Publications by authors named "Pasqualina Buono"

37 Publications

Nutritional Controlled Preparation and Administration of Different Tomato Purées Indicate Increase of β-Carotene and Lycopene Isoforms, and of Antioxidant Potential in Human Blood Bioavailability: A Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 17;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate, Via G. Salvatore, 486, 80145 Naples, Italy.

The isoforms of lycopene, carotenoids, and their derivatives including precursors of vitamin A are compounds relevant for preventing chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tomatoes are a major source of these compounds. However, cooking and successive metabolic processes determine the bioavailability of tomatoes in human nutrition. To evaluate the effect of acute/chronic cooking procedures on the bioavailability of lycopene and carotene isoforms in human plasma, we measured the blood levels of these compounds and of the serum antioxidant potential in volunteers after a meal containing two different types of tomato sauce ( or ). Using a randomized cross-over administration design, healthy volunteers were studied, and the above indicated compounds were determined by HPLC. The results indicate an increased bioavailability of the estimated compounds and of the serum antioxidant potential with both types of tomato purée and the subsequently derived sauces (the increase was greater with purée). This study sheds light on the content of nutrient precursors of vitamin A and other antioxidant compounds derived from tomatoes cooked with different strategies. Lastly, our study indicates that strained purée should be preferred over rustic purée.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073136PMC
April 2021

The Effects of Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training on Body Fat Percentage, Abdominal Circumference, BMI and VO in Overweight Subjects.

J Funct Morphol Kinesiol 2020 Jun 10;5(2). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie e del Benessere, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, 80133 Naples, Italy.

We aimed to compare the effects of a personalized short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. standard moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, BMI and maximal oxygen uptake (VO) in overweight volunteers. Twenty overweight sedentary volunteers (24.9 ± 2.9y; BMI: 26.1 ± 1 kgm) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, HIIT or MICT. HIIT trained 6 weeks (3-days/week), 40-min sessions as follows: 6-min warm-up, 20-min resistance training (RT) at 70% 1-RM, 8-min HIIT up to 90% of the predicted Maximal Heart Rate (HR), 6-min cool-down. MICT trained 6 weeks (3-days/week) 60-min sessions as follows: 6-min warm-up, 20-min RT at 70% 1-RM, 30-min MICT at 60-70% of the predicted HR, 4-min cool-down. Two-way ANOVA was performed in order to compare the efficacy of HIIT and MICT protocols, and no significant interaction between training x time was evidenced ( > 0.05), indicating similar effects of both protocols on all parameters analyzed. Interestingly, the comparison of Δ mean percentage revealed an improvement in VO ( = 0.05) together with a positive trend in the reduction of fat mass percentage ( = 0.06) in HIIT compared to MICT protocol. In conclusion, 6 weeks of personalized HIIT, with reduced training time (40 vs. 60 min)/session and volume of training/week, improved VO and reduced fat mass percentage more effectively compared to MICT. These positive results encourage us to test this training in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739244PMC
June 2020

Case Report: Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Regulate Adiponectin Expression and Disease Severity in Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Study.

Front Neurosci 2020 22;14:567302. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Caserta, Italy.

Adapted exercise is an effective non-pharmacological tool to improve functional, cognitive, and psychological parameters in multiple sclerosis (MS), in association with increased quality of life (QoL) and decreased disease severity. Adipose tissue, through the production of different adipokines, is involved in regulating energy metabolism and inflammation. Adiponectin, increased in MS, circulates as oligomers of low (LMW), medium (MMW), and high molecular weight (HMW), the latter mediating the main biological effects. The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of 4 months training at moderate intensity [65% heart rate reserve (HRR)] on BMI, adiponectin, and QoL in a volunteer with secondary progressive MS. The parameters were evaluated before (T0), after 4 months training (T1), and 6 months after the end of training (T2); total serum adiponectin and its oligomeric profile were evaluated. We found a reduction in BMI (-0.9%) and FAT (-2.6%), an improvement in perceived QoL and a reduced expression of total adiponectin and HMW oligomers together with decreased MS disability level at T1 measured by EDSS. Despite the limitations of a case study, this represent a starting point to understand the influence of exercise in MS and the relationship with adiponectin expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.567302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783198PMC
December 2020

Dissecting the molecular pathways involved in the effects of physical activity on breast cancers cells: A narrative review.

Life Sci 2021 Jan 18;265:118790. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

IRCCS SDN, Via Emanuele Gianturco 113, 80143 Naples, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie e del Benessere, Università "Parthenope", Via Medina 40, 80133 Naples, Italy; CEINGE - Biotecnologie Avanzate S.c.a.r.l., Via Gaetano Salvatore 486, 80145 Naples, Italy.

