Publications by authors named "Patricia Lantis"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Support Strategy to Increase Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Among Hospitalized Children Before Inpatient Discharge.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 07 1;4(7):e2117809. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Hospitalized children are at increased risk of influenza-related complications, yet influenza vaccine coverage remains low among this group. Evidence-based strategies about vaccination of vulnerable children during all health care visits are especially important during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: To design and evaluate a clinical decision support (CDS) strategy to increase the proportion of eligible hospitalized children who receive a seasonal influenza vaccine prior to inpatient discharge.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This quality improvement study was conducted among children eligible for the seasonal influenza vaccine who were hospitalized in a tertiary pediatric health system providing care to more than half a million patients annually in 3 hospitals. The study used a sequential crossover design from control to intervention and compared hospitalizations in the intervention group (2019-2020 season with the use of an intervention order set) with concurrent controls (2019-2020 season without use of an intervention order set) and historical controls (2018-2019 season with use of an order set that underwent intervention during the 2019-2020 season).

Interventions: A CDS intervention was developed through a user-centered design process, including (1) placing a default influenza vaccine order into admission order sets for eligible patients, (2) a script to offer the vaccine using a presumptive strategy, and (3) just-in-time education for clinicians addressing vaccine eligibility in the influenza order group with links to further reference material. The intervention was rolled out in a stepwise fashion during the 2019-2020 influenza season.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Proportion of eligible hospitalizations in which 1 or more influenza vaccines were administered prior to discharge.

Results: Among 17 740 hospitalizations (9295 boys [52%]), the mean (SD) age was 8.0 (6.0) years, and the patients were predominantly Black (n = 8943 [50%]) or White (n = 7559 [43%]) and mostly had public insurance (n = 11 274 [64%]). There were 10 997 hospitalizations eligible for the influenza vaccine in the 2019-2020 season. Of these, 5449 (50%) were in the intervention group, and 5548 (50%) were concurrent controls. There were 6743 eligible hospitalizations in 2018-2019 that served as historical controls. Vaccine administration rates were 31% (n = 1676) in the intervention group, 19% (n = 1051) in concurrent controls, and 14% (n = 912) in historical controls (P < .001). In adjusted analyses, the odds of receiving the influenza vaccine were 3.25 (95% CI, 2.94-3.59) times higher in the intervention group and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.15-1.42) times higher in concurrent controls than in historical controls.

Conclusions And Relevance: This quality improvement study suggests that user-centered CDS may be associated with significantly improved influenza vaccination rates among hospitalized children. Stepwise implementation of CDS interventions was a practical method that was used to increase quality improvement rigor through comparison with historical and concurrent controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299313PMC
July 2021

Recognition and Outcomes of Pneumococcal Meningitis in 2 Tertiary Pediatric Hospitals Since the Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

From the Children's Healthcare of Atlanta.

Objectives: The aims of the study were to analyze the demographics, presentation, laboratory findings, and complications of pediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, to improve recognition, and to minimize patient morbidity and mortality.

Methods: This study used a retrospective analysis of pediatric pneumococcal meningitis cases at 2 tertiary healthcare systems in the Southeastern United States from 2010 to2018.

Results: We describe 21 cases of pneumococcal meningitis. All patients presented with fever, 95% had altered mental status by history or examination, and 48% had meningeal signs. Forty-three percent had seen another provider within 48 hours of admission. Forty-eight percent had delay in lumbar puncture (LP) of more than 6 hours after antibiotic administration, decreasing rates of positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures from 100% to 40% (P < 0.001). Decision to delay LP was due to either low suspicion for meningitis (n = 4) or clinical instability (n = 6) and was associated with lower rates of meningeal signs (P = 0.014) and higher rates of altered mental status on examination (P = 0.031). Fourteen patients (67%) were up-to-date on pneumococcal immunization. Serotypes were determined in 16 cases, with 2 patients (13%) immunized against the strain that infected them. Primary outcomes included seizures (48%), hearing loss (48%), cranial nerve palsy (33%), and death (5%). Delay in LP with low suspicion for meningitis was associated with longer hospital length of stay approaching statistical significance (P = 0.053).

Conclusions: Pneumococcal meningitis remains a relevant and potentially fatal disease despite widespread use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Its diagnosis is often delayed during interactions with physicians, which may put patients at increased risk for poor clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002288DOI Listing
November 2020
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