Publications by authors named "Patricia M Barnes"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

U.S. Physician Recommendations to Their Patients About the Use of Complementary Health Approaches.

J Altern Complement Med 2020 Jan 2;26(1):25-33. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland.

There are no nationally representative studies using a probability sample that have been published examining whether physicians recommend complementary health approaches (CHAs) to their patients, as previous research has focused only on selected medical specialties or a particular U.S. region. This article fills a void in the current literature for robust data on recommendations for CHAs by office-based physicians in the United States. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression analyses of physician-level data were from the 2012 Physician Induction Interview of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS PII), a nationally representative survey of office-based physicians. Weighted response rate among eligible physicians sampled for the 2012 NAMCS PII was 59.7%. United States. Recommendations by physicians to their patients for any CHA, and individual CHAs: massage therapy, herbs/nonvitamin supplements, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, yoga, acupuncture, and mind-body therapies. Differences in recommendations by physician demographic characteristics were identified. Massage therapy was the most commonly recommended CHA (30.4%), followed by chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation (27.1%), herbs/nonvitamin supplements (26.5%), yoga (25.6%), and acupuncture (22.4%). The most commonly recommended CHAs by general/family practice physicians were chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation (54.0%) and massage therapy (52.6%). Of all U.S. physicians, 53.1% recommended at least one CHA to patients during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found physician's sex, race, specialty, and U.S. region to be significant predictors of CHA recommendations. Female physicians were more likely than male physicians to recommend massage therapy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-2.20), herbs/nonvitamin supplements (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.46-2.35), yoga (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.70-2.75), acupuncture (aOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.27-2.13), and mind-body therapies (aOR = 2.63, 95% CI = 2.02-3.41) to patients. Psychiatrists (aOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.07-0.23), OB/GYNs (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.24-0.60), and pediatricians (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.18-0.38) were all less likely to recommend chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation than general and family practitioners. Overall, more than half of office-based physicians recommended at least one CHA to their patients. Female physicians recommended every individual CHA at a higher rate than male physicians except for chiropractic and osteopathic manipulation. These findings may enable consumers, physicians, and medical schools to better understand potential differences in use of CHAs with patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2019.0303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6998052PMC
January 2020

Use of Yoga, Meditation, and Chiropractors Among U.S. Children Aged 4-17 Years.

NCHS Data Brief 2018 Nov(324):1-8

Yoga, meditation, and use of chiropractors are types of complementary health approaches developed outside of mainstream Western medicine (1-2). Although complementary health approaches as a whole are not widely used among children, previous work has established a rise in the use of selected approaches over time (3). This report presents the most recent national estimates of use of the three most prevalent approaches during the past 12 months, among children aged 4-17 years in the United States. Comparable estimates from 2012 are also included to examine changes over time.
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November 2018

Use of Yoga, Meditation, and Chiropractors Among U.S. Adults Aged 18 and Over.

NCHS Data Brief 2018 Nov(325):1-8

Complementary health is the use of holistic or unconventional medicine with mainstream Western medicine for health and wellness (1,2). Past research has identified yoga, meditation, and seeing a chiropractor as some of the most commonly used approaches (3). This report examines changes over time in the percentage of adults who used yoga, meditation, and chiropractors in the past 12 months, as well as variation by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin.
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November 2018

Data Quality Assessment of the 2014 Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey.

Vital Health Stat 2 2017 Aug(174):1-26

The 2014 Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey (NHPI NHIS) is the first federal survey designed exclusively to measure the health of the noninstitutionalized civilian NHPI population of the United States.
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August 2017

Health Care Access and Utilization Among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Persons in the United States, 2014.

Vital Health Stat 3 2017 Aug(41):1-79

The body of nationally representative health statistics for the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) population is limited, because even the largest health surveys generally do not have an adequate NHPI sample to calculate reliable NHPI statistics. Using data from the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey (NHPI NHIS) from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), this report fills this gap by presenting statistics on health care access and utilization for (a) the total NHPI population and the multiple- and single-race NHPI populations in comparison with other federal race groups and the total U.S. population; (b) single-race NHPI persons compared with multiple-race NHPI persons; and (c) detailed NHPI race groups in comparison with each other and the total U.S.