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that obesity and sedentary are modifiable factors strongly associated with breast cancer risk worldwide. Since breast cancer represents the most frequent malignant neoplasm and the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, an insight into the molecular mechanisms clarifying the effects of physical activity in breast cancer cells could have important implication for changing this cancer burden. In this narrative Review article, we summarize the current knowledge, regarding the effects of adapted physical activity program, focusing on the cellular signaling pathways activated and on the molecular markers involved in breast cancer. Regular exercise training in breast cancer patients has been shown to positively affect tumor-growth and survival rate. Indeed, emerging work demonstrates that regular exercise is able to affect multiple cancer hallmarks influencing the development and progression of cancer. In conclusion, changes in the circulating insulin, adipokines and estrogen levels, inflammation and oxidative stress could represent some of the possible biological mechanisms through which exercise may influence breast cancer development and recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118790DOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular mechanisms involved in the positive effects of physical activity on coping with COVID-19.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2020 Dec 3;120(12):2569-2582. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via A. Vivaldi, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

Purpose: Physical activity (PA) represents the first line of defence against diseases characterised by increased inflammation status, such as metabolic and infectious diseases. Conversely, a sedentary lifestyle-associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders-negatively impacts on general health status, including susceptibility to infections. At a time of a pandemic SARS-CoV2 infection, and in the context of the multiorgan crosstalk (widely accepted as a mechanism participating in the pathophysiology of all organs and systems), we examine the complex interplay mediated by skeletal muscle contraction involving the immune system and how this contributes to control health status and to counteract viral infections. In so doing, we review the molecular mechanisms and expression of molecules modulated by PA, able to provide the proper molecular equipment against viral infections such as the current SARS-CoV2.

Methods: A critical review of the literature was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and mediators induced by PA that potentially impact on viral infections such as SARS-CoV2.

Results: We showed the effects mediated by regular moderate PA on viral adverse effects through the regulation of biological processes involving the crosstalk between skeletal muscle, the immune system and adipose tissue. Evidence was provided of the effects mediated by modulation of the expression of inflammation markers.

Conclusion: A tigth association between PA and reduction in inflammation status allows effective counteracting of SARS-CoV2 infection. It is therefore essential to persuade people to keep active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04484-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471545PMC
December 2020

Gym Members Show Lower Nutrition Knowledge than Youth Engaged in Competitive Sports.

J Am Coll Nutr 2020 Aug 6:1-7. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Movement Sciences and Wellbeing, University of Naples "Parthenope", Naples, Italy.

Objective: Adolescents may be vulnerable to misleading nutritional information and adopt unhealthy food habits. In addition, specific features related to physical training, either aimed to improve fitness or to comply with sport demands, may influence food habits of the youth. This cross-sectional study was aimed to compare nutrition knowledge, food habits and adherence to Mediterranean diet in youth engaged in fitness training, competitive sports or inactive.

Methods: Three questionnaires, the General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge (GeSNK) questionnaire, a food habit questionnaire and the KIDMED were administered to gym members, athletes engaged in volleyball, long-distance swimming, and gymnastics, and inactive adolescents.

Results: The total sample included 211 youth (age 16.8 ± 1.7 years). Gym members, like the inactive youth, had lower general and sport-related nutrition knowledge compared to athletes ( 0.001). In the whole sample, general nutrition knowledge was positively associated with healthy food habits ( 0.01) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern ( 0.02).

Conclusions: Gym members had a level of nutrition knowledge lower than young athletes and similar to inactive youth. Healthy food habits were related with nutrition knowledge among adolescents. Specific nutritional education programs are needed to address food habits in fitness settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2020.1792375DOI Listing
August 2020

Yield and clinical significance of genetic screening in elite and amateur athletes.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Jul 2:2047487320934265. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

CEINGE - Biotecnologie Avanzate, Italy.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of genetic testing in addition to a comprehensive clinical evaluation, as part of the diagnostic work-up of elite and/or amateur Italian athletes referred for suspicion of inherited cardiac disease, following a pre-participation screening programme.

Methods: Between January 2009-December 2018, of 5892 consecutive participants, 61 athletes were investigated: 30 elite and 31 amateur athletes. Elite and amateur athletes were selected, on the basis of clinical suspicion for inherited cardiac disease, from two experienced centres for a comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation. Furthermore, the elite and amateur athletes were investigated for variants at DNA level up to 138 genes suspected to bear predisposition for possible cardiac arrest or even sudden cardiac death.

