Publications by authors named "Pasquale De Palo"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dry-Aged Beef Steaks: Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Hydrolyzed Lignin on Sensory Profile, Colorimetric and Oxidative Stability.

Foods 2021 May 13;10(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari A. Moro, Valenzano, 70010 Bari, Italy.

Flavor is one of the main factors involved in consumer meat-purchasing decision and use of natural antioxidants in animal feeding had a great appeal for consumers. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effect of hydrolyzed lignin (PTHL) feed addition on oxidative stability, volatile compounds characteristics, and sensory attributes of 35 days dry-aged beef steaks. Forty steer six months old were randomly divided into a control group (CON; = 20) and an experimental group (PTHL; = 20). Both groups were fed ad libitum for 120 days with the same TMR and only the PTHL group received PTHL supplement. Samples of LT muscle were removed from carcasses and dry aged for 35 days at 2 °C, 82% of humidity, and 0.4 m/s of ventilation and then analyzed. Meat of CON group showed lower yellowness ( < 0.01) and higher TBARS ( < 0.01) values. Moreover, CON meat showed higher volatile aldehydes and lower sulfur compounds ( < 0.01), with higher unpleasant odor ( < 0.05) and meaty odor ( < 0.01) score revealed by sensory assessors. PTHL inclusion in beef diet delayed the oxidative mechanisms in 35 days dry-aged steaks, resulting in an improved colorimetric, volatolomic, and sensory profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152972PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of Different Test-Day Milk Recording Protocols by Wood's Model Application for the Estimation of Dairy Goat Milk and Milk Constituent Yield.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production (DMVPA), University of Naples Federico II, 80137 Naples, Italy.

Goats have important social and economic roles in many countries because of their ability to survive and be productive in marginal areas. The overarching aim of this study was to compare the application of Wood's model to different test-day milk recording protocols for estimation of total milk, fat, and protein yield in dairy goats. A total of 465 goats were used (Garganica, 78; Girgentana, 81; Jonica, 76; Maltese, 77; Red Mediterranean, 76; Saanen, 77). Milk yield was recorded every 15 days throughout lactation of 210 days, for a total of 14 collection days, during both morning and afternoon milking sessions. Milk samples were collected and analyzed for protein and fat. The fat-corrected milk was standardized at 35g fat/kg of milk. Wood models showed high values, and thus good fitting, in all the considered breeds. Wood model applied to first, second, fourth, and sixth month recordings (C) and ICAR estimation showed total milk yield very close to Wood's model applied to all 14 recordings (A) ( > 0.38). Differently, Wood's model applied to the first, second, third, and fourth month recording (B) estimation showed great differences ( < 0.01). This could be applied for farms that had the necessity to synchronize flock groups for kidding in order to produce kid meat. In farms that apply the estrus induction and/or synchronization for kidding, it would be possible to perform only four test-day milk recordings and to apply the Wood's model on them in order to obtain the estimation of total milk, fat, and protein yield during lactation for animals inscribed, or to be inscribed, to the genealogical book.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11041058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069443PMC
April 2021

Productive Performance and Meat Characteristics of Kids Fed a Red Orange and Lemon Extract.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples "Federico II", 80137 Naples, Italy.

This study evaluates the animal performance and meat characteristics of 60 Saanen suckling kids daily fed a red orange and lemon extract (RLE), rich in anthocyanins. In our methodology, after colostrum administration, animals are randomly assigned to two treatments: Treatment group (Group RLE; = 30) that received RLE (90 mg/kg live body weight) as oral food additive, and a control group (Group CON; = 30) that received a standard diet. Animals are slaughtered after 40 days. The RLE administration did not influence daily weight gain, carcass measurements, or incidences (expressed as a percentage) of different anatomical regions on the whole carcass weight. On the contrary, RLE supplementation significantly improved the oxidative profile of the meat seven days after slaughtering, as demonstrated by the reduced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; < 0.01) and hydroperoxides ( < 0.01) in Group RLE compared to Group CON. A significant influence of RLE administration is observed on day 7 for yellowness ( < 0.01). There are also lower saturated and higher monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration in Group RLE meat ( < 0.01), which also shows lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes ( < 0.01) compared to Group CON. The study demonstrates that the supplementation of a diet with RLE rich in anthocyanins is effective to improve the meat quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999896PMC
March 2021

