Publications by authors named "Patricia L Crown"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ritual drinks in the pre-Hispanic US Southwest and Mexican Northwest.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Sep 8;112(37):11436-42. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Cultural Resource Management Program, Gila River Indian Community, Sacaton, AZ 85147.

Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750-1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511799112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4577151PMC
September 2015

Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Aug 6;109(35):13944-9. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1208404109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435207PMC
August 2012

Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Feb 2;106(7):2110-3. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, MSC01 1040, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1086, USA.

Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo Bonito and deposited in caches at the site. This first known use of cacao drinks north of the Mexican border indicates exchange with cacao cultivators in Mesoamerica in a time frame of about A.D. 1000-1125. The association of cylinder jars and cacao beverages suggests that the Chacoan ritual involving the drinking of cacao was tied to Mesoamerican rituals incorporating cylindrical vases and cacao. The importance of Pueblo Bonito within the Chacoan world likely lies in part with the integration of Mesoamerican ritual, including critical culinary ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0812817106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650116PMC
February 2009
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