Population:
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August 2017

Health Conditions and Behaviors of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Persons in the United States, 2014.

Vital Health Stat 3 2017 Jul(40):1-99

The body of nationally representative health statistics for the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) population is limited, because even the largest health surveys generally do not have an adequate NHPI sample to calculate reliable NHPI statistics. Using data from the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey (NHPI NHIS) from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), this report fills this gap by presenting statistics on health conditions and behaviors for (a) the total NHPI population and the multiple- and singlerace NHPI populations, in comparison with other federal race groups and the total U.S. population; (b) single-race NHPI persons compared with multiple-race NHPI persons; and (c) detailed NHPI race groups in comparison with each other and the total U.S.

Population:
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July 2017

Selected Health Conditions Among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adults: United States, 2014.

NCHS Data Brief 2017 Mar(277):1-8

Key Findings: Although the Asian or Pacific Islander federal race category was split into two in 1997 (1), few reliable health statistics are available for the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) population. In 2014, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) fielded a first-of-its-kind federal survey focused exclusively on NHPI population health. This report uses data from that survey, in combination with 2014 data from the annual National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to highlight differences in the prevalence of selected health conditions between the NHPI population and the Asian population with whom they have historically been combined.
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March 2017

Use of Complementary Health Approaches for Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders Among Adults: United States, 2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2016 10(98):1-12

Objective: This report examines the use of complementary health approaches among U.S. adults aged 18 and over who had a musculoskeletal pain disorder. Prevalence of use among this population subgroup is compared with use by persons without a musculoskeletal disorder. Use for any reason, as well as specifically to treat musculoskeletal pain disorders, is examined.

Methods: Using the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, estimates of the use of complementary health approaches for any reason, as well as use to treat musculoskeletal pain disorders, are presented. Statistical tests were performed to assess the significance of differences between groups of complementary health approaches used among persons with specific musculoskeletal pain disorders. Musculoskeletal pain disorders included lower back pain, sciatica, neck pain, joint pain or related conditions, arthritic conditions, and other musculoskeletal pain disorders not included in any of the previous categories. Respondents could report having more than one disorder.

Results: In 2012, 54.5% of U.S. adults had a musculoskeletal pain disorder. The use of any complementary health approach for any reason among persons with a musculoskeletal pain disorder (41.6%) was significantly higher than use among persons without a musculoskeletal pain disorder (24.1%). Among adults with any musculoskeletal pain disorder, the use of natural products for any reason (24.7%) was significantly higher than the use of mind and body approaches (15.3%), practitioner-based approaches (18.2%), or whole medical system approaches (5.3%). The pattern of use of the above-mentioned groups of complementary health approaches was similar for persons without a musculoskeletal disorder. However, prevalence of use among these persons was significantly lower compared with persons with a musculoskeletal disorder. For treatment, the use of practitioner-based approaches among persons with any musculoskeletal pain disorder (9.7%) was more than three times as high as the use of any other group of approaches (0.7%-3.1%). The patterns of use of specific groups of complementary health approaches also differed among specific musculoskeletal pain disorders.
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October 2016

Expenditures on Complementary Health Approaches: United States, 2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2016 Jun(95):1-11

Objective: This report presents estimates of expenditures on complementary health approach use among the U.S. population. Estimates are presented for adults and children separately and combined, as well as stratified by type of approach and family income.

Methods: Combined data from 44,743 individuals aged 4 years and over, collected as part of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, were analyzed for this report. Sample data were weighted to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. Linear regression was used to assess trends in expenditures when stratifying by family income.