How Volatile Compounds, Oxidative Profile and Sensory Evaluation Can Change with Vacuum Aging in Donkey Meat.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari A. Moro, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

This study aims to improve knowledge on donkey meat and the vacuum aging effect on the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxidative profile and status and the sensory characteristics. Ten 18-month old Martina Franca donkeys' male foals were involved in the trial. (LT) muscle was extracted from each left half carcass, between the fourth and the ninth rib. Each muscle was divided into five sections, vacuum packaged, stored at 2 °C, and randomly assigned to one of the different aging time (1, 3, 6, 9, and 14 days of aging). Volatile compounds, oxidation parameters, and antioxidant enzymes were analysed, and a sensory test was performed. A nested one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for aging time as an independent variable. Significance was set at < 0.05. Aldehydes are the most produced VOCs, but no changes were observed during vacuum aging ( > 0.05). Nitrogen compounds increased during aging ( < 0.01). TBARs and hydroperoxides did not change during the storage, whereas the protein carbonyls increased ( < 0.05). Vacuum aging slowed down lipid oxidation and put in evidence the presence of protein oxidation and degradation, influencing the VOCs productions and sensory evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697703PMC
November 2020

Volatile Organic Compounds, Oxidative and Sensory Patterns of Vacuum Aged Foal Meat.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 24;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari A. Moro, 70010 Valenzano, BA, Italy.

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of 14-day vacuum aging on the volatile compounds (VOC) profile, oxidative profile, antioxidant enzymes activity, and sensory evaluation in the Longissimusthoracis muscle of foal meat under vacuum aging. Longissimusthoracis (LT) was sampled in 20 mm thick slices, vacuum packed, and stored at 4 °C. Samples were randomly assigned to different aging times (1, 6, 9, 14 days after slaughtering). VOCs, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were analyzed, and a sensory test was performed. A nested one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for aging time as an independent variable. Significance was set at < 0.05. The main VOCs originating from cooked steaks were aldehydes, (from 47.18% to 58.81% of the total volatile compounds), followed by hydrocarbons (from 9.32% and 31.99%). TBARs and hydroperoxides did not show variations due to aging ( > 0.05), instead, protein carbonyls showed higher values at the 14th day ( < 0.01). Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase showed increasing values during aging time ( < 0.01). Vacuum aging slowed down lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation was shown to be present. However, the best vacuum aging duration is in the range of 6-9 days from slaughtering, with an improvement of sensory evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10091495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552191PMC
August 2020

Quality of main types of hunted red deer meat obtained in Spain compared to farmed venison from New Zealand.

Sci Rep 2020 07 22;10(1):12157. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900, Ourense, Spain.

Deer venison is increasingly valued as a natural meat. This study examines the three main sources of venison: farmed venison from New Zealand (NZ), the world's leading producer, and wild deer from Spain (SP), the second largest producer, which mainly supplies venison from traditional autumn-winter driven hunts (monteria), involving packs of dogs, and a smaller proportion culled through summer selective stalking. Meat from NZ contained more protein, lower shear force and lower n-6/n-3 ratio (P < 0.01). Spanish meat had a greater content of total, essential and non-essential amino acids (P < 0.01). Meat from deer culled in winter had lower intramuscular fat and saturated fatty acids (FA) but higher polyunsaturated FA (P < 0.01) and pH (P < 0.001) than meat from summer stalked deer. Therefore, venison presents differences by country of origin for composition, FA and texture that are likely to affect its health characteristics. Anomalies observed in meat between the winter driven hunt and non-stressful summer stalking may be attributed to the level of death stress in the case of variables such as pH. However, the effect on fat and mineral composition seems to be seasonal, depending respectively on wild diet or cyclic osteoporosis in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69071-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376059PMC
July 2020

Nexus Between Immune Responses and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Dietary Hydrolyzed Lignin in Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Response.