Results: Of these 61 selected subjects, six (10%) had diagnosis made possible by a deeper clinical evaluation, while genetic testing allowed a definite diagnosis in eight (13%). The presence of 3 clinical markers (i.e. family history, electrocardiogram and/or echocardiographic abnormalities, exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias) was associated with a higher probability of positive genetic diagnosis (75%), compared with the presence of two or one clinical markers (14.2%, 8.1%, respectively, -value = 0.004).

Conclusion: A combined clinical and genetic evaluation, based on the subtle evidence of clinical markers for inherited disease, was able to identify an inherited cardiac disease in about one-quarter of the examined athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320934265DOI Listing
July 2020

Adapted recreational football small-sided games improve cardiac capacity, body composition and muscular fitness in patients with type 2 diabetes.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Sep 12;60(9):1261-1268. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Human Movement Sciences and Wellbeing, Parthenope University, Naples, Italy -

Background: The usefulness of adapted small-sided games (SSGs) in improving cardiac function in subjects with T2DM is still debated. Here we evaluated the effects of 18 weeks indoor muscular activation training (6 weeks; IMA) followed by adapted SSGs football training (12 weeks) on cardiac function, muscular fitness, body composition and adiponectin expression in sedentary T2DM volunteers.

Methods: Six T2DM patients underwent IMA protocol of 6 weeks, twice a week followed by 12 weeks SSGs (5-a-side, once a week) training. Glucose, lipid profile and serum homocysteine concentration, body composition (BC), bone mineral density (DEXA), were determined at baseline and after 18 weeks (IMA+SSGs). VO2max and muscular fitness were recorded at baseline and after IMA (6 weeks) and SSGs (12 weeks), respectively.

Results: No significant differences were found for VO2max and muscular fitness after 6weeks of IMA. After 18 weeks (6 weeks IMA + 12 weeks SSGs) of training, significant improvements were found in the following parameters: work capacity, VO2peak, Ventilation (VEpeak), breathing reserve consumption and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (P<0.05); leg fitness (P<0.05), BC (P<0.05), vertebral column T-score (P<0.01) and adiponectin (total and high-molecular-weight; P<0.05). Compared to baseline, a reduction in serum homocysteine occurred after 18 weeks of training (P<0.05).

Conclusions: We evidenced that weekly adapted SSGs friendly football matches for 12 weeks improve cardiorespiratory capacity and the expression of independent markers associated with cardiovascular risk in T2DM patients, suggesting an overall reduced CVD-risk in these patients. These preliminary data encourage us to test the efficacy of this type of exercise in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10498-5DOI Listing
September 2020

The Important Role of Adiponectin and Orexin-A, Two Key Proteins Improving Healthy Status: Focus on Physical Activity.

Front Physiol 2020 22;11:356. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Exercise represents the most important integrative therapy in metabolic, immunologic and chronic diseases; it represents a valid strategy in the non-pharmacological intervention of lifestyle linked diseases. A large body of evidence indicates physical exercise as an effective measure against chronic non-communicable diseases. The worldwide general evidence for health benefits are both for all ages and skill levels. In a dysregulated lifestyle such as in the obesity, there is an imbalance in the production of different cytokines. In particular, we focused on Adiponectin, an adipokine producted by adipose tissue, and on Orexin-A, a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus. The production of both Adiponectin and Orexin-A increases following regular and structured physical activity and both these hormones have similar actions. Indeed, they improve energy and glucose metabolism, and also modulate energy expenditure and thermogenesis. In addition, a relevant biological role of Adiponectin and Orexin A has been recently highlighted in the immune system, where they function as immune-suppressor factors. The strong connection between these two cytokines and healthy status is mediated by physical activity and candidates these hormones as potential biomarkers of the beneficial effects induced by physical activity. For these reasons, this review aims to underly the interconnections among Adiponectin, Orexin-A, physical activity and healthy status. Furthermore, it is analyzed the involvement of Adiponectin and Orexin-A in physical activity as physiological factors improving healthy status through physical exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188914PMC
April 2020

Long-Term Recreational Football Training and Health in Aging.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 21;17(6). Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Department of Movement Sciences and Wellbeing, Università Parthenope, 80133 Naples, Italy.

This narrative review aims to critically analyze the effects of exercise on health in aging. Here we discuss the main clinical and biomolecular modifications induced by long-term recreational football training in older subjects. In particular, the effects induced by long-term recreational football training on cardiovascular, metabolic and musculo-skeletal fitness, together with the modifications in the muscle expression of hallmarks related to oxidative metabolism, DNA repair and senescence suppression pathways and protein quality control mechanisms will be provided. All these topics will be debated also in terms of preventing non-communicable metabolic diseases, in order to achieve successful aging over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143141PMC
March 2020

Lifelong Football Training: Effects on Autophagy and Healthy Longevity Promotion.

