Publications by authors named "Patricia Lantis"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Support Strategy to Increase Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Among Hospitalized Children Before Inpatient Discharge.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 07 1;4(7):e2117809. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Hospitalized children are at increased risk of influenza-related complications, yet influenza vaccine coverage remains low among this group. Evidence-based strategies about vaccination of vulnerable children during all health care visits are especially important during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: To design and evaluate a clinical decision support (CDS) strategy to increase the proportion of eligible hospitalized children who receive a seasonal influenza vaccine prior to inpatient discharge.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This quality improvement study was conducted among children eligible for the seasonal influenza vaccine who were hospitalized in a tertiary pediatric health system providing care to more than half a million patients annually in 3 hospitals. The study used a sequential crossover design from control to intervention and compared hospitalizations in the intervention group (2019-2020 season with the use of an intervention order set) with concurrent controls (2019-2020 season without use of an intervention order set) and historical controls (2018-2019 season with use of an order set that underwent intervention during the 2019-2020 season).

Interventions: A CDS intervention was developed through a user-centered design process, including (1) placing a default influenza vaccine order into admission order sets for eligible patients, (2) a script to offer the vaccine using a presumptive strategy, and (3) just-in-time education for clinicians addressing vaccine eligibility in the influenza order group with links to further reference material. The intervention was rolled out in a stepwise fashion during the 2019-2020 influenza season.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Proportion of eligible hospitalizations in which 1 or more influenza vaccines were administered prior to discharge.

Results: Among 17 740 hospitalizations (9295 boys [52%]), the mean (SD) age was 8.0 (6.0) years, and the patients were predominantly Black (n = 8943 [50%]) or White (n = 7559 [43%]) and mostly had public insurance (n = 11 274 [64%]). There were 10 997 hospitalizations eligible for the influenza vaccine in the 2019-2020 season. Of these, 5449 (50%) were in the intervention group, and 5548 (50%) were concurrent controls. There were 6743 eligible hospitalizations in 2018-2019 that served as historical controls. Vaccine administration rates were 31% (n = 1676) in the intervention group, 19% (n = 1051) in concurrent controls, and 14% (n = 912) in historical controls (P < .001). In adjusted analyses, the odds of receiving the influenza vaccine were 3.25 (95% CI, 2.94-3.59) times higher in the intervention group and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.15-1.42) times higher in concurrent controls than in historical controls.

Conclusions And Relevance: This quality improvement study suggests that user-centered CDS may be associated with significantly improved influenza vaccination rates among hospitalized children. Stepwise implementation of CDS interventions was a practical method that was used to increase quality improvement rigor through comparison with historical and concurrent controls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
July 2021

Recognition and Outcomes of Pneumococcal Meningitis in 2 Tertiary Pediatric Hospitals Since the Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

From the Children's Healthcare of Atlanta.

Objectives: The aims of the study were to analyze the demographics, presentation, laboratory findings, and complications of pediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, to improve recognition, and to minimize patient morbidity and mortality.

Methods: This study used a retrospective analysis of pediatric pneumococcal meningitis cases at 2 tertiary healthcare systems in the Southeastern United States from 2010 to2018.

Results: We describe 21 cases of pneumococcal meningitis. All patients presented with fever, 95% had altered mental status by history or examination, and 48% had meningeal signs. Forty-three percent had seen another provider within 48 hours of admission. Forty-eight percent had delay in lumbar puncture (LP) of more than 6 hours after antibiotic administration, decreasing rates of positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures from 100% to 40% (P < 0.001). Decision to delay LP was due to either low suspicion for meningitis (n = 4) or clinical instability (n = 6) and was associated with lower rates of meningeal signs (P = 0.014) and higher rates of altered mental status on examination (P = 0.031). Fourteen patients (67%) were up-to-date on pneumococcal immunization. Serotypes were determined in 16 cases, with 2 patients (13%) immunized against the strain that infected them. Primary outcomes included seizures (48%), hearing loss (48%), cranial nerve palsy (33%), and death (5%). Delay in LP with low suspicion for meningitis was associated with longer hospital length of stay approaching statistical significance (P = 0.053).

Conclusions: Pneumococcal meningitis remains a relevant and potentially fatal disease despite widespread use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Its diagnosis is often delayed during interactions with physicians, which may put patients at increased risk for poor clinical outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2020