Front Vet Sci 2020 20;7. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

The control of immune responses is particularly critical when an increase of oxidative stress occurs, causing an impairment of immune cell response and a condition of systemic inflammation, named oxinflammation. Nutritional strategies based on the use in the diet of phytochemicals extracted from plants, rich in antioxidants, could help restore the antioxidant/oxidant balance and obtain a modulation of immune response. Lignin represents a valuable resource of phenolic compounds, which are characterized by a corroborated antioxidant effect. To date, there are no studies reporting the effects of lignin in the diet on immune responses and oxidative stress in ruminants. The objective of the present experiment was the evaluation of the dietary inclusion of hydrolyzed lignin on the immune responses and oxidative stress biomarkers by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from beef steers. In order to test the effect during oxidative stress exposition, cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (HO). The proliferation test and the viability assay were carried out on cells, whereas, on supernatants, the cytokine profile and the oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. The dietary inclusion with hydrolyzed lignin resulted in cytoprotection after HO exposition, increasing the number of viable monocytes and decreasing the reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production in supernatants. The cytokine profile indicated the modulatory role of hydrolyzed lignin on immune response, with a concomitant decrease of TNF-α and increase of IL-8 production, which are strictly connected with monocyte activation and antioxidant response pathway. These results demonstrated that hydrolyzed lignin may provide a modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in PBMCs; thus, the hydrolyzed lignin could be suggested as an innovative phytochemical in ruminant feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045060PMC
February 2020

Comparison of Mineral, Metabolic, and Oxidative Profile of Saanen Goat during Lactation with Different Mediterranean Breed Clusters under the Same Environmental Conditions.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Casamassima km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Italy.

This study aimed to describe metabolic, oxidative, and mineral blood profiles of Saanen does through lactation compared with Mediterranean breed clusters (Maltese and Rossa Mediterranea, and Jonica, Garganica, and Girgentana). Milk and blood samples of 57 dairy goats (9-10 goats per breed) were collected from the 2nd to the 30th week of lactation every 2-3 weeks. Saanen showed greater milk yield and somatic cell score, and lower fat and protein percentage through lactation ( < 0.05) than the Mediterranean breed clusters. Blood analysis revealed that stage of lactation had a greater impact than breed cluster, except for uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Plasmatic non-esterified fatty acids indicated a greater negative energy balance in Saanen than the other breed clusters during early and medium lactation stages ( < 0.05). Serum Cl, Mg, and Ca increased in all the breed clusters from early to the following stages of lactation ( < 0.05). No significant prooxidant/antioxidant imbalances were detected in any of the three clusters during the entire lactation. In conclusion, Mediterranean breeds tended to recover earlier from negative energy balance than Saanen, but effects of breed or stage of lactation on long-term oxidative stress indicators were not evident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10030432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175111PMC
March 2020

Effect of Increasing Dietary Aminoacid Concentration in Late Gestation on Body Condition and Reproductive Performance of Hyperprolific Sows.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jan 8;10(1). Epub 2020 Jan 8.

IA2-Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.

A total of 62 highly prolific Danbred sows was used to evaluate the implications of increasing dietary amino acid (AA) concentration during late gestation (from day 77 to 107 of pregnancy) on body condition and reproductive performances. Sows were assigned to one of the two treatments (n = 31, with similar number of sows in the second-, third- and fourth-cycle); control diet (containing 6 g of standardized ileal digestible lysine -SID Lys-)/kg) and high AA level (containing 10 g SID Lys/kg and following the ideal protein concept for the remaining essential AA). On day 108 of pregnancy, animals were moved to the farrowing-lactating facilities where they spent until weaning receiving a common standard lactation diet. After farrowing, litters were standardized to 13 piglets each. At 107 d of gestation, backfat depth was thicker in sows fed high AA concentration than in those fed control diet ( < 0.0001) but these significant differences disappeared at weaning ( > 0.05). Additionally, at farrowing, the litter size ( = 0.043) and weight ( = 0.017) were higher in sows fed high AA level. It can be concluded that the increase in the AA content in the feed during the last month of gestation could improve the body condition of the sows and their performance results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10010099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022750PMC
January 2020

Autochthonous dairy goat breeds showed better milk quality than Saanen under the same environmental conditions.

