Publications by authors named "Pastorelli Marcello"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Polidistrectual videocapillaroscopic evaluation in a patient with prolidase deficiency.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2020 Nov-Dec;38(6):1265-1266. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Italy.

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February 2021

Unusual solution to abdominal pain with contrast enhanced ultrasound.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Nov 4;12(11). Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Splenic infarction might be the symptom onset of an important underlying disease. The possibility of splenic infarction must be inserted into differential diagnosis in all those patients who have pain in the upper left quadrant and/or on the left flank. When faced with a case of splenic infarction in a patient who has flown or climbed to high altitudes, it is appropriate to consider the possibility of an haemoglobinopathy. The diagnosis is far from being obvious for emergency physicians. For these reasons, it is very important to proceed as a multidisciplinary team with appropriate diagnostic examinations. The European Guidelines for non-hepatic applications of contrast enhanced ultrasound suggest the usage of this tool for investigation of suspected ischaemic lesions of the spleen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-230579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855849PMC
November 2019

Which method is best for an early accurate diagnosis of acute heart failure? Comparison between lung ultrasound, chest X-ray and NT pro-BNP performance: a prospective study.

Intern Emerg Med 2017 Sep 11;12(6):861-869. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Emergency Department, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Acute heart failure is a common condition among adults presenting with dyspnea in the Emergency Department (ED), still the diagnosis is challenging as objective standardized criteria are lacking. First line work-up, other then clinical findings, is nowadays made with lung ultrasound imaging study, chest X-ray study and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level determination; however, it is not clear which is the best diagnostic test to be used and whether there is any real benefit for clinical judgement. We set up this study to compare the performances of these three diagnostic tools; furthermore, we combined them to find the best possible approach to dyspneic patients. This is a prospective observational study based in the ED. We enrolled adults presenting with dyspnea not trauma-related, they underwent lung ultrasound, and chest X-ray studies, and NT pro-BNP level determination. Then we compared the results with the diagnosis of acute heart failure established by an independent panel of experts. 236 patients were enrolled in the study. We find sensitivity and specificity for lung ultrasound of 57.73 and 87.97 %, for chest X-ray 74.49 and 86.26 %, for NT pro-BNP 97.59 and 27.56 %, respectively. Combining together the chest X-ray and lung ultrasound, we find the best overall performance with 84.69 % sensitivity, 77.69 % specificity and 87.07 % negative predictive value. From our results, we could not identify the "best test" to diagnose acute heart failure in an emergency setting, although we could suggest that a stepwise workup combining chest X-ray and lung ultrasound at first, then for those negative, a determination of NT pro-BNP assay would be a reasonable approach to the dyspneic patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-016-1498-3DOI Listing
September 2017

Duplex ultrasound in the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: a longitudinal cohort multicentric study.

Eur J Emerg Med 2017 Dec;24(6):e21-e26

aEmergency Department, Whipps Cross University Hospital bEmergency Department, Queen Mary University London, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK cEmergency Medicine Department dEmergency Department, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Objective: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a life-threatening condition requiring time-dependent treatment; thus, early recognition may improve outcomes. We hypothesized that clinician-performed mesenteric vessels duplex ultrasound (DUS) could facilitate early identification of patients with AMI in high-risk patients presenting with abdominal pain.

Methods: This was a single-operator, observational, prospective cohort study. Patients aged at least 65 presenting to Emergency Departments with acute abdominal pain and no clear diagnosis after an initial work-up were enrolled. All patients underwent multidetector computed tomography and these findings provided the reference standard in this study. DUS of the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were obtained to measure the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and were performed within 24 h of admission. PSVs outside the normal range were considered to indicate AMI.

Results: Of 49 patients identified, 47 were consented to enrollment and diagnostic images were obtained in 45 (96%). Fifteen patients (33%) had AMI (six occlusive, nine nonocclusive disease). Among these, 12 (80%) had abnormal DUS velocities. SMA PSV showed a sensitivity of 78.57% [95% confidence interval (CI): 49.2-95.34], a specificity of 64.52% (95% CI: 45.37-80.77), a positive predictive value of 50% (95% CI: 28.22-71.78), and a negative predictive value of 86.96% (95% CI: 66.41-97.22) for AMI. DUS had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 64%, and a negative predictive value of 100% for occlusive AMI. Assessment of celiac artery PSV did not improve diagnostic performance.

