Publications by authors named "Pathom Sawanpanyalert"

133 Publications

Deficiency of mannose-binding lectin is a risk of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a natural history cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS in Northern Thailand.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(12):e0242438. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a pivotal role in innate immunity; however, its impact on susceptibility to opportunistic infections (OIs) has not yet been examined in a natural history cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Methods: We used archived samples to analyze the association between MBL expression types and risk of major OIs including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcosis, talaromycosis, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis in a prospective cohort in Northern Thailand conducted from 1 July 2000 to 15 October 2002 before the national antiretroviral treatment programme was launched.

Results: Of 632 patients, PCP was diagnosed in 96 (15.2%) patients, including 45 patients with new episodes during the follow-up period (1006.5 person-years). The total history of PCP was significantly associated with low MBL expression type: high/intermediate (81/587, 13.8%), low (10/33, 30.3%) and deficient (5/12, 41.7%) (p = 0.001), whereas the history of other OIs showed no relation with any MBL expression type. Kaplan-Meier analysis (n = 569; log-rank p = 0.011) and Cox's proportional hazards model revealed that deficient genotype dramatically increased the risk of PCP, which is independent upon sex, age, CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load and hepatitis B and C status (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% confidence interval 2.19-28.67, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Deficiency of MBL expression is a strong risk factor determining the incidence of PCP but not other major OIs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242438PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757797PMC
January 2021

Impact of HLA Allele-KIR Pairs on Disease Outcome in HIV-Infected Thai Population.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 07;78(3):356-361

National Institute of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules contribute to HIV control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Contribution of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to HIV clinical outcome by HLA alleles has been well studied. However, reports about the role of natural killer cells in HIV clinical outcome, particularly, about the effect of HLA-killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) pairs, remain incomplete.

Methods: The effects of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome were statistically analyzed in a Thai cohort of treatment-naive chronically infected population (n = 209).

Results: Five HLA allele-KIR pairs scored significantly in viral load (VL) differences. Among them, opposing effects on VL were identified among subjects expressing KIR2DL2 ligands within the HLA-C1 group: higher VL in individuals expressing HLA-B*46:01+KIR2DL2+ compared with individuals without KIR (HLA-B*46:01+KIR2DL2-) (5.0 vs 4.6 log10 copies/mL, P = 0.02), in HLA-C*01:02+KIR2DL2+ (5.0 vs 4.6 log10 copies/mL; P = 0.02), and lower VL in HLA-C*12:03+KIR2DL2+ (4.3 vs 5.6 log10 copies/mL; P = 0.01). In the longitudinal analysis of a ten-year follow-up, HLA-B*46:01+KIR2DL2+ve subjects also had a higher mortality rate compared with the subjects without that pair, independent of variables including antiretroviral treatment, as well as CD4 T-cell count, sex, and age (adjusted hazard ratio 5.9, P = 0.02).

Conclusion: We identified several HLA allele-KIR pairs associated with clinical outcome differences including opposing effects on VL within 1 HLA group with the same KIR. Among them, HLA-B*46:01 emerged in Southeast Asia about 50,000 years ago and is now the most prevalent HLA-B allele in that area. These findings highlight that each endemic area has unique features of anti-HIV innate immunity that impact clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001676DOI Listing
July 2018

Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) in Thailand.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Feb 9;56:58-62. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand.

The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in deer in Thailand and to characterize the isolates by biochemical, morphological and genetic analysis. A total of 247 blood samples were collected from Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) in a livestock breeding facility in Thailand. Bartonella bacteria were isolated in 3.6% of the blood samples. Three out of 110 (2.7%) males and 6 of 137 (4.4%) females were positive for Bartonella. A higher prevalence of Bartonella was observed in young deer under 4 years of age compared to adults over 4 years of age, but no Bartonella was isolated from deer over 8 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven loci of Bartonella indicated that all the isolates from Rusa deer in Thailand were identical and formed a distinct cluster from other known Bartonella species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2017.12.005DOI Listing
February 2018

Pathogen lineage-based genome-wide association study identified CD53 as susceptible locus in tuberculosis.

J Hum Genet 2017 Dec 7;62(12):1015-1022. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Medical Genetics Center, Medical Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Tuberculosis (TB) is known to be affected by host genetic factors. We reported a specific genetic risk factor through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that focused on young age onset TB. In this study, we further focused on the heterogeneity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) lineages and assessed its possible interaction with age at onset on host genetic factors. We identified the pathogen lineage in 686 Thai TB cases and GWAS stratified by both infected pathogen lineage information and age at onset revealed a genome-wide significant association of one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 1p13, which was specifically associated with non-Beijing lineage-infected old age onset cases (P=2.54E-08, OR=1.74 (95% CI=1.43-2.12)), when we compared them to the population-matched healthy controls. This SNP locates near the CD53 gene, which encodes a leukocyte surface glycoprotein. Interestingly, the expression of CD53 was also correlated with the patients' active TB status. This is the first report of a pathogen lineage-based genome-wide association study. The results suggested that host genetic risk in TB is depended upon the pathogen genetic background and demonstrate the importance of analyzing the interaction between host and pathogen genomes in TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2017.82DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709719PMC
December 2017

Association of BAK1 single nucleotide polymorphism with a risk for dengue hemorrhagic fever.