Front Physiol 2019 19;10:132. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie e del Benessere, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy.

Aging is a physiological process characterized by a progressive decline of biological functions and an increase in destructive processes in cells and organs. Physical activity and exercise positively affects the expression of skeletal muscle markers involved in longevity pathways. Recently, a new mechanism, autophagy, was introduced to the adaptations induced by acute and chronic exercise as responsible of positive metabolic modification and health-longevity promotion. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating autophagy in response to physical activity and exercise are sparsely described. We investigated the long-term adaptations resulting from lifelong recreational football training on the expression of skeletal muscle markers involved in autophagy signaling. We demonstrated that lifelong football training increased the expression of messengers: RAD23A, HSPB6, RAB1B, TRAP1, SIRT2, and HSBPB1, involved in the auto-lysosomal and proteasome-mediated protein degradation machinery; of RPL1, RPL4, RPL36, MRLP37, involved in cellular growth and differentiation processes; of the Bcl-2, HSP70, HSP90, PSMD13, and of the ATG5-ATG12 protein complex, involved in proteasome promotion and autophagy processes in muscle samples from lifelong trained subjects compared to age-matched untrained controls. In conclusion, our results indicated that lifelong football training positively influence exercise-induced autophagy processes and protein quality control in skeletal muscle, thus promoting healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390296PMC
February 2019

A multi-gene panel beyond BRCA1/BRCA2 to identify new breast cancer-predisposing mutations by a picodroplet PCR followed by a next-generation sequencing strategy: a pilot study.

Anal Chim Acta 2019 Jan 18;1046:154-162. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate, via Gaetano Salvatore 486, 80145, Naples, Italy; Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

By analyzing multiple gene panels, next-generation sequencing is more effective than conventional procedures in identifying disease-related mutations that are useful for clinical decision-making. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of an 84 genes customized-panel in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative patients. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. DNA libraries were prepared using a picodroplet PCR-based approach and sequenced with the MiSeq System. Highly putative pathogenic mutations were identified in genes other than the commonly tested BRCA1/2: 2 pathogenic mutations one in TP53 and one in MUTYH; 2 missense variants in MSH6 and ATM, respectively; 2 frameshift variants in KLLN, and ATAD2, respectively; an intronic variant in ANPEP, and 3 not functionally known variants (a frameshift variant in ATM a nonsense variant in ATM and a missense variant in NFE2L2). Our results show that this molecular screening will increase diagnostic sensitivity leading to a better risk assessment in breast cancer patients and their families. This strategy could also reveal genes that have a higher penetrance for breast and ovarian cancers by matching gene mutation with familial and clinical data, thereby increasing information about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genetics and improving cancer prevention measures or therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.09.032DOI Listing
January 2019

Role of Functional Beverages on Sport Performance and Recovery.

Nutrients 2018 Oct 10;10(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie e del Benessere, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope", via Medina 40, 80133 Napoli, Italy.

Functional beverages represent a palatable and efficient way to hydrate and reintegrate electrolytes, carbohydrates, and other nutrients employed and/or lost during physical training and/or competitions. Bodily hydration during sporting activity is one of the best indicators of health in athletes and can be a limiting factor for sport performance. Indeed, dehydration strongly decreases athletic performance until it is a risk to health. As for other nutrients, each of them is reported to support athletes' needs both during the physical activity and/or in the post-workout. In this study, we review the current knowledge of macronutrient-enriched functional beverages in sport taking into account the athletes' health, sports performance, and recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213308PMC
October 2018

Clostridioides difficile in the environment, food, animals and humans in southern Italy: Occurrence and genetic relatedness.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Aug 11;59:41-46. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

One hundred and thirty-eight C. difficile isolates from different sources (66 from the environment, 36 from animals, 9 from food and 27 from humans) were ribotyped by capillary electrophoresis PCR ribotyping (CE-PCR). A multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was carried out on a sample subset. The most frequently isolated PCR ribotypes were 126 (15.9%), 078 (14.5%), 011/018 (11.6%), 014/020/077 (10.1%), and 010 (2.8%). In particular, strains of PCR ribotype 011/018 were isolated from human, raw milk and environmental samples. The hypervirulent PCR ribotype 027 was isolated from two human samples. The majority of the strains were toxigenic (34.1% showed the toxigenic profile ABCDT and 38.9% the profile ABCDT). MLVA allowed to identify 4 clonal complexes of genetically related isolates: complex n. 1 grouped together human, environmental and food strains, whereas complex n. 3 included human and environmental isolates. The use of MLVA gave further evidence to the possible role of environment, animals and food as routes of transmission of C. difficile infections to human.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2018.08.006DOI Listing
August 2018

Molecular Signatures of the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast, Lung and Gastric Cancers.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 15;19(8). Epub 2018 Aug 15.