Arch Anim Breed 2019 28;62(1):83-89. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production (DMVPA), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 80137, Italy.

Studies on goat milk have mainly focused on cosmopolitan breeds and very limited information is available on local breeds, which is important for biodiversity preservation and local cheese production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the breed effect on milk yield, composition and somatic cell score (SCS) of five local Italian goat breeds (Garganica, Girgentana, Jonica, Maltese and Mediterranean Red) compared with a cosmopolitan specialized dairy breed (Saanen). A total of 60 goats (10 per breed) from an experimental farm were enrolled in the study. Milk yield, composition and SCS were recorded and analyzed every 2 weeks during the entire lactation. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures. Saanen yielded between 0.27 and 0.62 kg day more milk than the local breeds. Among local breeds, Maltese and Jonica were the most productive, with an average of 1.28 and 1.25 kg day , respectively, while Mediterranean Red, Garganica and Girgentana produced  kg day . Saanen had the highest SCS (6.81) and the lowest fat content (3.26 %). In relation to protein, Garganica showed the greatest content (3.71 %), and Saanen had a similar content to other local breeds (3.42 %) except for Maltese, which was lower (3.11 %). Saanen and Garganica had the lowest lactose percentage (4.28 % and 4.26 %, respectively). All breeds followed a similar pattern across lactation: SCS and fat and protein content peaked at the end of the lactation, whereas lactose percentage was highest at the beginning of the lactation. Differences between Saanen and the local breeds for milk yield, composition and SCS were consistent across lactation. In conclusion, local breeds produced less milk but with lower SCS and greater fat and lactose content than the Saanen cosmopolitan breed, suggesting a better milk quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-62-83-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852846PMC
February 2019

Application of proteomic to investigate the post-mortem tenderization rate of different horse muscles.

Meat Sci 2019 Nov 5;157:107885. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25- 71121 Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-mortem aging on tenderness development and proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins in 3 different horse muscles. Warner-Bratzler shear force decreased during aging in all muscles, showing the lowest values in longissimus lumborum (LL) in all sampling points. Myofibril fragmentation index significantly increased in LL and semimembranosus (SM) muscles throughout aging time whereas in semitendinosus (ST) it increased after 14 days of aging. Proteomics analysis revealed the major content of intact myofibrillar proteins with high molecular weight in ST muscle in the first phase of aging, while, after 14 days a higher accumulation of TnT-derived polypeptides and spots isoforms ascribed to MLC2 and MLC1 proteins were found. Data highlight that aging affects the meat tenderness and proteolysis with different intensities in each muscle and suggest that a more extensive post-mortem proteolysis occurred in ST muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.107885DOI Listing
November 2019

Differences in the Detailed Milk Mineral Composition of Italian Local and Saanen Goat Breeds.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production (DMVPA), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Via Federico Delpino 1, 80137 Napoli (NA), Italy.

