Publications by authors named "Pascal Laforêt"

181 Publications

Nutritional status, swallowing disorders, and respiratory prognosis in adult Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

CRMR des maladies neuromusculaires Nord-Est-Ile de France, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, APHP, Université Paris Saclay/UFR Simone Veil-Santé-Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Garches, France.

Malnutrition and swallowing disorders are common in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. We assessed, in adult DMD with home mechanical ventilation (HMV) and cough assist device, its prevalence and the relationships with respiratory muscle strength and long-term respiratory prognosis. We reviewed the patients (n = 117, age 18-39 years [median 24]), followed in a reference center, from 2006 to 2015, to obtain clinical baseline, nutritional status, vital capacity (VC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). The median body mass index (BMI) was low (15.6 kg/m²). Included patients had severe restrictive respiratory function with a median VC of 10.5% [7-17] of the predicted value. All patients were on HMV. Prevalence of malnutrition, swallowing disorders, and gastrostomy were respectively 62%, 34%, and 11%. BMI and serum albumin level were significantly associated with MIP, MEP, and VC. The 1-year/5-years cumulative incidences of respiratory events (pulmonary sepsis and acute respiratory distress) were, respectively, 20.7%/44.5%. Using univariate analysis, predictive factors for respiratory events were swallowing disorders (p = .001), transthyretinemia (p = .034), MIP (p = .039), and MEP (p = .03) but not BMI or albuminemia. Using multivariate analysis, only swallowing disorders remained significantly associated with respiratory events (OR = 4.2, IC 95% 1.31-12.2, p = .01). In conclusion, this study highlights the interrelationships between nutritional intake, swallowing function, airway clearance, and respiratory function in adult DMD. A multidisciplinary approach focusing on these previous factors is essential to optimize DMD patient health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25430DOI Listing
May 2021

Improved Cardiac Outcomes by Early Treatment with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, Cardiology Department, Paris, France.

Background: The latest practice guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommend the prescription of an ACE-i for patients presenting with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy when left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) falls below 40%.

Objective: To determine if the initiation of treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-i) earlier than recommended by practice guidelines issued by professional societies improves the long-term cardiac outcomes of patients presenting with Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) cardiomyopathy.

Methods: From a multicenter registry of Becker MD, we selected retrospectively patients presenting between January 1990 and April 2019 with a LVEF ≥40 and ≤49%. We used a propensity score analysis to compare the risk of a) hospitalization for management of heart failure (HF), and b) a decrease in LVEF to <35% in patients who received an ACE-i when LVEF fell below 40% (conventional treatment), versus below 50% (early treatment).

Results: From the 183 patients entered in our registry, we identified 85 whose LVEF was between 40 and 49%, 51 of whom received early and 34 received conventional ACE-i treatment. Among patients with early versus conventional treatments, 2 (3.9%) versus 4 (11.8%) were hospitalized for management of HF [hazard ratio (HR) 0.151; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.028 to 0.822; p = 0.029], and 9 (17.6%) versus 10 (29.4%) had a decrease in LVEF below 35% (HR 0.290; 95% CI 0.121 to 0.694; p = 0.005).

Conclusions: The long-term cardiac outcome of patients presenting with Becker MD was significantly better when treatment with ACE-i was introduced after a decrease in LVEF below 50%, instead of below 40% as recommended in the current practice guidelines issued by professional societies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-200620DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy-analysis of registry data.

Eur Heart J 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Service d'Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, Garches, France  INSERM Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, France.

Aims: To estimate the effect of prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) on survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).

Methods And Results: We analysed the data from the French multicentre DMD Heart Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03443115). We estimated the association between the prophylactic prescription of ACEi and event-free survival in 668 patients aged 8 to 13 years, with normal left ventricular function, using (i) a Cox model with intervention as a time-dependent covariate, (ii) a propensity-based analysis comparing ACEi treatment vs. no treatment, and (iii) a set of sensitivity analyses. The study outcomes were overall survival and hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) or acute respiratory failure. Among the 668 patients included in the DMD Heart Registry, 576 (mean age 6.1 ± 2.8 years) were eligible for this study, of whom 390 were treated with ACEi prophylactically. Death occurred in 53 patients (13.5%) who were and 60 patients (32.3%) who were not treated prophylactically with ACEi, respectively. In a Cox model with intervention as a time-dependent variable, the hazard ratio (HR) associated with ACEi treatment was 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.72] and 0.47 (95% CI 0.31-0.17) for overall mortality after adjustment for baseline variables. In the propensity-based analysis, 278 patients were included in the treatment group and 834 in the control group, with 18.5% and 30.4% 12-year estimated probability of death, respectively. ACEi were associated with a lower risk of death (HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17-0.92) and hospitalization for HF (HR 0.16; 95% CI 0.04-0.62). All other sensitivity analyses yielded similar results.