IRCCS SDN, Via Francesco Crispi 8, 80121 Napoli, Italy.

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, which is constituted by the IGF-1 and IGF-2 peptide hormones, their corresponding receptors and several IGF binding proteins, is involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes. The IGF system promotes cancer proliferation/survival and its signaling induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, which contributes to the migration, invasiveness, and metastasis of epithelial tumors. These cancers share two major IGF-1R signaling transduction pathways, PI3K/AKT and RAS/MEK/ERK. However, as far as we could review at this time, each type of cancer cell undergoes EMT through tumor-specific routes. Here, we review the tumor-specific molecular signatures of IGF-1-mediated EMT in breast, lung, and gastric cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122069PMC
August 2018

Effects of Plant Oil Interesterified Triacylglycerols on Lipemia and Human Health.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 Dec 30;19(1). Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie e del Benessere, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope", via Medina 40, 80133 Napoli, Italy.

The position of the fatty acids (-1, -2 and -3) (stereospecific numbering ()) in triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules produces a characteristic stereospecificity that defines the physical properties of the fats and influences their absorption, metabolism and uptake into tissues. Fat interesterification is a process that implies a positional distribution of fatty acids (FAs) within the TAG molecules, generating new TAG species, without affecting the FA - natural balance. The interesterified (IE) fats, frequently used in the food industry comprise fats that are rich in long-chain saturated FAs, such as palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0). Within the interesterified fats, a critical role is played by FA occupying the -2 position; in fact, the presence of an unsaturated FA in this specific position influences early metabolic processing and postprandial clearance that in turn could induce atherogenesis and thrombogenesis events. Here, we provide an overview on the role of TAG structures and interesterified palmitic and stearic acid-rich fats on fasting and postprandial lipemia, focusing our attention on their physical properties and their effects on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796054PMC
December 2017

A Functional Interplay between IGF-1 and Adiponectin.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 Oct 14;18(10). Epub 2017 Oct 14.

IRCCS SDN, via E. Gianturco 113, 80142 Napoli, Italy.

A functional relationship is suggested between two well-known protein hormones, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adiponectin. In the last two decades in fact, different experimental evidence has indicated a non-random link between them. Here, we describe briefly the IGF-1 and adiponectin systems, and we then focus on their putative interplay in relation to several pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Although the existing studies are hardly comparable, they definitely indicate a functional connection between these two protein hormones. In conclusion, the current knowledge strongly encourages further research into the common, as well as novel, mechanisms through which IGF-1 and adiponectin exert their concerted action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666827PMC
October 2017

Are young children able to learn exploratory strategies by observation?

Psychol Res 2018 Nov 20;82(6):1212-1223. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Via del Fosso di Fiorano 65, 00143, Rome, Italy.

New competencies may be learned through active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or observation of others' experiences (learning by observation). Observing another person performing a complex action facilitates the observer's acquisition of the same action. The present research is aimed at analyzing if the observation of specific explorative strategies adopted in a constrained environment, such as the Radial Arm Maze (RAM), could help young children to explore the maze and to build a cognitive spatial map of the explored environment. To this aim young children were randomly assigned to three groups: children who performed the RAM task following the observation of an actor solving the same maze by putting into action a highly structured exploratory strategy; children who performed the RAM task following the observation of the actor solving the same maze by putting into action a less structured exploratory strategy; children who directly performed the RAM task without any observation. The main result of the present research is that the children who observed the highly structured and correct exploratory strategy spent less time, made fewer errors, exhibited a longer spatial span, and thus they explored the maze more efficiently than the children who directly performed the RAM task without any observation. This finding indicates that when the observed explorative procedure is structured, sequential and repetitive the action understanding and information storage processes are more effective. Importantly, the observation of specific spatial strategies helped the children to build the cognitive spatial map of the explored environment and consequently to acquire/enrich the declarative knowledge of the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-017-0896-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132659PMC
November 2018

Exercise Intensity and Technical Demands of Small-Sided Soccer Games for Under-12 and Under-14 Players: Effect of Area per Player.