BMC Med Genet 2016 07 11;17(1):43. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe life-threatening form of dengue infection. Low platelet count is one of the characteristic clinical manifestations in patients with severe dengue. However, little is known about genetic factors in the host that cause low platelet count in patients with dengue.

Methods: A previous genome-wide association study of hematological and biochemical traits identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with low platelet count in healthy subjects. To examine the possible association of these SNPs with DHF, 918 Thai patients with dengue [509 patients with DHF and 409 with dengue fever (DF)] were genotyped for five SNPs: rs5745568 in BAK1, rs6141 in THPO, rs6065 in GP1BA, rs739496 in SH2B3, and rs385893 in RCL1. In addition, rs4804803 in CD209, that has been reported to be associated with dengue infection, was also genotyped to examine if rs4804803 affects the association detected in this study.

Results: The allele frequencies of each SNP were compared between the DHF and DF groups. Among the five SNPs, the G allele of rs5745568 in BAK1 was significantly associated with a risk for DHF [P = 0.006 and crude odd ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 1.32 (1.09-1.60)]. The association of this allele with DHF was also significant in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, hospital (i.e., geographic region), immune status (i.e., primary or secondary infection), and virus serotype [P = 0.016 and adjusted odd ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 1.29 (1.05-1.58)]. The result was not influenced by rs4804803 [P = 0.0167 and adjusted OR (95 % CI) = 1.29 (1.05-1.58)]. No other SNPs including rs4804803 showed significant association.

Conclusions: The low-level constitutive production of platelets caused by the G allele of rs5745568 seems to increase the risk of bleeding in dengue infection. Our results suggest that BCL-2 homologous antagonist/killer (BAK) protein, encoded by BAK1, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-016-0305-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940700PMC
July 2016

Comparison of genetic variation in drug ADME-related genes in Thais with Caucasian, African and Asian HapMap populations.

J Hum Genet 2016 Feb 1;61(2):119-27. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodhi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The objectives of this study are to investigate allele frequencies of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME)-related genes in the Thai population and to compare these genes to HapMap populations including Caucasians (CEU), Africans (YRI) and Asians (CHB/JPT). Genetic variations of drug ADME-related genes in 190 Thais were investigated using drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMET) plus genotyping system. We examined 1936 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 225 genes that have documented functional and clinical significances in phase I and phase II drug metabolism enzymes, drug transporters and other genes involved in ADME processes. Distributions of genotyping data from Thai were compared with other HapMap populations including Caucasian, African and Asian populations. The analysis demonstrated 43 SNPs with statistical significance comparing among five populations. However, only 26 SNPs showed statistical significance in pair-wise comparisons between Thai versus CEU and Thai versus CHB/JPT. These 26 SNPs belong to 13 groups of drug ADME-related genes which are CYP2A6, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, VKORC1, COMT, NAT2, TPMT, UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1. These genes demonstrated clinical significances as previously observed in many studies. The results could explain clinical variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in Thais based on genetic variations in drug ADME-related gene emphasized in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2015.115DOI Listing
February 2016

The effect of KIR2D-HLA-C receptor-ligand interactions on clinical outcome in a HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected Thai population.

AIDS 2015 Aug;29(13):1607-15

aDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan bDepartment of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK cThai National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi dDay Care Centre, Lampang Hospital, Lampang, Thailand eNagasaki University Global COE Program, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Objective: Class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles interact with both cytotoxic T lymphocytes through their T-cell receptors, and natural killer cells through their killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Compared with the reported protective effect of KIR3DL1/S1-HLA-Bw4 interactions in HIV-infected patients, the effect of KIR2D-HLA-C combinations on HIV control remains unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of KIR2D-HLA-C combinations on HIV disease progression.

Design: We performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of a Thai HIV cohort.

Methods: Two hundred and nine HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected, treatment-naive Thai patients (CD4 T-cell counts of >200/μl) and 104 exposed seronegatives were studied. The effect of KIR-HLA receptor-ligand combinations on viral transmission and survival rate was statistically analyzed.

Results: We found the following results: higher frequency of patients expressing both KIR2DL3 and HLA-C1 among infected patients compared with exposed seronegative (odds ratio 4.8, P = 0.004), higher viral load in patients expressing HLA-C1 with KIR2DL3 compared with those without this receptor-ligand combination (median 4.8 vs. 4.2 log copies/ml, P = 0.033), higher numbers of KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 interactions was associated with a higher viral load (β = 0.13, P = 0.039 by linear regression model), and higher mortality rate in carriers of the KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 combination (adjusted hazard ratio 1.9, P = 0.012 by Cox hazard model).

Conclusion: We have identified a deleterious effect of the KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 receptor-ligand combination on HIV clinical outcomes in a Thai cohort. Further investigation into mechanisms underlying this susceptibility may aid the understanding of the role of natural killer cells in HIV disease control and pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000000747DOI Listing
August 2015

Strengthening the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process: Report of the 3rd WHO Informal Consultation for Improving Influenza Vaccine Virus Selection held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3 April 2014.