Results: An estimated 59 million persons aged 4 years and over had at least one expenditure for some type of complementary health approach, resulting in total out-of-pocket expenditures of $30.2 billion. More was spent on visits to complementary practitioners ($14.7 billion) than for purchases of natural product supplements ($12.8 billion) or self-care approaches ($2.7 billion). The mean per user out-of-pocket expenditure for visits to a complementary practitioner ($433) was significantly more than for purchases of natural product supplements ($368) or for self-care approaches ($257). Adults had higher mean annual out-of-pocket expenditures for visits to complementary practitioners than children ($442 and $291, respectively). Total out-of-pocket expenditures and mean per user out-of pocket expenditures for complementary health approaches increased significantly as family income increased. The mean per user out-of-pocket expenditure for complementary health approaches was $435 for persons with family incomes less than $25,000 and $590 for persons with family incomes of $100,000 or more.
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June 2016

Insurance Coverage for Complementary Health Approaches Among Adult Users: United States, 2002 and 2012.

NCHS Data Brief 2016 Jan(235):1-8

Key Findings: Data from the 2002 and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys. Between 2002 and 2012, the use of acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage therapy increased among adults who did not have health insurance coverage for these complementary health approaches. No change in use was observed among those who had coverage for these approaches. While 60% of adults who saw a practitioner for chiropractic had at least some health insurance coverage for this approach, far fewer adults seeing a practitioner for acupuncture (25%) or massage therapy (15%) had coverage for these approaches. Adults who saw practitioners for acupuncture and chiropractic-and had health insurance coverage for these approaches-were more likely to have partial than complete coverage.
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January 2016

Wellness-related Use of Common Complementary Health Approaches Among Adults: United States, 2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2015 Nov(85):1-12

Objective: This report presents national estimates of selected wellness-related reasons for the use of natural product supplements, yoga, and spinal manipulation among U.S. adults in 2012. Self-reported perceived health outcomes were also examined.

Methods: Data from 34,252 adults aged 18 and over collected as part of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for this report. In particular, whether adults who used selected complementary health approaches did so to treat a specific health condition or for any of five wellness-related reasons was examined, as well as whether these adults perceived that this use led to any of nine health-related outcomes. Sampling weights were used to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adults population.

Results: Users of natural product supplements and yoga were more likely to have reported using the approach for a wellness reason than for treatment of a specific health condition, whereas more spinal manipulation users reported using it for treatment rather than for wellness. The most common wellness-related reason reported by user of each of the three approaches was for "general wellness or disease prevention." The majority of users of all three health approaches reported that they perceived this use improved their overall health and made them feel better. Yoga users perceived higher rates of all of the self-reported wellness-related health outcomes than users of natural product supplements or spinal manipulation.
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November 2015

Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002-2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2015 Feb(79):1-16

National Institutes of Health.

Objective: This report presents national estimates of the use of complementary health approaches among adults in the United States across three time points. Trends in the use of selected complementary health approaches are compared for 2002, 2007, and 2012, and differences by selected demographic characteristics are also examined.

Methods: Combined data from 88,962 adults aged 18 and over collected as part of the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for this report. Sample data were weighted to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level.

Results: Although the use of individual approaches varied across the three time points, nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements remained the most popular complementary health approach used. The use of yoga, tai chi, and qi gong increased linearly across the three time points; among these three approaches, yoga accounted for approximately 80% of the prevalence. The use of any complementary health approach also differed by selected sociodemographic characteristics. The most notable observed differences in use were by age and Hispanic or Latino origin and race.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4573565PMC
February 2015

Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4-17 years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007-2012.

Natl Health Stat Report 2015 Feb(78):1-19

National Institutes of Health.

Objective: This report presents national estimates of the use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4-17 years in the United States. Selected modalities are compared for 2007 and 2012 to examine changes over time.

Methods: Data from the 2007 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed for this report. The combined sample included 17,321 interviews with knowledgeable adults about children aged 4-17 years. Point estimates and estimates of their variances were calculated using SUDAAN software to account for the complex sampling design of NHIS. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level.