Very little information about local breed goat milk is available, which is relevant for biodiversity preservation and local cheese production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of breed and week of lactation on milk mineral profile of five Italian local breeds (Garganica, Girgentana, Jonica, Maltese and Mediterranean Red) and a cosmopolitan breed (Saanen). Sixty goats (10 per breed) from an experimental farm were enrolled in the study and sampled every 2 weeks for milk gross composition analysis. In addition, an individual milk sample was collected monthly from 42 goats (seven goats per breed) for mineral determination through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Data were analysed using a mixed linear model with repeated measures, including breed and week of lactation as fixed effects. Week of lactation affected mineral contents, except for B, being lower in early than late lactation, whereas, breed affected only P, Mg and Zn. Mediterranean Red and Jonica breeds' milk was richer in P than Maltese, and in Zn than Maltese, Girgentana and Saanen breeds. For Mg, only Saanen differed from Maltese. Such information might be useful for the valorisation of goat milk produced by autochthonous breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9070412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6680847PMC
July 2019

A proteomic-based approach for the search of biomarkers in Iberian wild deer (Cervus elaphus) as indicators of meat quality.

J Proteomics 2019 08 20;205:103422. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, rúa Galicia n° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense 32900, Spain. Electronic address:

The positive perception of deer meat among consumers is growing. Consequently, further efforts are needed to control its meat quality. Specifically, the aim of this study was to search protein biomarkers in connection with tenderness and intramuscular fat (IMF) content of Iberian wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) meat. Twelve venison samples classified as tender, intermediate and tough meat, as well as with different IMF were studied, using quantitative proteomic by SWATH-MS combined with bioinformatic analyses. The study of muscle proteome showed significant differences among these three groups of meat samples, since five differentially abundant proteins (IVD, LAMB1, MYL3, SDHC and SDHA) and six (FABP4, IVD, LAMB1, MYL3, CRYZ and SERPINB6) were strongly correlated with tenderness and IMF, respectively. The proteomic approach provides protein biomarkers linked to venison meat quality and marked changes in proteins related to oxidoreductase complex in skeletal muscle. SIGNIFICANCE: Meat tenderness and IMF are major concerns in game meat. The proteomic approach demonstrated a strong correlation between proteins and these quality traits, despite the complexity of samples (wild animals hunted at different ages). Our results suggest that several proteins can be biomarkers and provide a molecular insight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2019.103422DOI Listing
August 2019

Small ruminant lentiviruses in goats in southern Italy: Serological evidence, risk factors and implementation of control programs.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Jan 23;228:143-146. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Veterinary Medicine- University of Bari, Sp Casamassima Km3, 70010 Valenzano, Ba, Italy. Electronic address:

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) can drastically affect milk production in goat flocks and only an early detection can control and prevent their spread. Since SRLVs are responsible for persistent infections, antibody screening is the most valuable tool to identify infected animals. ELISA is recommended as the election test both for its sensitivity and for its ability to detect low antibody titers, thus identifying infected animals earlier than agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). In the present study, an investigation was conducted to assess the SRLV seroprevalence in goat flocks in southern Italy and a transversal comparative study was carried out through the analysis of the possible risk factors influencing SRLV spread. A total of 4800 sera from 1060 flocks were analyzed and overall seroprevalences of 18,64% and 51,69% at animal and herd levels, respectively, were observed. Both the region and the herd production systems were able to affect seroprevalence, differently from the herd size, probably because the mean number of goats per herd is low and the semi-intensive management is similar regardless of the dimensional class of each herd. In particular, meat producing herds showed the higher seroprevalence, as a result of the poor sanitation and low animal monitoring in comparison to milk producing herds, where animals are managed twice daily and the relationship between dams and kids is checked to guarantee an adequate quantitative/qualitative milk yield. In the absence of vaccines or effective treatments, health preventive management and seroepidemiological investigations are the only successful approach to restrict SRLV spread as observed in countries were official/voluntary control programs are carried out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.11.023DOI Listing
January 2019

Nutritional and meat quality characteristics of seven primal cuts from 9-month-old female veal calves: a preliminary study.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Apr 11;99(6):2947-2956. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Ourense, Spain.

Background: Beef is a highly nutritious and valuable food. In order to complete its nutritional information, this study determined the chemical and physicochemical parameters and fatty acid, amino acid and mineral contents in seven primal cuts from veal carcasses (shoulder clod (SC), inside round (IR), eye of round (ER), bottom round (BR), heel of round (HR), knuckle (KK) and tenderloin (TL)).