Vaccine 2015 Aug 3;33(36):4368-82. Epub 2015 Jul 3.

National Influenza Center, Helsinki, Finland.

Despite long-recognized challenges and constraints associated with their updating and manufacture, influenza vaccines remain at the heart of public health preparedness and response efforts against both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses. Globally coordinated virological and epidemiological surveillance is the foundation of the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process. Although national influenza surveillance and reporting capabilities are being strengthened and expanded, sustaining and building upon recent gains has become a major challenge. Strengthening the vaccine virus selection process additionally requires the continuation of initiatives to improve the timeliness and representativeness of influenza viruses shared by countries for detailed analysis by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Efforts are also continuing at the national, regional, and global levels to better understand the dynamics of influenza transmission in both temperate and tropical regions. Improved understanding of the degree of influenza seasonality in tropical countries of the world should allow for the strengthening of national vaccination policies and use of the most appropriate available vaccines. There remain a number of limitations and difficulties associated with the use of HAI assays for the antigenic characterization and selection of influenza vaccine viruses by WHOCCs. Current approaches to improving the situation include the more-optimal use of HAI and other assays; improved understanding of the data produced by neutralization assays; and increased standardization of serological testing methods. A number of new technologies and associated tools have the potential to revolutionize influenza surveillance and response activities. These include the increasingly routine use of whole genome next-generation sequencing and other high-throughput approaches. Such approaches could not only become key elements in outbreak investigations but could drive a new surveillance paradigm. However, despite the advances made, significant challenges will need to be addressed before next-generation technologies become routine, particularly in low-resource settings. Emerging approaches and techniques such as synthetic genomics, systems genetics, systems biology and mathematical modelling are capable of generating potentially huge volumes of highly complex and diverse datasets. Harnessing the currently theoretical benefits of such bioinformatics ("big data") concepts for the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process will depend upon further advances in data generation, integration, analysis and dissemination. Over the last decade, growing awareness of influenza as an important global public health issue has been coupled to ever-increasing demands from the global community for more-equitable access to effective and affordable influenza vaccines. The current influenza vaccine landscape continues to be dominated by egg-based inactivated and live attenuated vaccines, with a small number of cell-based and recombinant vaccines. Successfully completing each step in the annual influenza vaccine manufacturing cycle will continue to rely upon timely and regular communication between the WHO GISRS, manufacturers and regulatory authorities. While the pipeline of influenza vaccines appears to be moving towards a variety of niche products in the near term, it is apparent that the ultimate aim remains the development of effective "universal" influenza vaccines that offer longer-lasting immunity against a broad range of influenza A subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.090DOI Listing
August 2015

Incidence and predictors of regimen-modification from first-line antiretroviral therapy in Thailand: a cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2014 Oct 30;14:565. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Public Health, 88/7 Tiwanon road, Ampur Muang, Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy markedly reduced mortality in HIV-infected individuals. However, in the previous studies, up to 50% of patients are compelled to modify their regimen in middle and low-income countries where salvage drug is still limited. This cohort study aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of regimen modification from the first-line antiretroviral regimen in northern Thailand.

Methods: All HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with generic drug (GPOvir®; stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine) at a governmental hospital in northern Thailand from 2002 to 2007 were recruited. Baseline characteristics and detailed information of regimen modification until the end of 2010 were ascertained from cohort database and medical charts. As a potential genetic predictor of regimen modification, HLA B allele was determined by bead-based array hybridization (WAKFlow® HLA typing kit). We investigated predictors of the regimen modification using Cox's proportional hazard models.

Results: Of 979 patients, 914 were eligible for the analysis. The observed events of regimen modification was 377, corresponding to an incidence 13.8/100 person-year-observation (95% CI:12.5-15.3) over 2,728 person years (PY) follow up. The main reasons for regimen modification were adverse effects (73.5%), especially lipodystrophy (63.2%) followed by rash (17.7%). Sixty three patients (17.1%) changed the regimen due to treatment failure. 2% and 19% of patients had HLA-B*35:05 and B*4001, respectively. HLA-B*35:05 was independently associated with rash-related regimen modification (aHR 7.73, 95% CI:3.16-18.9) while female gender was associated with lipodystrophy (aHR 2.11, 95% CI:1.51-2.95). Female gender (aHR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.96), elder age (aHR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.99) and having HLA-B*40:01 (aHR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.82) were protective for treatment failure related modification.

Conclusion: HLA-B*35:05 and female gender were strong predictors of regimen modification due to rash and lipodystrophy, respectively. Female gender, elder age, and having HLA-B*40:01 had protective effects on treatment failure-related regimen modification. This study provides further information of regimen modification for future tailored ART in Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-014-0565-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4226857PMC
October 2014

A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 Sep 6;452(3):865-70. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan; Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.09.008DOI Listing
September 2014

High rate of A(H1N1)pdm09 infections among rural Thai villagers, 2009-2010.

PLoS One 2014 4;9(9):e106751. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

College of Public Health and Health Professions and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Background: Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 emerged in Thailand in 2009. A prospective longitudinal adult cohort and household transmission study of influenza-like illness (ILI) was ongoing in rural Thailand at the time of emergence. Symptomatic and subclinical A(H1N1)pdm09 infection rates in the cohort and among household members were evaluated.