Results: The use of complementary health approaches among children did not change significantly since 2007 (from 12.0% in 2007 to 11.6% in 2012). However, one approach, the use of traditional healers, showed a statistically significant decrease in use, from 1.1% in 2007 to 0.1% in 2012. No other significant decreases were identified. An increase in the use of yoga was observed during this period (from 2.3% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2012). Nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements; chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation; and yoga, tai chi, or qi gong were the most commonly used complementary health approaches in both 2007 and 2012. Also consistent between 2007 and 2012 was that complementary health approaches were most frequently used for back or neck pain, head or chest cold, anxiety or stress, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562218PMC
February 2015

Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey.

Am J Clin Nutr 2013 Jun 10;97(6):1331-7. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20008, USA.

Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users.

Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements.

Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use.

Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions.

Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.052373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3652925PMC
June 2013

Trends in adults receiving a recommendation for exercise or other physical activity from a physician or other health professional.

NCHS Data Brief 2012 Feb(86):1-8

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics 3311 Toledo Road, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.

The Healthy People 2020 objectives for physical activity include two objectives for increasing the proportion of physician office visits that include counseling or education related to exercise (see http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx). Physician counseling for exercise has not previously been tracked by the Healthy People initiative. The present report looks at this emerging health issue from the vantage point of adults in the general population who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months and had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or other physical activity. About 8 in 10 adults had seen a health professional in the past 12 months during 2000 (80.6%), 2005 (81.2%), and 2010 (79.8%), although estimates varied by demographic subgroups (10–12). Over time, estimates of the percentage of adults being advised to exercise could be influenced by major changes in the characteristics of adults seeing a health professional. In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past year had been advised to exercise or do other physical activity, which reflects an upward trend since 2000, moving in the direction of meeting Healthy People 2020 goals. In relative terms, there has been more than a 40% increase—from 22.6% of adults in 2000 to 32.4% in 2010. Although increases were noted for every population and health condition group studied, these increases were larger for some groups than others. The increase in the percentage of adults receiving exercise advice is particularly noteworthy for the oldest age group. In 2000, 15.3% of adults aged 85 and over had been advised to exercise; by 2010, the percentage had increased to 28.9%. Across the chronic health conditions studied, adults with diabetes were the most likely, and those with cancer were the least likely, to have been advised by their physician to exercise. An upward trend of 8–10 percentage points, however, was seen among adults with each of the chronic diseases examined. Adults who were overweight or obese saw among the largest increases over the decade in the percentage receiving a physician’s advice to exercise. The percentage of healthy weight adults receiving exercise advice also increased over the decade, but to a lesser extent. Trends over the past 10 years suggest that the medical community is increasing its efforts to recommend participation in exercise and other physical activity that research has shown to be associated with substantial health benefits. Still, the prevalence of receiving this advice remains well below one-half of U.S. adults and varies substantially across population subgroups.
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February 2012

Health characteristics of the American Indian or Alaska Native adult population: United States, 2004-2008.

Natl Health Stat Report 2010 Mar(20):1-22

Division of Health Interview Statistics, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objective: This report compares national estimates for selected health status indicators, health behaviors, health care utilization, health conditions, immunizations, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing status for American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) adults with those for white, black, Asian, and Hispanic adults aged 18 years and over.

Methods: The estimates in this report were derived from the Family Core and the Sample Adult core components of the 2004-2008 National Health Interview Surveys, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Estimates were generated and compared using the SUDAAN statistical package to account for the complex sample design.

Results: In general, compared with other groups, non-Hispanic AIAN adults' are more likely to have poorer health, unmet medical needs due to cost, diabetes, trouble hearing, activity limitations, and to have experienced feelings of psychological distress in the past 30 days. Non-Hispanic AIAN adults are more likely to be current smokers and current drinkers compared with other adults.

Conclusion: The non-Hispanic AIAN community faces many health challenges as reflected in their higher rates of risky health behaviors, poorer health status and health conditions, and lower utilization of health services.
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March 2010

Costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and frequency of visits to CAM practitioners: United States, 2007.

Natl Health Stat Report 2009 Jul(18):1-14

National Institutes of Health, USA.