Conclusion: Prophylactic ACEi treatment in DMD was associated with a significantly higher overall survival and lower rates of hospitalization for HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab054DOI Listing
March 2021

Deep phenotyping of an international series of patients with late-onset dysferlinopathy.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Nord/Est/Ile-de-France Neuromuscular Reference Center, Institute of Myology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, APHP, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: To describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular characteristics of late-onset (LO) dysferlinopathy patients.

Methods: Retrospective series of patients with LO dysferlinopathy, defined by an age at onset of symptoms ≥30 years, from neuromuscular centers in France and the International Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS). Patients with early-onset (EO) dysferlinopathy (<30 years) were randomly selected from the COS study as a control group, and the North Star Assessment for Dysferlinopathy (NSAD) and Activity Limitation (ACTIVLIM) scores were used to assess functionality. Muscle biopsies obtained from 11 LO and 11 EO patients were revisited.

Results: Forty-eight patients with LO dysferlinopathy were included (28 females). Median age at onset of symptoms was 37 (range 30-57) years and most patients showed a limb-girdle (n = 26) or distal (n = 10) phenotype. However, compared with EO dysferlinopathy patients (n = 48), LO patients more frequently showed atypical phenotypes (7 vs. 1; p = 0.014), including camptocormia, lower creatine kinase levels (2855 vs. 4394 U/L; p = 0.01), and higher NSAD (p = 0.008) and ACTIVLIM scores (p = 0.016). Loss of ambulation in LO patients tended to occur later (23 ± 4.4 years after disease onset vs. 16.3 ± 6.8 years; p = 0.064). Muscle biopsy of LO patients more frequently showed an atypical pattern (unspecific myopathic changes) as well as significantly less necrosis regeneration and inflammation. Although LO patients more frequently showed missense variants (39.8% vs. 23.9%; p = 0.021), no differences in dysferlin protein expression were found on Western blot.

Conclusions: Late-onset dysferlinopathy patients show a higher frequency of atypical presentations, are less severely affected, and show milder dystrophic changes in muscle biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14821DOI Listing
March 2021

251st ENMC international workshop: Polyglucosan storage myopathies 13-15 December 2019, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands.

Neuromuscul Disord 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2021.01.010DOI Listing
January 2021

[Sarcoglycanopathies: state of the art and therapeutic perspectives].

Med Sci (Paris) 2020 Dec 11;36 Hors série n° 2:22-27. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Centre de Référence des maladies neuromusculaires Nord/Est/Île-de-France, APHP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Sarcoglycanopathies are the third most common cause of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD). They are the result of a deficiency in one of the sarcoglycans a, b, g, or d. The usual clinical presentation is that of a symmetrical involvement of the muscles of the pelvic and scapular girdles as well as of the trunk, associated with more or less severe cardio-respiratory impairment and a marked increase of serum CK levels. The first symptoms appear during the first decade, the loss of ambulation occurring often during the second decade. Lesions observed on the muscle biopsy are dystrophic. This is associated with a decrease or an absence of immunostaining of the sarcoglycan corresponding to the mutated gene and, to a lesser degree, of the other three sarcoglycans. Many mutations have been reported in the four incriminated genes and some of them are prevalent in certain populations. To date, there is no curative treatment, which does not prevent the development of many clinical trials, especially in gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/2020243DOI Listing
December 2020

Development of new outcome measures for adult SMA type III and IV: a multimodal longitudinal study.

J Neurol 2021 May 2;268(5):1792-1802. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Laboratoire D'Imagerie Biomédicale, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM, Paris, France.

Objective: The aim of this study was the comprehensive characterisation of longitudinal clinical, electrophysiological and neuroimaging measures in type III and IV adult spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with a view to propose objective monitoring markers for future clinical trials.

Methods: Fourteen type III or IV SMA patients underwent standardised assessments including muscle strength testing, functional evaluation (SMAFRS and MFM), MUNIX (abductor pollicis brevis, APB; abductor digiti minimi, ADM; deltoid; tibialis anterior, TA; trapezius) and quantitative cervical spinal cord MRI to appraise segmental grey and white matter atrophy. Patients underwent a follow-up assessment with the same protocol 24 months later. Longitudinal comparisons were conducted using the Wilcoxon-test for matched data. Responsiveness was estimated using standardized response means (SRM) and a composite score was generated based on the three most significant variables.

Results: Significant functional decline was observed based on SMAFRS (p = 0.019), pinch and knee flexion strength (p = 0.030 and 0.027), MUNIX and MUSIX value in the ADM (p = 0.0006 and 0.043) and in TA muscle (p = 0.025). No significant differences were observed based on cervical MRI measures. A significant reduction was detected in the composite score (p = 0.0005, SRM = -1.52), which was the most responsive variable and required a smaller number of patients than single variables in the estimation of sample size for clinical trials.