Methods: A cohort of 800 Thai adults underwent active community-based surveillance for ILI from 2008-2010. Acute respiratory samples from ILI episodes were tested for A(H1N1)pdm09 by qRT-PCR; acute and 60-day convalescent blood samples were tested by A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). Enrollment, 12-month and 24-month follow-up blood samples were tested for A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion by HI. Household members of influenza A-infected cohort subjects with ILI were enrolled in household transmission investigations in which day 0 and 60 blood samples and acute respiratory samples were tested by either qRT-PCR or HI for A(H1N1)pdm09. Seroconversion between annual blood samples without A(H1N1)pdm09-positive ILI was considered as subclinical infection.

Results: The 2-yr cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the cohort in 2009/2010 was 10.8% (84/781) with an annual incidence of 1.2% in 2009 and 9.7% in 2010; 83.3% of infections were subclinical (50% in 2009 and 85.9% in 2010). The 2-yr cumulative incidence was lowest (5%) in adults born ≤ 1957. The A(H1N1)pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts was 47.2% (17/36); 47.1% of these infections were subclinical. The highest A(H1N1)pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts (70.6%, 12/17) occurred among children born between 1990 and 2003.

Conclusion: Subclinical A(H1N1)pdm09 infections in Thai adults occurred frequently and accounted for a greater proportion of all A(H1N1)pdm09 infections than previously estimated. The role of subclinical infections in A(H1N1)pdm09 transmission has important implications in formulating strategies to predict and prevent the spread of A(H1N1)pdm09 and other influenza virus strains.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0106751PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154756PMC
December 2015

A replication study confirms the association of GWAS-identified SNPs at MICB and PLCE1 in Thai patients with dengue shock syndrome.

BMC Med Genet 2014 May 17;15:58. Epub 2014 May 17.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Background: Dengue shock syndrome (DSS), a severe life-threatening form of dengue infection, mostly occurs in children. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) identified two SNPs, rs3132468 of major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) and rs3765524 of phospholipase C, epsilon 1 (PLCE1), associated with DSS in Vietnamese children. In this study, to examine whether an identical association is found in a different population, the association of these two SNPs with DSS was assessed in Thai children with dengue.

Methods: The rs3132468 and rs3765524 SNPs were genotyped in 917 Thai children with dengue: 76 patients with DSS and 841 patients with non-DSS. The allele frequencies were compared between DSS and non-DSS groups by one-sided Fisher's exact test. The association of rs3132468 and rs3765524 with the mRNA expression levels of MICB and PLCE1 were assessed in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines.

Results: The reported DSS-risk alleles were significantly associated with DSS in Thai patients with dengue (one-sided P = 0.0213 and odds ratio [OR] = 1.58 for rs3132468-C and one-sided P = 0.0252 and OR = 1.49 for rs3765524-C). The rs3132468-C allele showed a significant association with lower mRNA level of MICB (P = 0.0267), whereas the rs3765524-C allele did not. These results imply that the MICB molecule may play an important role in the prevention of DSS in dengue infection.

Conclusions: Together with previous association studies, we conclude that rs3132468-C at MICB and rs3765524-C at PLCE1 confer risk of DSS in Southeast Asians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-15-58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4030448PMC
May 2014

HLA-B*35: 05 is a protective allele with a unique structure among HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected Thais, in whom the B*57 frequency is low.

AIDS 2014 Apr;28(7):959-67

Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, Japan.

Objective: To identify protective human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in an HIV-infected south-east Asian population, in whom HLA-B*57 prevalence is lower than other ethnic groups, and HIV-1 CRF01_AE is the dominant circulating subtype.

Design: Cross-sectional study of Thai patients with chronic HIV infection.

Methods: Five hundred and fifty-seven HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected Thais were recruited. Their HLA type and viral load were determined to statistically analyze the association of each allele in viral control. In-silico molecular dynamics was also used to evaluate the effect of HLA structure variants on epitope binding.

Results: HLA-B*35:05 was identified as the most protective allele (P=0.003, q=0.17), along with HLA-B*57:01 (P=0.044, q=0.31). Structurally, HLA-B*35:05 belonged to the HLA-B*35-PY group of HLA-B*35 alleles; however, unlike the other HLA-B*35 alleles that carry Arg (R) at residue 97, it has unique sequences at T94, L95, and S97, located within the peptide-binding groove. Analysis of the three-dimensional HLA structure and molecular dynamics indicates that S97 in HLA-B*35:05 leads to less flexibility in the groove, and shorter distances between the α-helixes compared with the disease-susceptible HLA-B*35-PY allele, HLA-B*35:01.

Conclusion: These data indicate the existence of a protective effect of HLA-B*57 across ethnic groups and highlight HLA-B*35:05 as an allele uniquely protective in subtype CRF01_AE-infected Thais. The divergence of HLA-B*35:05 from conventional HLA-B*35-PY structural sequences at the peptide-binding groove is consistent with previous studies that have identified HLA residue 97 as strongly influential in shaping HLA impact on immune control of HIV, and that a more restricted peptide-binding motif may be associated with improved control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000000206DOI Listing
April 2014

Molecular characterization of Clostridium botulinum isolates from foodborne outbreaks in Thailand, 2010.