Objective: This report presents selected estimates of costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among U.S. adults, the frequency of visits made to CAM providers, and the frequency of purchases of self-care CAM therapies. Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, are used in this report.

Methods: Estimates were derived from the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Supplement of the 2007 NHIS, sponsored by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, which is part of the National Institutes of Health. Estimates were generated using the SUDAAN statistical package to account for the NHIS complex sample design.

Results: In 2007, adults in the United States spent $33.9 billion out of pocket on visits to CAM practitioners and purchases of CAM products, classes, and materials. Nearly two-thirds of the total out-of-pocket costs that adults spent on CAM were for self-care purchases of CAM products, classes, and materials during the past 12 months ($22.0 billion), compared with about one-third spent on practitioner visits ($11.9 billion). Despite this emphasis on self-care therapies, 38.1 million adults made an estimated 354.2 million visits to practitioners of CAM. About three-quarters of both visits to CAM practitioners and total out-of-pocket costs spent on CAM practitioners were associated with manipulative and body-based therapies. A total of 44% of all out-of-pocket costs for CAM, or about $14.8 billion, was spent on the purchase of nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural products.
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July 2009

Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007.

Natl Health Stat Report 2008 Dec(12):1-23

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objective: This report presents selected estimates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among U.S. adults and children, using data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Trends in adult use were assessed by comparing data from the 2007 and 2002 NHIS.

Methods: Estimates were derived from the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplements and Core components of the 2007 and 2002 NHIS. Estimates were generated and comparisons conducted using the SUDAAN statistical package to account for the complex sample design.

Results: In 2007, almost 4 out of 10 adults had used CAM therapy in the past 12 months, with the most commonly used therapies being nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural products (17.7%) and deep breathing exercises (12.7%). American Indian or Alaska Native adults (50.3%) and white adults (43.1%) were more likely to use CAM than Asian adults (39.9%) or black adults (25.5%). Results from the 2007 NHIS found that approximately one in nine children (11.8%) used CAM therapy in the past 12 months, with the most commonly used therapies being nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural products (3.9%) and chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (2.8%). Children whose parent used CAM were almost five times as likely (23.9%) to use CAM as children whose parent did not use CAM (5.1%). For both adults and children in 2007, when worry about cost delayed receipt of conventional care, individuals were more likely to use CAM than when the cost of conventional care was not a worry. Between 2002 and 2007 increased use was seen among adults for acupuncture, deep breathing exercises, massage therapy, meditation, naturopathy, and yoga. CAM use for head or chest colds showed a marked decrease from 2002 to 2007 (9.5% to 2.0%).
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December 2008

Summary health statistics for the U.S. population: National Health Interview Survey, 2007.

Vital Health Stat 10 2008 Nov(238):1-104

Division of Health Interview Statistics, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objectives: This report presents both age-adjusted and unadjusted health statistics from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States, classified by sex, age, race, Hispanic or Latino origin and race, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage (where appropriate), place of residence, and region of residence. The topics covered are respondent-assessed health status, limitations in activities, special education or early intervention services, injury and poisoning episodes, health care access and utilization, and health insurance coverage.

Source Of Data: NHIS is a household, multistage probability sample survey conducted annually by interviewers of the U.S. Census Bureau for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. In 2007, household interviews were completed for 75,764 persons living in 29,266 households, reflecting a household response rate of 87.1%.

Selected Highlights: Nearly 7 in 10 persons were in excellent or very good health in 2007. About 36 million persons (12%) were limited in their usual activities due to one or more chronic health conditions. About 4 million persons (2%) required the help of another person with activities of daily living, and about 9 million persons (4%) required the help of another person with instrumental activities of daily living. About 6% of children received special education or early intervention services. Among persons under age 65 years, about 43 million (17%) did not have any health insurance coverage. The most common reason for lacking health insurance was cost, followed by a change in employment.
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November 2008

A comparison of respiratory conditions between multiple race adults and their single race counterparts: an analysis based on American Indian/Alaska Native and white adults.