J Strength Cond Res 2017 06;31(6):1486-1492

1Department of Motor Science and Well-being, Parthenope University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Amateur Sports Club, Europe, Naples, Italy; 3IRCCS SDN Foundation, Naples, Italy; 4CEINGE Biotechnology Avanzate, s.c. a r.l., Naples, Italy; and 5Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 different areas per player (AP) on exercise intensity (EI) measured during small-sided games (SSGs) and expressed as percentage of maximal heart rate (%MHR) and technical actions (TAs) involvement with the ball, crosses, headers, tackles, shots on goal, dribbling, passing, and target passing-in U-12 and U-14 soccer players during SSGs. Seventeen male U-12 soccer players (age 10.0 ± 0.5 years, body mass 39.3 ± 5.3 kg, and height 143.8 ± 4.6 cm) and 16 male U-14 soccer players (age 13.2 ± 0.3 years, body mass 46.6 ± 11.9 kg, and height 154.8 ± 8.5 cm) performed SSGs with different AP: 40, 50, 66.7, 90, 112.5, and 150 m. Our results indicate that at larger AP, the U-12 group's mean EI values were significantly higher than those at smaller AP (p ≤ 0.05); in addition, intergroup comparison showed that EI was higher in U-12 than that in U-14 players when AP of 112.5 and 150 m were considered (p ≤ 0.05). Technical action analysis evidenced that moving from smaller to larger AP, U-14 players adapted better to AP changes. In conclusion, these results suggest that AP influences differently EI and TAs in U-12 and U-14 players. Our results could be taken into account by conditioning coaches to better tailor the physiological and technical training in young players through the modulation of AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001615DOI Listing
June 2017

Changes in the MicroRNA Profile Observed in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Patients after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding.

J Obes 2017 13;2017:6754734. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate Scarl, Via G. Salvatore 486, 80145 Naples, Italy.

. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) results in significant lasting weight loss and improved metabolism in obese patients. To evaluate whether epigenetic factors could concur to these benefits, we investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) microRNA (miRNA) profile before (T0) and three years (T1) after LAGB in three morbidly obese women. . SAT miRNA profiling, evaluated by TaqMan Array, showed four downexpressed (miR-519d, miR-299-5p, miR-212, and miR-671-3p) and two upexpressed (miR-370 and miR-487a) miRNAs at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that these miRNAs regulate genes belonging to pathways associated with the cytoskeleton, inflammation, and metabolism. Western blot analysis showed that PPAR-alpha, which is the target gene of miR-519d, increased after LAGB, thereby suggesting an improvement in SAT lipid metabolism. Accordingly, the number and diameter of adipocytes were significantly higher and lower, respectively, at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that the decreased levels of miR-212, miR-299-5p, and miR-671-3p at T1 concur in reducing SAT inflammation. . We show that the miRNA profile changes after LAGB. This finding, although obtained in only three cases, suggests that this epigenetic mechanism, by regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism, could concur to improve SAT functionality in postoperative obese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/6754734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5366784PMC
September 2017

Improving physical fitness and health status perception in community-dwelling older adults through a structured program for physical activity promotion in the city of Naples, Italy: A randomized controlled trial.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017 Oct 15;17(10):1421-1428. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Department of Movement and Wellbeing Sciences, University of Naples "Parthenope", Naples, Italy.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a physical activity promotion intervention in community-dwelling older adults based on a free program of exercise adapted for older adults aged ≥60 years managed by trainees from the Movement Sciences degree course.

Methods: A total of 160 adults aged 60-82 years were randomly allocated into the intervention and control group. The exercise program consisted of 1-h sessions carried out twice a week for a year. Control participants received recommendations about an active lifestyle from their physicians. Senior Fitness Tests and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey were used to assess six functional fitness domains of participants and perception of their health status, respectively. Body mass index was also evaluated.

Results: A total of 62 participants completed the exercise path. At the end of the intervention, they showed a significant body mass index decrease (from 27.9 ± 1.6 to 25.1 ± 1.8 kg/m , P < 0.01), and a significant improvement in functional domains, mainly aerobic fitness (+33.9%, P < 0.01) and agility (+24.2%, P < 0.01), and in good health status perception (+38.7%, P < 0.05). Similar variations were not observed in the control group (P > 0.05). A high acceptance of the intervention was registered among participants (>88.7%); staff competence and gratuitousness were the most appreciated features (>85.5%).

Conclusions: The structured program represented a useful opportunity to promote physical activity among participants, and it was effective in improving their physical fitness and health status perception. Similar interventions are required to sensitize the whole older population, and experts in Movement Sciences might represent a key figure in this context. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1421-1428.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12879DOI Listing
October 2017

Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

Molecules 2015 Sep 18;20(9):17339-61. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie e del Benessere, Università di Napoli "Parthenope", via Medina 40, Napoli 80133, Italy.

A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules200917339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331788PMC
September 2015

Molecular effects of supraphysiological doses of doping agents on health.