PLoS One 2014 27;9(1):e77792. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Department of Virology, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Thailand has had several foodborne outbreaks of botulism, one of the biggest being in 2006 when laboratory investigations identified the etiologic agent as Clostridium botulinum type A. Identification of the etiologic agent from outbreak samples is laborious using conventional microbiological methods and the neurotoxin mouse bioassay. Advances in molecular techniques have added enormous information regarding the etiology of outbreaks and characterization of isolates. We applied these methods in three outbreaks of botulism in Thailand in 2010.

Methodology/principal Findings: A total of 19 cases were involved (seven each in Lampang and Saraburi and five in Maehongson provinces). The first outbreak in Lampang province in April 2010 was associated with C. botulinum type F, which was detected by conventional methods. Outbreaks in Saraburi and Maehongson provinces occurred in May and December were due to C. botulinum type A1(B) and B that were identified by conventional methods and molecular techniques, respectively. The result of phylogenetic sequence analysis showed that C. botulinum type A1(B) strain Saraburi 2010 was close to strain Iwate 2007. Molecular analysis of the third outbreak in Maehongson province showed C. botulinum type B8, which was different from B1-B7 subtype. The nontoxic component genes of strain Maehongson 2010 revealed that ha33, ha17 and botR genes were close to strain Okra (B1) while ha70 and ntnh genes were close to strain 111 (B2).

Conclusion/significance: This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping of C. botulinum and how it contributes to our understanding the epidemiology and variation of boNT gene. Thus, the recent botulism outbreaks in Thailand were induced by various C. botulinum types.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077792PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3903786PMC
November 2014

Association of IL1B -31C/T and IL1RA variable number of an 86-bp tandem repeat with dengue shock syndrome in Thailand.

J Infect Dis 2014 Jul 19;210(1):138-45. Epub 2014 Jan 19.

Background: Dengue patients present a range of symptoms: dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). It is not clear whether this variability is due to their genetic background. Here we tested polymorphisms of interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) genes for association with DSS in the Thai population.

Methods: Polymorphisms of IL1B -31C/T (rs1143627) and IL1RA 86-base-pair tandem repeat were analyzed in 871 patients (DF = 384, DHF = 413, and DSS = 74).

Results: IL1B -31C and IL1RA 2/4 genotype were associated with DSS (IL1B -31C: DSS vs DHF: P = .0061, odds ratio [OR, 95% confidence interval {CI}], 3.49 [1.36-8.95]; DSS vs DF: P = .027, OR [95% CI], 2.81 [1.12-7.06]; IL1RA 2/4: DSS vs DHF: P = .017, OR [95% CI], 1.94 [1.12-3.40]; DSS vs DF: P = .024, OR [95% CI], 1.90 [1.07-3.4]). No difference was found between DF and DHF. Logistic regression analysis revealed that IL1B -31C and IL1RA 2/4 genotypes were each independently associated with DSS.

Conclusions: Patients with IL1B -31C carrier, or IL1RA 2/4 genotype carry a risk for DSS, implying that IL1B may play a role in pathogenesis of DSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu042DOI Listing
July 2014

Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2014 Mar 17;37(2):109-14. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.

We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase β subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2013.12.001DOI Listing
March 2014

Changing burden of HIV/AIDS to clinical settings in Northern Thailand over 15 years.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2013 ;66(5):375-8

Day Care Center, Lampang Hospital.

We conducted a hospital-based descriptive study to describe the changing pattern of patient numbers, characteristics, and mortality rates among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in northern Thailand over 15 years. The survival status on October 31, 2010 of all HIV-infected adults who attended an HIV center in a government hospital between 1995 and 2010 was ascertained. In total, 3,706 patients were registered, 2,118 (57.2%) of which were male. The survival status of 3,439 patients (92.9%) was available. In addition, 1,543 deaths were identified out of 12,858 person-year-observations (PYO) resulting in a mortality rate of 12.4 deaths/100 PYO (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.3-13.0). An initial decline in mortality rates was observed prior to 1999, probably because of an increase in the proportion of less symptomatic patients. After the introduction of the national highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) program, a profound decline in mortality rates was observed, reaching 2.0 deaths/100 PYO (95% CI, 1.4-2.9) in 2010. Simultaneously, the number of patients on follow-up increased by nearly fourfold. Although HAART has drastically improved the survival of HIV-infected patients, the number of patients receiving therapy at this HIV clinic has substantially increased. While referral of HIV patients to general physicians' care should be urged, we cannot overemphasize the importance of preventing new HIV infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.66.375DOI Listing
March 2014

Prospective study of avian influenza virus infections among rural Thai villagers.

PLoS One 2013 16;8(8):e72196. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

College of Public Health and Health Professions and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Background: In 2008, 800 rural Thai adults living within Kamphaeng Phet Province were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Serological analyses of enrollment sera suggested this cohort had experienced subclinical avian influenza virus (AIV) infections with H9N2 and H5N1 viruses.