Results: The intramuscular fat content was higher and the cholesterol content was lower in TL than in the other cuts. The colour parameters also varied in the different primal cuts. The L* and b* values were highest in ER. Cooking losses were significantly (P < 0.001) affected by the cut of meat ranging from 20.85% in HR to 29.01% in ER. Determination of the shear force values permitted us to establish more tender muscle (TL with shear force 16.45 N cm ) and less tender muscle (IR with shear force 47.27 N cm ). The nutritional indices and fatty acid profile indicated that HR is the healthiest cut. All cuts evaluated provide important levels of dietary amino acids, although the contents of both essential and non-essential amino acids were highest in HR. Finally, K, Zn and Fe were affected by the type of veal cut.

Conclusions: All primal cuts of veal provide important nutrients for human diets. The information of this research allows consumers to make healthful food choices, creating diets aimed at trying to correct deficiencies and providing objective data that differentiate between differently priced cuts of veal. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9508DOI Listing
April 2019

Carcass and meat quality characteristics from Iberian wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted at different ages.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Mar 5;99(4):1938-1945. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, San Cibrán das Viñas, Ourense, Spain.

Background: Deer-meat consumption is increasing in several countries based on claims that it is a healthy red meat. This study assessed the effect of slaughter age (low - 26 months and younger; medium - from 27 months to younger than 42 months; and high - 42 months and older) on carcass characteristics and meat physicochemical properties of 150 Iberian wild red deer.

Results: Whole carcass yields of neck, backbone and flank increased (P < 0.001) with age, while yields of shoulder, tenderloin and leg decreased (P < 0.05) with age. The pH measured at 48 h post mortem at 9th rib level was not affected by age, while pH measured at 72 h post mortem at the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle decreased (P < 0.05) with age. Meat chemical composition was not affected by slaughter age, except for intramuscular fat (IMF), which increased (P < 0.05) with slaughter age. Finally, cooking loss and shear force were higher (P < 0.05) in meat from older deer.

Conclusion: Most characteristics of meat from wild red deer depend on age at slaughter. The greater IMF of meat from older animals may render it more palatable. However, meat shear force also increased with age. Additional studies testing palatability seem to be necessary to evaluate the effects of slaughter age on the sensorial quality of meat from Iberian wild red deer. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9391DOI Listing
March 2019

Foal meat volatile compounds: effect of vacuum ageing on semimembranosus muscle.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Mar 22;99(4):1660-1667. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University 'Aldo Moro' of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Background: Cooked meat flavor arises through a combination of thermally generated aroma volatile and nonvolatile compounds in a matrix of muscle fiber, connective tissue, and fat. Ageing could affect meat odor, taste, and flavor by the development of odor compounds in the raw product. The aim of the work is to assess the ageing effect on the volatile compounds profile by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of foal meat vacuum packaged for storage at 4 °C for a period of 14 days.

Results: Only pentane and 3,7-dimethylnonane were significantly affected by ageing time (P < 0.01). Octanal and nonanal presented an increasing trend with higher values at 14 ageing days compared with six ageing days (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Ageing poorly affects the volatile compounds production of foal meat. Probably, 14 days is considered to be a short maturation time in vacuum packaging for foal meat. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9350DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of age on nutritional properties of Iberian wild red deer meat.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Mar 11;99(4):1561-1567. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari A. Moro, Bari, Italy.

Background: This study assessed the effect of age (L, less than 27 months old; M, from 27 to 42 months old; H, 43 months and older) on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, amino acid composition and mineral content of 150 Iberian wild red deer meat samples.