Conclusion: In this single-operator pilot study, mesenteric vessel DUS was performed successfully in the Emergency Department, with a high proportion of diagnostic images obtained. A normal SMA PSV was associated with a low risk of occlusive AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000378DOI Listing
December 2017

An alarming deterioration of neurological status.

Intern Emerg Med 2014 Sep 23;9(6):661-4. Epub 2014 May 23.

Emergency Medicine Specialty School, Emergency Department, "Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese", Viale Mario Bracci 16, Siena, Italy,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-014-1084-5DOI Listing
September 2014

Pro/Anti-inflammatory cytokine imbalance in postischemic left ventricular remodeling.

Mediators Inflamm 2010 9;2010:974694. Epub 2010 May 9.

Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunology, University of Siena, V. le Bracci, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Objectives: Cytokines play an important role in left ventricular remodeling consequent to myocardial ischemia. The aim of this study was to correlate cytokine production and lymphocyte apoptosis to post-ischemic left ventricular remodeling in patients affected by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary cutaneous angioplasty (PCI).

Methods: In 40 patients, affected by AMI and undergoing PCI, we evaluated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL10) production and apoptosis on day 1, day 3, day 7, 1 month and 6 months after PCI. Patients were divided into two subgroups of remodeling or not remodeling by echocardiographic criteria.

Results: In the subgroup of remodeling patients, at each timepoint TNF-alpha production was increased significantly in comparison with the subgroup of not remodeling patients. IL10 production was statistically lower in remodeling subjects than in not remodeling ones 1 and 6 months after reperfusion. There were no differences between the two groups as regards lymphomonocyte apoptosis.

Conclusions: We found an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and a corresponding decrease of anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokine IL10 in remodeling patients and we concluded that this cytokine imbalance resulted in pro-inflammatory effects which might contribute to the progression of left ventricular remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/974694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866240PMC
August 2010

Cardiac dysautonomia and arterial distensibility in essential hypertensives.

Auton Neurosci 2009 Mar 1;146(1-2):102-5. Epub 2009 Jan 1.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Section of Internal Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Introduction: The central nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure: the sympathetic nervous system may be a primary contributor to the development of some forms of essential hypertension. Hypertension is also associated with reduced distensibility of large arteries. The aim of our study is the evaluation of a correlation between cardiac dysautonomia (evaluated by means of heart rate variability [HRV]) and altered artery distensibility (evaluated by means of measurement of the time interval from the onset of the QRS wave and the detection of the last Korotkoff sound [QKD interval]).

Materials And Methods: HRV and QKD interval were evaluated in 23 patients (60.9+/-8.7 years) with untreated hypertension and in 20 control subjects (53.2+/-16.8 years). QKD interval and QKD(100-60) (that is QKD for a 100 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and 60 bpm heart rate) were measured during a 24-hours blood pressure monitoring. HRV was evaluated by means of a spectral method. Three main spectral components were distinguished: very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) component.

Results: Patients with reduced QKD(100-60) interval show reduced total power and spectral components values, with higher LF/HF ratio in basal conditions in comparison with control group. In patients with hypertension, QKD(100-60) values correlated significantly with LF/HF ratio (Spearman r=-0.551; p=0.006), HF spectral component (Spearman r=0.630; p=0.001) and total power (Spearman r=0.426; p=0.004).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that sympathetic overactivity may be the contributor of reduced arterial distensibility observed in patients with essential hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2008.11.009DOI Listing
March 2009

Brain natriuretic peptide and other risk markers for outcome assessment in patients with non-ST-elevation coronary syndromes and preserved systolic function.