Methods: After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 mos for acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have influenza A infections were enrolled with their household contacts in a family transmission study involving paired sera and respiratory swab collections. Cohort members also provided sera at 12 and 24 months after enrollment. Serologic and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed against avian, swine, and human influenza viruses.

Results: Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 81 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted; 31 (38%) were identified as influenza A infections by qRT-PCR. Eighty-three household contacts were enrolled; 12 (14%) reported ILIs, and 11 (92%) of those were identified as influenza infections. A number of subjects were found to have slightly elevated antibodies against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2) virus: 21 subjects (2.7%) at 12-months and 40 subjects (5.1%) at 24-months. Among these, two largely asymptomatic acute infections with H9N2 virus were detected by >4-fold increases in annual serologic titers (final titers 1:80). While controlling for age and influenza vaccine receipt, moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated H9N2 titers (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04-5.2) at the 24-month encounter. One subject had an elevated titer (1:20) against H5N1 during follow-up.

Conclusions: From 2008-10, evidence for AIV infections was sparse among this rural population. Subclinical H9N2 AIV infections likely occurred, but serological results were confounded by antibody cross-reactions. There is a critical need for improved serological diagnostics to more accurately detect subclinical AIV infections in humans.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072196PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3745375PMC
January 2015

Pneumococcal Bacteremia Requiring Hospitalization in Rural Thailand: An Update on Incidence, Clinical Characteristics, Serotype Distribution, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility, 2005-2010.

PLoS One 2013 26;8(6):e66038. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

International Emerging Infections Program, Global Disease Detection Regional Center, Thailand Ministry of Public Health - United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, but regional data is limited. Updated burden estimates are critical as pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is highly effective, but not yet included in the Expanded Program on Immunization of Thailand or neighboring countries.

Methods: We implemented automated blood culture systems in two rural Thailand provinces as part of population-based surveillance for bacteremia. Blood cultures were collected from hospitalized patients as clinically indicated.

Results: From May 2005- March 2010, 196 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia were confirmed in hospitalized patients. Of these, 57% had clinical pneumonia, 20% required mechanical ventilation, and 23% (n = 46) died. Antibiotic use before blood culture was confirmed in 25% of those with blood culture. Annual incidence of hospitalized pneumococcal bacteremia was 3.6 per 100,000 person-years; rates were higher among children aged <5 years at 11.7 and adults ≥65 years at 14.2, and highest among infants <1 year at 33.8. The median monthly case count was higher during December-March compared to the rest of the year 6.0 vs. 1.0 (p<0.001). The most common serotypes were 23F (16%) and 14 (14%); 61% (74% in patients <5 years) were serotypes in the 10-valent PCV (PCV 10) and 82% (92% in <5 years) in PCV 13. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, but non-susceptibility was high for co-trimoxazole (57%), erythromycin (30%), and clindamycin (20%).

Conclusions: We demonstrated a high pneumococcal bacteremia burden, yet underestimated incidence because we captured only hospitalized cases, and because pre-culture antibiotics were frequently used. Our findings together with prior research indicate that PCV would likely have high serotype coverage in Thailand. These findings will complement ongoing cost effectiveness analyses and support vaccine policy evaluation in Thailand and the region.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066038PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694083PMC
October 2017

Immune response in diarrheal patients and asymptomatic carrier with CS6-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2012 Nov;43(6):1452-60

Section of Bacterial Infections, Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections (RCC-ERI), Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of diarrhea in children and travelers in developing countries. ETEC colonization factors (CFs) are virulence determinants considered as protective antigens and major targets for vaccine development against ETEC infections. One of the most prevalent CFs, coli surface antigen 6 (CS6), a non-fimbrial polymeric protein consisting of two major subunits, CssA and CssB, is produced by approximately 25-35% of ETEC worldwide. We could isolate only CS6-producing ETEC strains from two diarrheal patients and one asymptomatic carrier, but we could not detect CssA- or CssB-specific antibodies in the feces and blood of two patients convalescing from natural ETEC infection and of an asymptomatic carrier using western blotting. Therefore, in order to protect against infection with CS6-producing ETEC, protective levels of CS6 immunity should be incorporated in any future vaccines against ETEC.
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November 2012

CRF01_AE-specific neutralizing activity observed in plasma derived from HIV-1-infected Thai patients residing in northern Thailand: comparison of neutralizing breadth and potency between plasma derived from rapid and slow progressors.

PLoS One 2013 7;8(1):e53920. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections (RCC-ERI), Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Development of a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an important subject in the field of medical sciences; however, it has not yet been achieved. Potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies are found in the plasma of some HIV-1-infected patients, whereas such antibody responses have failed to be induced by currently used vaccine antigens. In order to develop effective vaccine antigens, it is important to reveal the molecular mechanism of how strong humoral immune responses are induced in infected patients. As part of such studies, we examined the correlation between the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody response and disease progression.