Results: Intramuscular fat content increased (P < 0.05) with age (0.05 vs 0.12 vs 0.34% for L, M and H groups respectively), while cholesterol content decreased (P < 0.05) as the slaughter age increased (52.78 vs 48.72 vs 45.34 mg per 100 g meat for L, M and H groups respectively). The slaughter age showed differences among groups for saturated fatty acids, with the highest content in older animals (30.41 vs 34.55 vs 38.21% for L, M and H groups respectively), whereas younger deer displayed the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (50.05 vs 45.24 vs 37.55% for L, M and H groups respectively). The n-6/n-3 ratio was more favorable (P < 0.05) for young and medium ages compared with that for older animals. In contrast, amino acid profile and mineral content were only slightly affected by age.

Conclusion: As a general conclusion, wild red deer meat could be considered a good alternative to red meats for human consumption. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9334DOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of dietary supplementation with polyphenols on meat quality in Saanen goat kids.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Jun 11;14(1):181. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, Federico II University, V. F. Delpino 1, 80137, Naples, Italy.

Background: Diet supplementation with polyphenols is a novel strategy to improve meat quality in livestock, by preventing oxidative deterioration of lipids and protein. Polyphenols have beneficial effects on both human and animal health and can be obtained from several sources, such as olive mill wastewaters (OMWW). These are severe environmental pollutants and therefore may be recycled and utilized in other sectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth performance, meat characteristics, fatty acid composition, antioxidant status, different forms of myoglobin and malondialdehyde formation in kids who received a diet supplemented with polyphenols obtained from OMWW. Weaned goat kids (n = 18) were divided into two homogenous groups: control (C) group (n = 9) received a fattening standard diet while the other group (n = 9) received the same diet, supplemented with 3.2 mg/day of polyphenols powder extract (PE group). Average daily gain (ADG) was calculated 10 days apart throughout the study. After 78 days, the kids were slaughtered and pH and carcass yield were evaluated. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle was collected and utilized for chemical analysis, meat quality evaluation and oxidative stability.

Results: No differences were recorded in ADG, carcass weight, pH and dressing between the two groups. Furthermore a similar meat proximate composition, texture and color was observed. Dietary polyphenols supplementation significantly (P < 0.01) decreased short chains (
Conclusions: Polyphenols dietary supplementation has positive effects on kid meat, improving fatty acid profile and reducing malondialdehyde contents. Furthermore the utilization of OMWW as the source of polyphenols may represent an innovative strategy to re-utilize agri-food industry wastes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1513-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996534PMC
June 2018

Survey of biochemical and oxidative profile in donkey foals suckled with one natural and one semi-artificial technique.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(6):e0198774. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University "A. Moro" of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

Dairy donkey milking procedures require separating foals from their dams for a few hours a day. Artificial suckling in this species is a good technique for improving milk production and foal welfare. The aim of the work is to compare the effect of two different diets on donkey foals when separated from jennies for milking procedures with and without a milk replacer. Forty newborn Martina Franca donkey foals were subdivided into two experimental groups. Both groups were separated from their respective dams from 8.00to 20.00to allow the jennies to be milked. During the separation, all the foals had access ad libitum to water, hay and feed. During the separation period, one group had the availability of a mechanical milk replacer dispenser, so foals were partially artificially suckled (AS), while the other group had no milk replacer available, and so were totally naturally suckled (NS). The AS group had milk replacer availability until 120±7d of life. Both groups were naturally weaned at 168±7d. Blood samples were collected weekly starting from birth until two wks after weaning (i.e. at 182d), from all the foals included in the trial. Almost all the analytes were influenced by suckling technique and age of foals. Alanine-aminotransferase, aspartate-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, NEFA, lipid hydroperoxides, serum proteins showed the greatest differences between the two experimental groups. Separating foals from their dams for 12hdaily for 24 weeks does not lead to pathological subclinical and metabolic conditions, thus confirming the high rusticity and resistance of the donkey.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198774PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991377PMC
January 2019

ATP Sensitive Potassium Channels in the Skeletal Muscle Function: Involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2) Gene in the Determination of Mechanical Warner Bratzer Shear Force.

Front Physiol 2016 10;7:167. Epub 2016 May 10.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro Bari, Italy.

The ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels (KATP) are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K(+) ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1), KCNJ11 (Kir6.2), ABCC8 (SUR1), and ABCC9 (SUR2) genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibers is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical, and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862255PMC
May 2016

Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2016 Jan 28;48(1):167-73. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University "Aldo Moro" of Bari, S.P. per Casamassima, km 3, 70010, Valenzano, BA, Italy.

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P < 0.01), higher final live weight (P < 0.001), and carcass weight (P < 0.01), but no effects were observed on carcass dressing percentage (P > 0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-015-0940-2DOI Listing
January 2016

Is meat quality from Longissimus lumborum samples correlated with other cuts in horse meat?

Anim Sci J 2016 Mar 14;87(3):428-38. Epub 2015 Oct 14.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University "Aldo Moro" of Bari, Valenzano (BA), Italy.

The present work aims to investigate if the variation of each parameter in Longissimus lumborum muscle could correspond to the same or to a similar variation of the parameter in the other muscles. The work presents results of Pearson's correlations between Longissimus lumborum samples and other muscle samples, such as Biceps femoris, Rectus femoris, Semimembranosus, Supraspinatus and Semitendinosus in horse meat. A total of 27 male IHDH (Italian Heavy Draught Horse) breed foals were employed. They were slaughtered at 11 months of age and the above-mentioned muscles were sampled. The Longissimus lumborum muscle showed to be representative of other muscles and of the whole carcass for some chemical parameters (moisture, protein and ash) and for some fatty acids profile patterns such as C12:0, C14:0, total monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, but poor correlations were recorded for intramuscular fat concentration, rheological and colorimetric parameters. Although almost all the qualitative parameters in meat are affected by the anatomical site and by the muscle, the Longissimus lumborum is often not representative in horse meat with regard to modifications of this parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12433DOI Listing
March 2016

Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals.

Anim Sci J 2014 Jul 24;85(7):780-6. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P>0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P<0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P>0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4140599PMC
July 2014

Monitoring the reverse to normal of clinico-pathological findings and the disease free interval time using four different treatment protocols for canine leishmaniosis in an endemic area.

Res Vet Sci 2012 Oct 30;93(2):843-7. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Department of Public Health and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Italy.

Twenty-four dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. were treated with four different protocols using meglumine antimoniate (aNm) and allopurinol in combination or in monotherapy. Aiming to compare the efficacy of the different treatments the reverse to normal of clinico-pathological findings and the disease free interval time (DFIT) were evaluated. Treated dogs were monitored for 1 year and, in absence of relapses, the DFIT was postponed to the last available follow-up. Seven dogs treated with aNm alone showed relapses during the year of observation. In the group of dogs treated with the combination of aNm (50 mg/kg/SC 12 hourly up to clinico-pathological recovery) and allopurinol (15 mg/kg/PO 12 hourly administered for 6months) no relapses were registered in the year of monitoring and the DFIT reached up to 65 months. Our results showed that this combination represents the best choice to treat canine leishmaniosis compared to other protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2012.01.005DOI Listing
October 2012

Evaluation of the antigenic relationships among canine parvovirus type 2 variants.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2008 Mar 26;15(3):534-9. Epub 2007 Dec 26.

Department of Animal Health and Well-Being, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

The antigenic relationships among the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and the variants CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c were evaluated. Cross-antigenic evaluation revealed clear differences among the CPV variants, which were more appreciable by serum neutralization (SN) than by hemagglutination inhibition. Antigenic differences were found mostly between the original CPV-2 and the variants, but they were also observed among the variants CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c. The variant CPV-2c exhibited a unique antigenic pattern, since it was poorly recognized by the sera of animals immunized with CPV-2, CPV-2a, and CPV-2b. However, animals immunized with CPV-2c exhibited higher SN titers to CPV-2b than to the homologous virus CPV-2c. The observed antigenic differences might drive selection of CPV strains by generating differential immune pressure in the canine population, which raises concerns about vaccine efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00444-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2268271PMC
March 2008
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