Am J Cardiol 2006 Nov 28;98(10):1322-8. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Department of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Section of Cardiology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Several emerging cardiac markers constitute strong predictors among patients with coronary artery disease. In particular, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), troponin T (TnT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are related to increased risk of recurrent ischemic events and death. However, little is known about the utility of these biomarkers in combination. This study examined risk assessment in patients with coronary artery disease and preserved systolic function. We studied 208 consecutive patients (138 men, 70 women) with stable angina, unstable angina, and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction whose plasma BNP, TnT, and CRP levels were measured at hospital admission. All recruited patients underwent echocardiographic examination, and selective coronary angiography was performed. After adjusting for clinical presentation, age, gender, and common risk factors, BNP was demonstrated as a strong predictor of heart failure (6 months, odds ratio [OR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 2.9, p <0.01; 12 months, OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.5, p <0.001) and mortality at 3, 6, and 12 months (p <0.001). BNP was also significantly related to extent of coronary artery disease and left anterior descending artery involvement (p <0.01). Patients with a BNP level >80 pg/ml in all 3 groups had a significantly poorer prognosis with increased incidence of heart failure and death. CRP was related to recurrent ischemic events (infarct or recurrent angina, OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.08, p <0.01) and was associated with major cardiac revascularization at 12 months (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.73, p <0.001). TnT demonstrated a mild correlation with recurrent infarct or angina at 12 months (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.22, p <0.05) but appeared related to multivessel coronary artery disease (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.99, p <0.01). In conclusion, BNP appears to be associated with a long-term increased risk of mortality and heart failure in patients with apparently mild risk. BNP is also associated with a larger extent and greater severity of myocardial ischemia. Early BNP measurement could provide incremental information to TnT and CRP, and it may be the strongest independent predictor of cardiac outcome in subjects without left ventricular dysfunction or enlargement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.06.023DOI Listing
November 2006

3'UTR/T polymorphism of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is associated with modified anti-platelet activity of atorvastatin in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Atherosclerosis 2005 Dec 22;183(2):322-8. Epub 2005 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Internal Medicine Division, Center for Atherosclerosis Research, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Oxidized-low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) and the specific receptor LOX-1 are involved in atherogenesis and atherothrombosis. LOX-1 downregulation is associated with the anti-platelet action of atorvastatin. 3'UTR/T LOX-1 polymorphism has been associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. This study was planned to determine whether LOX-1 genetic variations could affect anti-platelet action of atorvastatin. We studied by platelet P-selectin (P-sel), CD36 and LOX-1 expression (cytofluorimetric detection) whether differences in cellular activation could be suitable in 109 3'UTR/T carriers out of 201 hypercholesterolemic subjects treated with atorvastatin 20mg/day. Hyperactivated platelets (P-sel in resting cells and % variation upon thrombin activation, p<0.001) were detected at baseline in patients without significant differences between T or C carriers. P-sel and platelet-associated ox-LDL, were significantly decreased (all p<0.001) in C carriers after one week of treatment before LDL reduction. In 3'UTR/T carriers P-sel was reduced (p<0.01) after 6 weeks of treatment according to LDL and ox-LDL reduction. In 3'UTR/T carriers atorvastatin reduced platelet activity by LDL and ox-LDL lowering and not by rapid CD36 and LOX-1 downregulation as in C carriers. Such data suggest that in T carriers LDL lowering is needed to achieve anti-platelet action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.03.012DOI Listing
December 2005

Different effect of statins on platelet oxidized-LDL receptor (CD36 and LOX-1) expression in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2005 Oct;11(4):417-28

Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Internal Medicine Division, Center for Atherosclerosis Research, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce cardiovascular mortality by decreasing cholesterol as well as by non-lipid-related actions. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) are pro-atherogenic molecules and potent platelet agonists. CD36 and lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) are specific ox-LDL receptors also expressed in platelets. This study was planned to address whether treatment with atorvastatin 10 mg/day, pravastatin 40 mg/day or simvastatin 20 mg/day could affect platelet CD36 and LOX-1 expression. Twenty-four patients for each treatment were evaluated after 3, 6, and 9 days and at 6 weeks for complete lipid profile (chromogenic), ox-LDL (ELISA), platelet P-selectin (P-sel), CD36, LOX-1 (FACS), and intracellular citrullin recovery (iCit) (HPLC). Data show hyperactivated platelets (P-sel absolute values, percent variation in activated cells, all p < 0.001), and CD36 and LOX-1 overexpression (all p < 0.001) in patients at baseline. P-sel, CD36, and LOX-1 were significantly decreased by atorvastatin and simvastatin (all p < 0.01) and related with iCit increase (r = 0.58, p < 0.001) and platelet-associated ox-LDL (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) at 9 days. Pravastatin reduced LOX-1 and P-sel (p < 0.05) at 6 weeks in relation with decreased LDL and ox-LDL (r = 0.39, p < 0.01 and r = 0.37, p < 0.01, respectively). These data suggest that atorvastatin and simvastatin reduce platelet activity by exposure of CD36 and LOX-1 before significant LDL reduction, whereas pravastatin action is detected later and in relation with LDL and ox-LDL lowering. Rapid and consistent reduction of CD36 and LOX-1 could be considered a direct anti-atherothrombotic mechanism related to the role of ox-LDL in platelet activation, platelet-endothelium interactions, and NO synthase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107602960501100408DOI Listing
October 2005

[Lymphocyte apoptosis in non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction ].

Ann Ital Med Int 2003 Jul-Sep;18(3):154-61

Sezione di Semeiotica Medica, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Scienze Immunologiche, Università degli Studi di Siena.

It is well known that lymphocytes play a major role in coronary plaque destabilization in acute coronary syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating lymphocyte apoptosis in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in comparison with subjects with stable angina and with healthy controls. We considered spontaneous lymphomonocyte apoptosis (evaluated by ELISA), interleukin (IL)-2 production (evaluated by ELISA), Fas expression on T cells (evaluated by flow cytometry) and Fas ligand mRNA (evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction), as well as Fas functionality. To evaluate T-cell activation, we also investigated T-cell subpopulations (CD4/CD8 ratio), T-cell surface HLA-DR and CD69 expression (evaluated by flow cytometry) in blood taken within 6 hours from onset of NSTEMI. Spontaneous apoptosis was significantly increased in NSTEMI patients in comparison with the two control groups and it was associated with an increased expression of Fas, an increased susceptibility to the Fas agonist (CH-11) and a normal production of IL-2 in cell cultures. We also found a significant increase of HLA-DR+ CD3+ and CD69+ CD4+ cells in NSTEMI patients. These data suggest that the enhanced apoptosis is due to a mechanism of "active" antigen-driven death, induced by the expression of death cytokines and not by the failure of cell growth factors. We conclude that in case of NSTEMI peripheral lymphocytes are activated and undergo an enhanced programmed cell death due to activation mechanisms. It is likely that lymphocyte activation occurs before the onset of acute ischemia and contributes to the plaque rupture and to the myocardial ischemic insult.
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January 2004

Platelet hyperactivity after statin treatment discontinuation.

Thromb Haemost 2003 Sep;90(3):476-82

Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Internal Medicine Division, Policlinico Le Scotte, V. le Bracci, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce cardiovascular events by cholesterol lowering as well as by non-lipid related actions. Among them, the modulation of platelet activity could play a relevant role in vascular protection. Furthermore withdrawal of statins has been associated with increased cardiovascular event rate. The aim of our study was to evaluate platelet activity after cerivastatin discontinuation in eighteen subjects that did not accept other drugs and in sixteen subjects continuing treatment with simvastatin. Fourteen subjects at the end of the discontinuation period decided to receive other drugs (simvastatin) and they were evaluted six weeks later. We measured complete lipid profile by the chromogenic method (LDL-C was calculated); oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL; ELISA), platelet P-selectin (P-sel) expression (flow cytometry detection), platelet aggregation (% change of transmitted light), intracellular citrullin production (iCit; HPLC) as an indicator of intracellular NO synthase activity at baseline and 7, 14, 28, 60 days after statin discontinuation. P-sel expression and platelet aggregation were increased at 14 days (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) in association with raised ox-LDL (r = 0.30, p < 0.05) and decreased iCit (r = 0.53, p < 0.01). Increased LDL-C was related to P-sel and platelet aggregation at 28 days (r = 0.30, p < 0.05). Subjects continuing statin treatment had no significant changes of P-sel at 28 (p = 0.221) and 60 days (p = 0.238). Subjects treated with simvastatin after 60 days of diet showed a significant reduction of P-sel and platelet aggregation after six weeks of treatment (p < 0.01). Our data suggest a platelet hyperactivation state in the second week after statin discontinuation which is partially related to raised LDL-C. Such a finding could participate in the increased cardiovascular event rate after statin discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH03-02-0111DOI Listing
September 2003

Dyslipidemias and fibrinolysis.