Mol Biosyst 2015 Jun;11(6):1494-506

IRCCS SDN, Naples, Italy.

Performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) gained wide popularity not only among sportsmen but also among specific subsets of population, such as adolescents. Apart from their claimed effects on athletic performance, they are very appealing due to the body shaping effect exerted on fat mass and fat-free mass. Besides the "underestimated" massive misuse of PEDs, the short- as well as long-term consequences of such habits remain largely unrecognized. They have been strictly associated with serious adverse effects, but molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Here, we analyze the current understanding of the molecular effects of supraphysiological doses of doping agents in healthy biological systems, at genomic and proteomic levels, in order to define the molecular sensors of organ/tissue impairment, determined by their misuse. The focus is put on the anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), specifically testosterone (T) and its most potent derivative dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and on the peptide hormones, specifically the growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). A map of molecular targets is defined and the risk incidence for human health is taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5mb00030kDOI Listing
June 2015

Synergistic effect of DHT and IGF-1 hyperstimulation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Proteomics 2015 Jun 16;15(11):1813-8. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Fondazione IRCCS SDN, Naples, Italy.

The abuse of mixed or combined performance-enhancing drugs is widespread among athletes and amateurs, adults and adolescents. Clinical studies demonstrated that misuse of these doping agents is associated with serious adverse effects to many organs in human. Previously, we demonstrated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes that high doses of anabolic androgenic steroids, such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have effects at gene and protein levels. Supraphysiological treatments of DHT and IGF-1 affected the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle disorders as well as in cell-mediated immunological response. At protein level, DHT hyperdosage affects cell motility and apoptosis; IGF-1 hyperstimulation triggers an active cytoskeletal reorganization and an overproduction of immune response- and inflammation-related cytokines. In this study, we investigate the combined effects of DHT and IGF-1 hyperdosage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a differential proteomic approach. DHT and IGF-1 combined treatment affects cell adhesion, migration, and survival through modulation of expression levels of cytokines and paxillin-signaling-related proteins, and activation of several pathways downstream focal adhesion kinase. Our results indicate a synergistic effect of DHT and IGF-1 which has potential implications for health risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201400242DOI Listing
June 2015

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding reduces subcutaneous adipose tissue and blood inflammation in nondiabetic morbidly obese individuals.

Obes Surg 2014 Dec;24(12):2161-8

CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate S.C.a R.L., Via G. Salvatore 486, 80145, Naples, Italy.

Background: Significant and sustained excess weight loss (EWL) appears to reduce the risk of obesity-related comorbidities (insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and inflammation), but this has been primarily shown in adult diabetic obese patients. We evaluated whether the EWL obtained 3 years after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) improves the metabolic phenotype in nondiabetic morbidly obese (NDMO) individuals from south Italy.

Methods: Serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples from 20 obese individuals (median BMI=41.5 kg/m(2)) before (T0) and after LAGB (T1) and from 10 controls (median BMI=22.8 kg/m(2)) were taken. Serum leptin, adiponectin, C reactive protein (CRP), and main analyte levels were evaluated by routine methods or immunoassay. In SAT, adipocyte size was measured by hematoxylin/eosin staining, cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) macrophage infiltration marker by immunohistochemistry, and adiponectin, adiponectin receptors 1 and 2, and interleukin 6 (IL6) messenger RNAs by qRT-PCR.

Results: The average EWL was 66.7 %, and CRP, triglycerides, hepatic markers, leptin levels, homeostasis model assessment, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio were lower (p<0.05) at T1 than at T0. The expression of small adipocytes and adiponectin was increased (p<0.05), and inflammation markers (CD68 and IL6) decreased (p<0.05) at T1 vs. T0. At linear regression multivariate analysis, over 90 % (R (2)=0.905) of EWL (dependent variable) was explained by CD68, adiponectinemia, triglyceridemia, CRP, and total protein levels.

Conclusions: The EWL obtained 3 years after LAGB resulted in an improvement of lipid metabolism and a reduction of inflammation in NDMO patients, thereby decreasing the risk of obesity-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-014-1326-7DOI Listing
December 2014

Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling induced by supraphysiological doses of IGF-1 in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Proteomics 2014 Jul 30;14(13-14):1623-9. Epub 2014 May 30.