Methodology/principal Findings: We evaluated the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing activity of plasma derived from 33 rapid and 34 slow progressors residing in northern Thailand. The level of neutralizing activity varied considerably among plasmas, and no statistically significant differences in the potency and breadth of neutralizing activities were observed overall between plasma derived from rapid and slow progressors; however, plasma of 4 slow progressors showed neutralizing activity against all target viruses, whereas none of the plasma of rapid progressors showed such neutralizing activity. In addition, 21% and 9% of plasmas derived from slow and rapid progressors inhibited the replication of more than 80% of CRF01_AE Env-recombinant viruses tested, respectively. Neutralization of subtype B and C Env-recombinant viruses by the selected plasma was also examined; however, these plasma samples inhibited the replication of only a few viruses tested.

Conclusions/significance: Although no statistically significant differences were observed in the potency and breadth of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing activities between plasma derived from rapid and slow progressors, several plasma samples derived from slow progressors neutralized CRF01_AE Env-recombinant viruses more frequently than those from rapid progressors. In addition, plasma derived from HIV-1-infected Thai patients showed CRF01_AE-specific neutralizing activity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0053920PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538751PMC
July 2013

Incidence and epidemiology of hospitalized influenza cases in rural Thailand during the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, 2009-2010.

PLoS One 2012 6;7(11):e48609. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

International Emerging Infections Program, Thailand Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) - U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Data on the burden of the 2009 influenza pandemic in Asia are limited. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was first reported in Thailand in May 2009. We assessed incidence and epidemiology of influenza-associated hospitalizations during 2009-2010.

Methods: We conducted active, population-based surveillance for hospitalized cases of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in all 20 hospitals in two rural provinces. ALRI patients were sampled 1∶2 for participation in an etiology study in which nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for influenza virus testing by PCR.

Results: Of 7,207 patients tested, 902 (12.5%) were influenza-positive, including 190 (7.8%) of 2,436 children aged <5 years; 86% were influenza A virus (46% A(H1N1)pdm09, 30% H3N2, 6.5% H1N1, 3.5% not subtyped) and 13% were influenza B virus. Cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 first peaked in August 2009 when 17% of tested patients were positive. Subsequent peaks during 2009 and 2010 represented a mix of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, H3N2, and influenza B viruses. The estimated annual incidence of hospitalized influenza cases was 136 per 100,000, highest in ages <5 years (477 per 100,000) and >75 years (407 per 100,000). The incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 62 per 100,000 (214 per 100,000 in children <5 years). Eleven influenza-infected patients required mechanical ventilation, and four patients died, all adults with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (1) or H3N2 (3).

Conclusions: Influenza-associated hospitalization rates in Thailand during 2009-10 were substantial and exceeded rates described in western countries. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominated, but H3N2 also caused notable morbidity. Expanded influenza vaccination coverage could have considerable public health impact, especially in young children.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048609PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3490866PMC
April 2013

Integrating genome-based informatics to modernize global disease monitoring, information sharing, and response.

Emerg Infect Dis 2012 Nov;18(11):e1

Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases of pathogen genomes that would ensure more efficient detection, prevention, and control of endemic, emerging, and other infectious disease outbreaks worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid/1811.120453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3559169PMC
November 2012

Neutralization titers against influenza A (H3N2) and influenza B viruses among a non-vaccinated population from Thailand.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2012 May;43(3):674-9

Medical Biotechnology Center, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Influenza A and B viruses are viral respiratory pathogens that can cause severe infections among birds and mammals. Neutralization assays using human sera are useful to evaluate the risk of circulating viruses to humans. In this study, 359 serum samples from healthy Thai volunteers, who had not been vaccinated against influenza for at least five years, were investigated by microneutralization (MN) assays against influenza A H3N2 and influenza B viruses in 2009. There was no significant difference in neutralization activities against 2006 and 2008 isolates of influenza A H3N2 viruses. However, neutralization titers to influenza B viruses among 2008 isolates were quite low. The results indicate the non-vaccinated study population had some neutralizing antibodies against influenza A H3N2 but not against influenza B viruses.
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May 2012

The serotype-independent but concentration-dependent enhancing antibodies among Thai dengue patients.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2012 May;43(3):624-33

Si Sa Ket Provincial Hospital, Office of Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Public Health, Si Sa Ket, Thailand.

Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) is central to explaining the development of severe disease at the end of post-dengue virus infection. Non-neutralizing anti-dengue antibodies bound to the dengue virion enhances the virus entrance into the target cells via the Fc receptor. The titer of enhancing antibodies in dengue patients is not determined during dengue virus infection. Sensitive flow cytometry detecting dengue virus-infected K562 cells was used to quantitate enhancing activity among Thai DF and DHF patients against four serotypes and the patient's dengue isolate. The titer was defined as the reciprocal of the final dilution that loses enhancing activity. The serum of Thai patients confirmed to have dengue infection were found to have high titers of enhancing antibodies and increased gradually through the convalescent phase of infection. The enhancing antibody titers were not different among the four serotypes or from the infecting isolate. The anti-dengue antibodies from dengue patients can enhance dengue virus infections in a concentration-dependent, serotype-independent manner.
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May 2012

The effect of HLA polymorphisms on the recognition of Gag epitopes in HIV-1 CRF01_AE infection.

PLoS One 2012 27;7(7):e41696. Epub 2012 Jul 27.

Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Introduction: The design of a globally effective vaccine rests on the identification of epitopes capable of eliciting effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses across multiple HIV clades in different populations. This study aims to discern the effect of HLA polymorphisms and the cross-clade reactivity or clade-specificity of epitopes in Thailand where HIV-1 CRF01_AE is circulating.

Materials And Methods: 14 peptides based on consensus HIV-1 CRF01_AE amino acid sequences were designed for use in IFN-γ ELISpot assays and (51)Cr release assays among 66 HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected Thai patients. For ELISpot responders carrying HLA alleles currently unknown to restrict CRF01_AE epitopes, in silico epitope-HLA prediction was performed.

Results: 29/66 (43.9%) patients recognized at least one peptide. In total 79 responses were seen against all 14 peptides. 28/79 (35.4%) of the responses were in patients with HLA alleles previously reported to restrict CRF01_AE epitopes, 24/79 (30.4%) responses were in individuals with HLA alleles previously reported to restrict epitopes of HIV clades other than CRF01_AE, and the remaining 27/79 (34.2%) responses were not associated with HLA alleles previously known to restrict HIV epitopes. In silico epitope prediction detected 19 novel, epitope-HLA combinations, and 11/19 (57.9%) were associated with HLA-C alleles. We further confirmed a novel HLA restriction of a previously identified HIV-1 Gag epitope [p24(122-130): PPIPVGDIY (PY9)] by HLA-B*40:01 with a standard (51)Cr release assay.

Discussion: CTL recognition sites in HIV-1 Gag were similar among different clades but the HLA restriction differed in Thai patients. This disparity in HLA restriction along different populations illustrated the importance of clade- and population-specific HLA analysis prior to CTL vaccine design.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0041696PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407236PMC
April 2013

Rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BACTEC MGIT960 cultures by in-house loop-medicated isothermal amplification.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2012 Jul;65(4):306-11

National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by conventional culture, followed by bacterial identification based on biochemical tests is time-consuming and tedious. Simple loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, targeting the M. tuberculosis 16S ribosomal RNA gene, termed TB-LAMP, was evaluated as an alternative for rapid culture confirmation. TB-LAMP was assessed for its ability to detect M. tuberculosis complex in BACTEC MGIT 960-positive cultures. Of the 103 cultures evaluated, 100 were identified to contain M. tuberculosis complex by TB-LAMP and had concordant results with standard biochemical tests of niacin accumulation, nitrate reductase, lack of heat-stable catalase, and susceptibility to para-nitrobenzoic acid. These results indicate that TB-LAMP in combination with BACTEC MGIT 960 is a specific, reliable, and technically feasible method for rapid and accurate identification of M. tuberculosis complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.65.306DOI Listing
July 2012

Lessons learned from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic response in Thailand.

Emerg Infect Dis 2012 Jul;18(7):1058-64

Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

In 2009, Thailand experienced rapid spread of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The national response came under intense public scrutiny as the number of confirmed cases and associated deaths increased. Thus, during July-December 2009, the Ministry of Public Health and the World Health Organization jointly reviewed the response efforts. The review found that the actions taken were largely appropriate and proportionate to need. However, areas needing improvement were surveillance, laboratory capacity, hospital infection control and surge capacity, coordination and monitoring of guidelines for clinical management and nonpharmaceutical interventions, risk communications, and addressing vulnerabilities of non-Thai displaced and migrant populations. The experience in Thailand may be applicable to other countries and settings, and the lessons learned may help strengthen responses to other pandemics or comparable prolonged public health emergencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.110976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376790PMC
July 2012

Genome-wide association studies of tuberculosis in Asians identify distinct at-risk locus for young tuberculosis.

J Hum Genet 2012 Jun 3;57(6):363-7. Epub 2012 May 3.

Medical Genetics Section, National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating chronic infectious diseases, but the role of host genetics in disease development after infection in this disease remains unidentified. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Thais and Japanese were carried out and separately analyzed, attempted replication, then, combined by meta-analysis were not yielding any convincing association evidences; these results suggested that moderate to high effect-size genetic risks are not existed for TB per se. Because of failure in replication attempt of the top 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified form meta-analysis data, we empirically split TB cases into young TB case/control data sets (GWAS-T(young)=137/295 and GWAS-J(young)=60/249) and old TB case/control data sets (GWAS-T(old)=300/295 and GWAS-J(old)=123/685), re-analyzed GWAS based on age-stratified data and replicated the significant findings in two independent replication samples (young TB; Rep-T(young)=155/249, Rep-J(young)=41/462 and old TB; Rep-T(old)=212/187, Rep-J(old)=71/619). GWAS and replication studies conducted in young TB identified at-risk locus in 20q12. Although the locus is located in inter-genic region, the nearest genes (HSPEP1-MAFB) from this locus are promising candidates for TB susceptibility. This locus was also associated with anti-TNF responsiveness, drug with increased susceptibility for TB. Moreover, eight SNPs in an old TB meta-analysis and six SNPs in young TB meta-analysis provided replication evidences but did not survive genome-wide significance.These findings suggest that host genetic risks for TB are affected by age at onset of TB, and this approach may accelerate the identification of the major host factors that affect TB in human populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2012.35DOI Listing
June 2012