorphism and comparative chromosome painting in the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis).

Genet Mol Biol 2018 Oct-Dec;41(4):799-805. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Zonotrichia capensis is widely distributed in the Neotropics. Previous cytogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of polymorphisms in two chromosome pairs (ZCA2 and ZCA4). Here, we report results based on comparative chromosome painting, using probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis, focused on characterizing the chromosome organization of Z. capensis. Our results demonstrate the conservation of ancestral syntenies as observed previously in other species of passerine. Syntenies were rearranged by a series of inversions in the second chromosome as described in other Passeriformes, but in this species, by using probes derived from L. albicollis we observed an extra inversion in the second chromosome that had not previously been reported. We also report a paracentric inversion in pair 3; this chromosome corresponds to the second chromosome in Zonotrichia albicollis and may indicate the presence of ancestral inversions in the genus. The chromosomal inversions we found might be important for understanding the phenotypic variation that exists throughout the distribution of Z. capensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2017-0367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415599PMC
November 2018

Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long- and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Oct 10;9(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos e Citogenética, SAMAM, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Ananindeua, Pará 67030-000, Brazil.

Most Neotropical Psittacidae have a diploid number of 2n = 70, and a dichotomy in chromosome patterns. Long-tailed species have biarmed macrochromosomes, while short-tailed species have telo/acrocentric macrochromosomes. However, the use of chromosome painting has demonstrated that karyotype evolution in Psittacidae includes a high number of inter/intrachromosomal rearrangements. To determine the phylogeny of long- and short-tailed species, and to propose a putative ancestral karyotype for this group, we constructed homology maps of (PFR) and (AAE), belonging to the long- and short-tailed groups, respectively. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization using whole chromosome paints of and . Conventional staining showed a karyotype with 2n = 70 in both species, with biarmed macrochromosomes in PFR and telo/acrocentric chromosomes in AAE. Comparison of the results with the putative avian ancestral karyotype (PAK) showed fusions in PFR of PAK1p/PAK4q (PFR1) and PAK6/PAK7 (PFR6) with a paracentric inversion in PFR6. However, in AAE, there was only the fusion between PAK6/7 (AAE7) with a paracentric inversion. Our results indicate that PFR retained a more basal karyotype than long-tailed species previously studied, and AAE a more basal karyotype for Neotropical Psittacidae analyzed so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes9100491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210594PMC
October 2018

Marsupial chromosome DNA content and genome size assessed from flow karyotypes: invariable low autosomal GC content.

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Aug 29;5(8):171539. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Extensive chromosome homologies revealed by cross-species chromosome painting between marsupials have suggested a high level of genome conservation during evolution. Surprisingly, it has been reported that marsupial genome sizes vary by more than 1.2 Gb between species. We have shown previously that individual chromosome sizes and GC content can be measured in flow karyotypes, and have applied this method to compare four marsupial species. Chromosome sizes and GC content were calculated for the grey short-tailed opossum (2 = 18), tammar wallaby (2 = 16), Tasmanian devil (2 = 14) and fat-tailed dunnart (2 = 14), resulting in genome sizes of 3.41, 3.31, 3.17 and 3.25 Gb, respectively. The findings under the same conditions allow a comparison between the four species, indicating that the genomes of these four species are 1-8% larger than human. We show that marsupial genomes are characterized by a low GC content invariable between autosomes and distinct from the higher GC content of the marsupial × chromosome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.171539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124049PMC
August 2018

First report on B chromosome content in a reptilian species: the case of Anolis carolinensis.

Mol Genet Genomics 2019 Feb 27;294(1):13-21. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia.

Supernumerary elements of the genome are often called B chromosomes. They usually consist of various autosomal sequences and, because of low selective pressure, are mostly pseudogenized and contain many repeats. There are numerous reports on B chromosomes in mammals, fish, invertebrates, plants, and fungi, but only a few of them have been studied using sequencing techniques. However, reptilian supernumerary chromosomes have been detected only cytogenetically and never sequenced or analyzed at the molecular level. One model squamate species with available genome sequence is Anolis carolinensis. The scope of the present article is to describe the genetic content of A. carolinensis supernumerary chromosomes. In this article, we confirm the presence of B chromosomes in this species by reverse painting and synaptonemal complex analysis. We applied low-pass high-throughput sequencing to analyze flow-sorted B chromosomes. Anole B chromosomes exhibit similar traits to other supernumerary chromosomes from different taxons: they contain two genes related to cell division control (INCENP and SPIRE2), are enriched in specific repeats, and show a high degree of pseudogenization. Therefore, the present study confirms that reptilian B chromosomes resemble supernumerary chromosomes of other taxons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-018-1483-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparative chromosome painting in Columbidae (Columbiformes) reinforces divergence in Passerea and Columbea.

