Publications by authors named "Patrícia Azevedo de Lima"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Micronutrient supplementation needs more attention in patients with refractory epilepsy under ketogenic diet treatment.

Nutrition 2021 06 29;86:111158. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study evaluated the adequacy of micronutrient intake from the ketogenic diet (KD) with and without micronutrient supplementation according to age in Brazilian children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy undergoing KD treatment.

Methods: This study enrolled children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy who were up to 19 y of age. Nutrient intakes were monitored using 3 d food records before introducing micronutrient supplementation and 3 mo after starting KD treatment. The prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated by sex and age according to the estimated average requirement cutoff values.

Results: This study included 39 children and adolescents. The KD did not provide enough content of folate, calcium, and magnesium in all patients according to the dietary reference intake. Even after starting supplementation, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake remained inadequate in the majority of patients. The supplementation effectively met the vitamin B recommendation in all age groups.

Conclusions: KD treatment did not provide adequate levels of the monitored micronutrients. The supplementation improved but did not prevent the inadequacy of micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. The results highlight the importance of individual supplementation protocols and the need to monitor micronutrient intake according to age and sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111158DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of qualitative and quantitative nutritional plan on gene expression in obese patients in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 02 26;41:351-359. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, 01246-904, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Diet is a modifiable risk factor, which may influence the gene expression and the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers related to obesity and atherosclerosis. In this substudy from Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program, we hypothesized that a nutritional intervention based on the usual Brazilian diet modulates the expression of genes involved with atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers in male patients, in the secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Six male patients, aged 45 years or older, obese, were selected to follow a qualitative-quantitative food plan for 6 months. Glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL) -1β), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and adiponectin, and expression of 84 atherosclerosis-related genes in total peripheral blood cells, were measured.

Results: After nutritional intervention, the participants reduced weight (p < 0.04), waist circumference (p < 0.04), Homeostasis Model Assessment index for insulin resistance (p = 0.046) and overall leukocyte count (p = 0.046) and neutrophils (p = 0.028). There was no significant modification in the plasma concentration of the inflammatory biomarkers, however, there was a significant increase in the expression of Apo A1 (p = 0.011), ELN (p = 0.017) and IL4 (p = 0.037) genes.

Conclusions: The BALANCE Program, the qualitative-quantitative food plan composed of Brazilian usual foods, did not reduce the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers, but increased in total peripheral blood cells the expression of genes involved in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic in obese patients, in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. The clinical trial is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ and the unique identifier is NCT01620398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.11.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of classic ketogenic diet treatment on lipoprotein subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy.

Nutrition 2017 Jan 26;33:271-277. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the classic ketogenic diet (KD) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy.

Methods: This prospective study recruited children and adolescents of either sex, whose epilepsy was refractory to treatment with multiple drugs. To be included, the patient had to have an indication for treatment with the KD and be treated as an outpatient. At baseline and after 3 and 6 mo of the KD, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerols [TG], LDL cholesterol [LDL-C], and HDL cholesterol [HDL-C]), apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB), 10 subfractions of HDL, 7 subfractions of LDL, LDL phenotype, and LDL size were analyzed using the Lipoprint system.

Results: The lipid profile components (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, and apoB) increased during the 3-mo follow-up, and remained consistent after 6 mo of treatment. Similarly, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios, representing atherogenic particles, significantly increased. In contrast, qualitative lipoprotein characteristics progressively changed during the follow-up period. Small LDL subfractions increased, and this profile was related with reduced LDL size (27.3 nm to 26.7 nm). The LDL phenotype became worse; 52.1% of the patients had a non-A phenotype after 6 mo of the KD. Small HDL subfractions decreased only after 6 mo of the KD.

Conclusions: KD treatment promotes negative changes in lipoprotein size and phenotype, contributing to atherogenic risk in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.06.016DOI Listing
January 2017

Neurobiochemical mechanisms of a ketogenic diet in refractory epilepsy.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2014 Dec;69(10):699-705

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

A ketogenic diet is an important therapy used in the control of drug-refractory seizures. Many studies have shown that children and adolescents following ketogenic diets exhibit an over 50% reduction in seizure frequency, which is considered to be clinically relevant. These benefits are based on a diet containing high fat (approximately 90% fat) for 24 months. This dietary model was proposed in the 1920s and has produced variable clinical responses. Previous studies have shown that the mechanisms underlying seizure control involve ketone bodies, which are produced by fatty acid oxidation. Although the pathways involved in the ketogenic diet are not entirely clear, the main effects of the production of ketone bodies appear to be neurotransmitter modulation and antioxidant effects on the brain. This review highlights the impacts of the ketogenic diet on the modulation of neurotransmitters, levels of biogenic monoamines and protective antioxidant mechanisms of neurons. In addition, future perspectives are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2014(10)09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221309PMC
December 2014
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