Ital Heart J 2002 Oct;3(10):579-86

Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Section of Medical Semeiotics, Center for Metabolic Diseases and Atherosclerosis, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Background: The relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular disease is an open debate. Fibrinolysis is related to endothelial function and presents many molecular links with platelet and coagulation activity. Furthermore, reduced fibrinolysis has been reported in several dysmetabolic conditions.

Methods: To detect mechanisms linking dyslipidemias and fibrinolysis we evaluated 75 subjects (42 males, 33 females, 20 hypercholesterolemic, 20 hypertriglyceridemic or 20 with mixed hyperlipoproteinemia, 15 with isolated low HDL-cholesterol). Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator activity and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were determined at baseline and after the venous occlusion test. We also measured D-dimer, lipid pattern, soluble E-selectin, platelet surface P-selectin, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), lipoprotein(a), factor VII, von Willebrand factor, plasma insulin, fibrinogen, homocysteine, thrombin activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) activity, thrombomodulin, factor XIII, urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

Results: Hypertriglyceridemic patients were found to have lower PAP and D-dimer and higher PAI-1 serum levels (baseline and venous occlusion test, p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) compared to hypercholesterolemic and control subjects (p < 0.01, p < 0.001). P-selectin, F1 + 2 and TAFI were significantly increased only in hypercholesterolemic subjects (p < 0.001) and associated with reduced PAP and D-dimer, showing a linear relation with LDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.01, r = -0.62 and p < 0.01, r = -0.59). PAI-1 activity was not different with respect to controls (baseline p = 0.59, venous occlusion test p = 0.42). Serum levels of von Willebrand factor were significantly increased in hypertriglyceridemic/low HDL subjects compared to hypercholesterolemics (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Impaired fibrinolysis in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia/low HDL-cholesterol is associated with increased serum levels of PAI-1 whereas enhanced thrombin generation and TAFI hyperactivity are the main findings in hypercholesterolemia. Such data may suggest the opportunity of evaluating several fibrinolytic factors when studied as prognostic factors in diverse dyslipidemias.
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October 2002

Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow study in elite male runners and young adults.

Int J Cardiol 2002 Jul;84(1):47-51

Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Siena, Viale Bracci, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Background: Even if diastolic function has been assessed in athletes by analysis of transmitral Doppler flow, no one has studied pulmonary venous flow in this population. The aim of this study was to establish if the physiological adaptations following a prolonged physical training could influence the diastolic function in a professional Olympic male runner group.

Methods: From February to December 1999 we studied 25 athletes (Group I) during the period of maximal training compared with 18 age- and sex-matched healthy sedentary subjects (Group II). We used mono- and bidimensional Echocardiography to assess left ventricular structure and systolic function. The diastolic function was evaluated by Doppler method assessing transmitral and venous pulmonary flow.

Results: From the comparison between the two groups, we found great differences in the interventricular septum and the posterior wall thickness; the analysis of the systolic function demonstrated a significant increase in ejection fraction, stroke volume, left ventricular mass, and end diastolic volume in the athletes' population. Fluximetric study showed that ventricular diastolic function is not influenced by hypertrophy: indeed, Doppler evaluation of the transmitral flow showed a bigger velocity of the E wave, similarly, when we assessed pulmonary venous flow, we found faster retrograde Ar wave in group I.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that diastolic function remains normal or improves in some cases after physical training; left ventricular hypertrophy and concentric remodeling do not involve diastolic changes like hypertrophic and hypertensive heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0167-5273(02)00117-1DOI Listing
July 2002