Chromosome Res 2018 09 7;26(3):211-223. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, PPGBM, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the karyotype evolution within Columbiformes remains unclear. To delineate the synteny-conserved segments and karyotypic differences among four Columbidae species, we used chromosome painting from Gallus gallus (GGA, 2n = 78) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL, 2n = 68). Besides that, a set of painting probes for the eared dove, Zenaida auriculata (ZAU, 2n = 76), was generated from flow-sorted chromosomes. Chromosome painting with GGA and ZAU probes showed conservation of the first ten ancestral pairs in Z. auriculata, Columba livia, and Columbina picui, while in Leptotila verreauxi, fusion of the ancestral chromosomes 6 and 7 was observed. However, LAL probes revealed a complex reorganization of ancestral chromosome 1, involving paracentric and pericentric inversions. Because of the presence of similar intrachromosomal rearrangements in the chromosomes corresponding to GGA1q in the Columbidae and Passeriformes species but without a common origin, these results are consistent with the recent proposal of divergence within Neoaves (Passerea and Columbea). In addition, inversions in chromosome 2 were identified in C. picui and L. verreauxi. Thus, in four species of distinct genera of the Columbidae family, unique chromosomal rearrangements have occurred during karyotype evolution, confirming that despite conservation of the ancestral syntenic groups, these chromosomes have been modified by the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10577-018-9580-5DOI Listing
September 2018

Chromosomal evolution and phylogeny in the Nullicauda group (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae): evidence from multidirectional chromosome painting.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 04 25;18(1):62. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Laboratório de Citogenética, CEABIO, ICB, Universidade Federal do Pará, Av. Bernardo Sayão, sn. Guamá, Belém, Pará, 66075-900, Brazil.

Background: The family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera) shows wide morphological, molecular and cytogenetic variation; many disagreements regarding its phylogeny and taxonomy remains to be resolved. In this study, we use chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from the Phyllostomidae Phyllostomus hastatus and Carollia brevicauda to determine the rearrangements among several genera of the Nullicauda group (subfamilies Gliphonycterinae, Carolliinae, Rhinophyllinae and Stenodermatinae).

Results: These data, when compared with previously published chromosome homology maps, allow the construction of a phylogeny comparable to those previously obtained by morphological and molecular analysis. Our phylogeny is largely in agreement with that proposed with molecular data, both on relationships between the subfamilies and among genera; it confirms, for instance, that Carollia and Rhinophylla, previously considered as part of the same subfamily are, in fact, distant genera.

Conclusions: The occurrence of the karyotype considered ancestral for this family in several different branches suggests that the diversification of Phyllostomidae into many subfamilies has occurred in a short period of time. Finally, the comparison with published maps using human whole chromosome probes allows us to track some syntenic associations prior to the emergence of this family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1176-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5921544PMC
April 2018

Multidirectional chromosome painting in (Passeriformes, Furnariidae) reveals high chromosomal reorganization, involving fissions and inversions.

Comp Cytogenet 2018 13;12(1):97-110. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas, PPCGCB, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

In this work we performed comparative chromosome painting using probes from (GGA) Linnaeus, 1758 and (LAL) Latham, 1790 in Pelzeln, 1859 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae), an exclusively Neotropical species, in order to analyze whether the complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) proposed for Oscines and Suboscines is shared with more basal species. has 82 chromosomes, similar to most Avian species, with a large number of microchromosomes and a few pairs of macrochromosomes. We found polymorphisms in pairs 1 and 3, where homologues were submetacentric and acrocentric. Hybridization of GGA probes showed syntenies in the majority of ancestral macrochromosomes, except for GGA1 and GGA2, which hybridized to more than one pair of chromosomes each. LAL probes confirmed the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in the chromosomes corresponding to GGA1q, as previously proposed for species from the order Passeriformes. In addition, LAL probes suggest that pericentric inversions or centromere repositioning were responsible for variations in the morphology of the heteromorphic pairs 1 and 3. Altogether, the analysis of our data on chromosome painting and the data published in other Passeriformes highlights chromosomal changes that have occurred during the evolution of Passeriformes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/CompCytogen.v12i1.22344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904361PMC
March 2018

Chromosome Painting in Tyrant Flycatchers Confirms a Set of Inversions Shared by Oscines and Suboscines (Aves, Passeriformes).

Cytogenet Genome Res 2017 21;153(4):205-212. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, PPGBM, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brazil.