Ethn Health 2008 Nov;13(5):399-415

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, USA.

Context: Multiple race data collection/reporting are relatively new among United States federal statistical systems. Not surprisingly, very little is known about the multiple race population in the USA. It is well known that some race and ethnic groups experience some respiratory diseases (e.g., asthma) disproportionately. However, not much is known about the experience of multiple race adults. If differences exist in how single/multiple race adults experience respiratory conditions, this information could be useful in public health education.

Objective: To explore differences in respiratory conditions between single race white adults, single race American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) adults, and adults who are both white and AIAN (largest multiple race group of adults in the USA).

Methods: Data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. Hispanic and black populations are oversampled. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to predict if the occurrence of each respiratory condition analyzed differed by single/multiple race reporting.

Sample: A nationally representative sample of 127,596 civilian non-institutionalized adults (> or = 18 years of age) from the 2000--2003 NHIS.

Outcome Measure: Adults told by a doctor or other health professional that they had asthma, hay fever, sinusitis, and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Results: Adults who are both AIAN and white generally had higher rates of respiratory conditions than did their single race counterparts. These differences persisted even after controlling for socio-demographic and health care access measures.

Conclusions: This paper presents some of the first research of how the health of some multiple race adults differs from their single race counterparts. Contrary to some previous expectations for these estimates, respiratory condition estimates for adults who are both AIAN and white do not appear to be located between those of the component single race groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557850801994839DOI Listing
November 2008

Summary health statistics for the U.S. population: National Health Interview Survey, 2006.

Vital Health Stat 10 2008 Jan(236):1-104

Division of Health Interview Statistics, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.

Objective: This report presents both age-adjusted and unadjusted health statistics from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States, classified by sex, age, race, Hispanic or Latino origin and race, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage (where appropriate), place of residence, and region of residence. The topics covered are respondent-assessed health status, limitations in activities, special education or early intervention services, injury and poisoning episodes, health care access and utilization, and health insurance coverage.

Source Of Data: NHIS is a household, multistage probability sample survey conducted annually by interviewers of the U.S. Census Bureau for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. In 2006, household interviews were completed for 75,716 persons living in 29,204 households, reflecting a household response rate of 87.3%.

Selected Highlights: Nearly 7 in 10 persons were in excellent or very good health in 2006. About 36 million persons (12%) were limited in their usual activities due to one or more chronic health conditions. About 4 million persons (2%) required the help of another person with activities of daily living, and about 8 million persons (4%) required the help of another person with instrumental activities of daily living. About 6% of children received special education or early intervention services. Among persons under age 65 years, about 43 million (17%) did not have any health insurance coverage. The most common reason for lacking health insurance was cost, followed by a change in employment.
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January 2008

Health characteristics of the Asian adult population: United States, 2004-2006.

Adv Data 2008 Jan(394):1-22

Division of Health Interview Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objective: This report compares national estimates for selected health status indicators, health behaviors, health care utilization, health conditions, immunizations, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing status among selected non-Hispanic Asian adult subgroups. Comparison estimates for the non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), and Hispanic adult populations are also presented.

Methods: The estimates in this report were derived from the Family Core and the Sample Adult Core components of the 2004-2006 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Estimates were generated and comparisons conducted using the SUDAAN statistical package to account for the complex sample design.

Results: In general, non-Hispanic Asian adults were least likely to be current smokers, be obese, have hypertension, delay or not receive medical care because of cost, be tested for HIV, or be in fair or poor health compared with non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic AIAN, or Hispanic adults. Across non-Hispanic Asian subgroups, Vietnamese adults were least likely to have a bachelor's degree or higher and most likely to be poor, be in fair or poor health, and abstain from alcohol use. Korean adults were most likely to be uninsured, be current smokers, and be without a usual place for health care. Japanese adults were most likely to be current moderate or heavier drinkers, and Filipino adults were most likely to be obese.
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January 2008

Health behaviors and risk factors in those who use complementary and alternative medicine.