DSMB, University of Naples "Parthenope,", Naples, Italy.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mediates some of growth hormone anabolic functions through its receptor, IGF-1R. Following ligand binding, intracellular signaling pathways are activated favouring proliferation, cell survival, tissue growth, development, and differentiation. IGF-1 is included in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List. While the evidence for IGF-1 as performance-enhancing substrate in healthy humans is still weak, clinical studies demonstrated that the endogenous growth hormone/IGF-1 excess is associated with cardiovascular implications. Previously, we demonstrated that human peripheral blood lymphocytes represent a suitable system to identify a gene signature, related to dihydrotestosterone or IGF-1 abuse, independent from the type of sport. In addition, in a proteomic study, we demonstrated that dihydrotestosterone hyperdosage affects cell motility and apoptosis. Here, we investigate the doping action of IGF-1 by means of a differential proteomic approach and specific protein arrays, revealing an active cytoskeletal reorganization mediated by Stat-1; moreover, IGF-1 stimulation produces a sustained activation of different signaling pathways as well as an overproduction of cytokines positively related to immune response and inflammation. In conclusion, these data indicate that, following IGF-1 hyperdosage, circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes could be more prone to transendothelial migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201300318DOI Listing
July 2014

The FTO gene polymorphism (rs9939609) is associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese subjects from southern Italy.

Mol Cell Probes 2014 Aug 25;28(4):195-9. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate S.C. a. r.l., Naples, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze Motorie e del Benessere, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope", Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Gene variants in MC4R, SIRT1 and FTO are associated with severe obesity and metabolic impairment in Caucasians. We investigated whether common variants in these genes are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large group of morbidly obese young adults from southern Italy. One thousand morbidly obese subjects (62% women, mean body mass index 46.5 kg/m(2), mean age 32.6 years) whose families had lived in southern Italy for at least 2 generations were recruited. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12970134, rs477181, rs502933 (MC4R locus), rs3818292, rs7069102, rs730821, rs2273773, rs12413112 (SIRT1 locus) and rs1421085, rs9939609, 9930506, 1121980 (FTO locus) were genotyped by Taqman assay; blood parameters were assayed by routine methods; the Fat Mass, Fat Free Mass, Respiratory Quotient, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and waist circumference were also determined. Binomial logistic regression showed that the TA heterozygous genotype of SNP rs9939609 in the FTO gene was associated with the presence of MetS in our population [OR (95% CI): 2.53 (1.16-5.55)]. Furthermore, the FTO rs9939609 genotype accounted for 21.3% of the MetS phenotype together with total cholesterol, BMR and age. Our results extend the knowledge on genotype susceptibility for MetS in relation to a specific geographical area of residence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2014.03.004DOI Listing
August 2014

Haplogroup T is an obesity risk factor: mitochondrial DNA haplotyping in a morbid obese population from southern Italy.

Biomed Res Int 2013 2;2013:631082. Epub 2013 Jul 2.

CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate SC a RL, Naples, Italy.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n = 500; BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) and controls (n = 216; BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) was sequenced to determine the mtDNA haplogroups. The T and J haplogroup frequencies were higher and lower, respectively, in obese subjects than in controls. Women bearing haplogroup T or J had twice or half the risk of obesity. Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that haplogroup T and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for a high degree of morbid obesity, namely, BMI > 45 kg/m(2) and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/631082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3713591PMC
March 2014

Adiponectin oligomers as potential indicators of adipose tissue improvement in obese subjects.

Eur J Endocrinol 2013 Jul 1;169(1):37-43. Epub 2013 Jun 1.

CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate Scarl, Via Gaetano Salvatore 486, 80145 Naples, Italy.

Objective: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that exerts beneficial effects on obesity and related disorders by two receptors (ADIPORs). Adiponectin is produced as a monomer that circulates in serum as different oligomers. The oligomerization state and the tissue expression of adiponectin and ADIPORs are linked to its biological activities. In this study, the levels of total adiponectin and its oligomers were evaluated in relation to obesity and surgical weight loss. The expression of adiponectin and ADIPORs was analyzed in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese patients.

Design And Methods: In 25 obese patients and 44 age- and sex-matched controls, the serum levels of adiponectin and its oligomers were measured and compared by ELISA, western blotting, and gel filtration. The expression of adiponectin and ADIPORs in both adipose tissues was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting.

Results: The amount of each adiponectin oligomer, including the monomer, increases after weight loss. The reduced circulating levels of adiponectin and its oligomers are not associated with the adipose tissue depot-specific expression of adiponectin and ADIPORs.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that in patients, adiposity is associated with the serum concentrations of adiponectin and its oligomers but not with adipose tissue depot-specific expression of adiponectin and ADIPORs. In particular, the increase in adiponectin monomer levels could probably be related to the improvement of the whole-body energy metabolism then being involved in the improvement of adipose tissue function after weight loss. This work indicates the importance of assessing the whole adiponectin oligomeric profile as further potential indicators of adipose tissue functions in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-12-1039DOI Listing
July 2013