Tyrannidae is the largest family of Passeriformes in the Neotropical region. However, despite an interesting chromosomal diversity, there are only few cytogenetic studies of this family, and most of these are based on conventional cytogenetics. Hence, we analyzed here the chromosomal diversity and karyotypical evolution of this group by chromosome painting in 3 different species - Pitangus sulphuratus, Serpophaga subcristata, and Satrapa icterophrys - and make comparisons with previous data. In addition to chromosome painting with Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) probes, karyotypes were analyzed by conventional staining, C-banding, and FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric probes. Although this family is characterized by extensive chromosomal variation, we found similar karyotypes and diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 80 in P. sulphuratus to 2n = 82 in S. subcristata and S. icterophrys. Constitutive heterochromatin was located centromerically in all 3 species. Clusters of 18S rDNA were present in 1 pair of microchromosomes, except in S. subcristata, where 2 pairs of microchromosomes were labeled. No interstitial telomeric sequences were detected. GGA and LAL whole-chromosome probes revealed the occurrence of fissions and both paracentric and pericentric inversions commonly seen in other Passeriformes. In general terms, tyrants show the typical karyotype found in Passeriformes, suggesting that the observed rearrangements occurred before the division of the suborders Oscines and Suboscines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486975DOI Listing
April 2018

Extensive Karyotype Reorganization in the Fish (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae) Highlighted by Zoo-FISH Analysis.

Front Genet 2018 26;9. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Laboratório de Citogenética, Centro de Estudos Avançados da Biodiversidade, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém-Pará, Brazil.

The genus (Gymnotiformes) contains over 40 species of freshwater electric fishes exhibiting a wide distribution throughout Central and South America, and being particularly prevalent in the Amazon basin. Cytogenetics has been an important tool in the cytotaxonomy and elucidation of evolutionary processes in this genus, including the unraveling the variety of diploid chromosome number (2 = from 34 to 54), the high karyotype diversity among species with a shared diploid number, different sex chromosome systems, and variation in the distribution of several Repetitive DNAs and colocation and association between those sequences. Recently whole chromosome painting (WCP) has been used for tracking the chromosomal evolution of the genus, showing highly reorganized karyotypes and the conserved synteny of the NOR bearing par within the clade . In this study, painting probes derived from the chromosomes of (GCA, 2 = 42, 30 m/sm + 12 st/a) were hybridized to the mitotic metaphases of (GAR, 2 = 44, 24 m/sm + 20 st/a). Our results uncovered chromosomal rearrangements and a high number of repetitive DNA regions. From the 12 chromosome pairs of that can be individually differentiated (GCA1-3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16, and 18-21), six pairs (GCA 1, 9, 14, 18, 20, 21) show conserved homology with GAR, five pairs (GCA 1, 9, 14, 20, 21) are also shared with cryptic species 2 = 40 (34 m/sm + 6 st/a) and only the NOR bearing pair (GCA 20) is shared with (GCP 2 = 34, 20 m/sm + 14 st/a). The remaining chromosomes are reorganized in the karyotype of GAR. Despite the close phylogenetic relationships of these species, our chromosome painting studies demonstrate an extensive reorganization of their karyotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790778PMC
January 2018

A preliminary survey of pediatricians' experiences with and preferences for communication with mental health specialists.

Fam Syst Health 2018 Sep 4;36(3):404-409. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Montana.

Introduction: Pediatricians are more likely than mental health (MH) specialists to manage children's MH concerns, and multiple factors complicate their abilities to do so adequately. Integrated care initiatives mitigate systems-related shortcomings that hamstring MH management in primary care. These initiatives, which improve outcomes for adults, are not widespread for youth. Integrated health care for children with MH concerns requires regular collaborative communication among pediatricians and MH specialists. The nature and quality of this communication in typical practice are not fully clear.

Method: We conducted an anonymous pilot survey of 123 pediatric primary care providers from 41 states. We examined respondents' experiences with and attitudes about collaborative communication barriers and strategies.

Results: Respondents estimated that 28% of their patients had MH concerns. Nearly 30% reported discomfort treating these concerns, 54% described MH care resources in their communities as inadequate, and 24% of pediatricians reported no communication at all with MH specialists about shared patients. Actual contact among communicators was less frequent than desired. Satisfaction with communication was low. Barriers to satisfactory communication included systems factors, inconsistent/nontimely responses from specialists, and the perception that MH specialists are unwilling to communicate.

Discussion: Many pediatricians appear to view communication with MH specialists as less systematic than it ought to be. Efforts to address communication barriers may advance integrated care aims and mitigate pediatricians' perceptions of MH treatment resource inadequacy. As an important step toward integration, MH specialists should consider prioritizing systematic ongoing collaborative communication about shared patients. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000309DOI Listing
September 2018