BMC Public Health 2007 Aug 27;7:217. Epub 2007 Aug 27.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892-2182, USA.

Background: Surveys have generally found that individuals more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine are female, live in the western United States, are likely to have a health complaint, and have a higher socioeconomic status than do nonusers. What is not known is the extent to which those who use complementary and alternative medicine also engage in positive health behaviors, such as smoking cessation or increased physical activity and/or exhibit fewer health risk factors such as obesity. This has been identified as a key research question in a recent Institute of Medicine report. In the present study we sought to determine whether the use of complementary and alternative medicine is associated with health behaviors or risk factors known to impact on health status.

Methods: The current study is a cross-sectional regression analysis using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Data were collected in-person from 31,044 adults throughout the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Results: After controlling for a range of other factors, we found that engaging in leisure-time physical activity, having consumed alcohol in one's life but not being a current heavy drinker, and being a former smoker are independently associated with the use of CAM. Obese individuals are slightly less likely to use CAM than individuals with a healthy body-mass index. No significant associations were observed between receipt of an influenza vaccine and CAM use.

Conclusion: Those engaging in positive health behaviors and exhibiting fewer health risk factors are more likely to use CAM than those who forgo positive health behaviors or exhibit more health risk factors. The fact that users of CAM tend to pursue generally healthy lifestyles suggests that they may be open to additional recommendations toward optimizing their health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2031902PMC
August 2007

Summary health statistics for the U.S. population: National Health Interview Survey, 2004.

Vital Health Stat 10 2006 Aug(229):1-104

Division of Health Interview Statistics, US Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objectives: This report presents both age-adjusted and unadjusted health statistics from the 2004 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States, classified by sex, age, race, Hispanic or Latino origin and race, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage (where appropriate), place of residence, and region of residence. The topics covered are respondent-assessed health status, limitations in activities, special education or early intervention services, injuries and poisonings, health care access and utilization, and health insurance coverage.

Source Of Data: NHIS is a household, multistage probability sample survey conducted annually by interviewers of the U.S. Census Bureau for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. In 2004, household interviews were completed for 94,460 persons living in 36,579 households, reflecting a household response rate of 86.9%.

Selected Highlights: Nearly 7 in 10 persons were in excellent or very good health in 2004. About 34 million persons (12%) were limited in their usual activities due to one or more chronic health conditions, and about 4 million persons (2%) required the help of another person with activities of daily living. About 6% of children received special education or early intervention services. Among persons under age 65 years, about 41 million (17%) did not have any health insurance coverage. The most common reason for lacking health insurance was cost, followed by a change in employment.
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August 2006

Health behaviors of adults: United States, 1999-2001.

Vital Health Stat 10 2004 Feb(219):1-79

US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

This report presents prevalence estimates for key indicators of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, and body weight status among U.S. adults, using data from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The NHIS is conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Estimates are shown for several sociodemographic subgroups for both sexes combined and for men and women separately. Subgroups are compared in terms of prevalence of healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Methods Data for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). Questions on health behaviors were asked in the Sample Adult component of the basic core questionnaire. All data were self-reported. This report is based on a total of 96,501 completed interviews with sample adults aged 18 years and over, representing an overall sample adult response rate of 71.8% for the 3 years combined. Statistics were age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Results Overall, 6 in 10 U.S. adults were current drinkers in 1999-2001; about 1 in 4 adults (23.1%) were lifetime abstainers. About 1 in 4 adults (23.1%) were current smokers and over one-half of adults (54.3%) had never smoked cigarettes. About 6 in 10 adults engaged in at least some leisure-time physical activity with about 3 in 10 regularly engaging in such activities. About 6 in 10 adults were overweight or obese (BMI > or = 25), with 4 in 10 adults having a healthy weight.
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February 2004

Summary health statistics for the U.S. population: National Health Interview Survey, 2001.

Vital Health Stat 10 2003 Dec(217):1-82

US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey for the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States, classified by age, sex, race and Hispanic or Latino origin, family income, poverty status, education, place of residence, region of residence, and, where appropriate, health insurance coverage. The topics covered are health status and limitations in activities, special education or early intervention services, injuries and poisonings, health care access and utilization, and health insurance coverage.

Source Of Data: The NHIS is a household, multistage probability sample survey conducted annually by interviewers of the U.S. Census Bureau for the Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics. Household interviews were completed for 100,760 persons living in 38,932 households, reflecting a household response rate of 89%.

Selected Highlights: Nearly 7 in 10 persons were in excellent or very good health in 2001. About 33 million persons (12%) were limited in their usual activities due to one or more chronic health conditions, and about 4 million persons (2%) required the help of another person with activities of daily living. Persons with the least education and the lowest incomes were the most likely to be limited in their ability to work. About 6% of children received special education or early intervention services. The three leading causes of medically attended injury and poisoning episodes were falls, transportation, and overexertion. Among persons under age 65 years, about 39 million (16%) did not have any health insurance coverage. The most common reason for lacking health insurance was cost, followed by a change in employment.
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December 2003

Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002.

Adv Data 2004 May(343):1-19

Objective: This report presents selected estimates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among U.S. adults, using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Methods: Data for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). This report is based on 31,044 interviews of adults age 18 years and over. Statistics shown in this report were age adjusted to the year 2000 U.S. standard population.

Results: Sixty-two percent of adults used some form of CAM therapy during the past 12 months when the definition of CAM therapy included prayer specifically for health reasons. When prayer specifically for health reasons was excluded from the definition, 36% of adults used some form of CAM therapy during the past 12 months. The 10 most commonly used CAM therapies during the past 12 months were use of prayer specifically for one's own health (43.0%), prayer by others for one's own health (24.4%), natural products (18.9%), deep breathing exercises (11.6%), participation in prayer group for one's own health (9.6%), meditation (7.6%), chiropractic care (7.5%), yoga (5.1%), massage (5.0%), and diet-based therapies (3.5%). Use of CAM varies by sex, race, geographic region, health insurance status, use of cigarettes or alcohol, and hospitalization. CAM was most often used to treat back pain or back problems, head or chest colds, neck pain or neck problems, joint pain or stiffness, and anxiety or depression. Adults age 18 years or over who used CAM were more likely to do so because they believed that CAM combined with conventional medical treatments would help (54.9%) and/or they thought it would be interesting to try (50.1%). Most adults who have ever used CAM have used it within the past 12 months, although there is variation by CAM therapy.
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May 2004

Body weight status of adults: United States, 1997-98.

Adv Data 2002 Sep(330):1-15

Division of Health Interview Statistics, Department of Health And Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center For Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782-2003, USA.

Objective: This report presents estimates for underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obesity for U.S. adults aged 18 years and over. Based on self-reported height and weight, data are shown for selected population subgroups for both sexes and for men and women separately.

Methods: Body weight status of U.S. adults was estimated using data from the 1997-98 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for 68,556 adults aged 18 years and over and Body Mass Index (BMI) (weight/height2) criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The NHIS is administered in households throughout the United States using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). The combined overall response rate in 1997-98 was 77.2%. Statistics shown in this report were age adjusted to the 2000 projected U.S. population.

Findings: Over one-half of adults (54.7%) were overweight and 1 in 5 (19.5%) were obese in 1997-98. Women (49.5%) were more likely than men (36.3%) to be of healthy weight although men and women were equally likely to be obese. Obesity was most prevalent among middle-aged adults, among black non-Hispanic adults and Hispanic adults, and among adults with less education and lower income. Rates of obesity by marital status differed by gender: married men (20.4%) had higher rates of obesity than separated and divorced men (16.8%), and married women (18.4%) had lower rates of obesity than separated and divorced women (23.2%). Obesity was lowest among adults living in the West and those living in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), but outside the central city (i.e., the suburbs).

Conclusions: Overweight and obesity were widespread in the United States in 1997-98 and prevalence varied significantly by population subgroup.
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September 2002