Conclusions: Quantitative strength testing, SMAFRS and MUNIX readily capture disease progression in adult SMA patients. Composite multimodal scores increase predictive value and may reduce sample size requirements in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10332-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Narrative review of glycogen storage disorder type III with a focus on neuromuscular, cardiac and therapeutic aspects.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 May 3;44(3):521-533. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Généthon, Evry, France.

Glycogen storage disorder type III (GSDIII) is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to loss of glycogen debranching enzyme activity, causing inability to fully mobilize glycogen stores and its consequent accumulation in various tissues, notably liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the pediatric population, it classically presents as hepatomegaly with or without ketotic hypoglycemia and failure to thrive. In the adult population, it should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathy, exercise intolerance, as well as liver cirrhosis or fibrosis with subsequent liver failure. In this review article, we first present an overview of the biochemical and clinical aspects of GSDIII. We then focus on the recent findings regarding cardiac and neuromuscular impairment associated with the disease. We review new insights into the pathophysiology and clinical picture of this disorder, including symptomatology, imaging and electrophysiology. Finally, we discuss current and upcoming treatment strategies such as gene therapy aimed at the replacement of the malfunctioning enzyme to provide a stable and long-term therapeutic option for this debilitating disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12355DOI Listing
May 2021

Data from the European registry for patients with McArdle disease and other muscle glycogenoses (EUROMAC).

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 11 24;15(1):330. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Section 6921, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The European registry for patients with McArdle disease and other muscle glycogenoses (EUROMAC) was launched to register rare muscle glycogenoses in Europe, to facilitate recruitment for research trials and to learn about the phenotypes and disseminate knowledge about the diseases through workshops and websites. A network of twenty full and collaborating partners from eight European countries and the US contributed data on rare muscle glycogenosis in the EUROMAC registry. After approximately 3 years of data collection, the data in the registry was analysed.

Results: Of 282 patients with confirmed diagnoses of muscle glycogenosis, 269 had McArdle disease. New phenotypic features of McArdle disease were suggested, including a higher frequency (51.4%) of fixed weakness than reported before, normal CK values in a minority of patients (6.8%), ptosis in 8 patients, body mass index above background population and number of comorbidities with a higher frequency than in the background population (hypothyroidism, coronary heart disease).

Conclusions: The EUROMAC project and registry have provided insight into new phenotypic features of McArdle disease and the variety of co-comorbidities affecting people with McArdle disease. This should lead to better management of these disorders in the future, including controlling weight, and preventive screening for thyroid and coronary artery diseases, as well as physical examination with attention on occurrence of ptosis and fixed muscle weakness. Normal serum creatine kinase in a minority of patients stresses the need to not discard a diagnosis of McArdle disease even though creatine kinase is normal and episodes of myoglobinuria are absent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01562-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687836PMC
November 2020

Creation and implementation of a European registry for patients with McArdle disease and other muscle glycogenoses (EUROMAC registry).

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 10 15;15(1):187. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Biomedical Network Research Centre on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, and Research Group on Neuromuscular and Mitochondrial Diseases, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Pg. Vall d'Hebron 119, 08035, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: International patient registries are of particular importance for rare disorders, as they may contribute to overcome the lack of knowledge derived from low number of patients and limited awareness of these diseases, and help to learn more about their geographical or population-based specificities, which is relevant for research purposes and for promoting better standards of care and diagnosis. Our objective was to create and implement a European registry for patients with McArdle disease and other muscle glycogenoses (EUROMAC) and to disseminate the knowledge of these disorders.

Results: Teams from nine different countries (United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Turkey and USA) created a consortium that developed the first European registry dedicated to rare muscle glycogenoses. A work plan was implemented to design the database and platform that constitute the registry, by choosing clinical, genetics and molecular variables of interest, based on experience gained from previous national registries for similar metabolic disorders. Among dissemination activities, several teaching events were organized in different countries, especially those where the consortium considered the awareness of these diseases needs to be promoted among health professionals and patients.

Conclusion: EUROMAC represents a step forward in the knowledge of those disorders to which it is dedicated, and will have relevant clinical outcomes at the diagnostic, epidemiological, clinical and research level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01455-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558742PMC
October 2020

Biallelic mutations in Tenascin-X cause classical-like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with slowly progressive muscular weakness.

Neuromuscul Disord 2020 10 7;30(10):833-838. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

APHP, Department of Neurology, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Centre de Référence de Pathologie Neuromusculaire Nord-Est-Ile-de-France, 104 Bld Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France; Service de Neurologie, U1179 UVSQ-INSERM Handicap Neuromusculaire : Physiologie, Biothérapie et Pharmacologie appliquées, UFR Simone Veil-Santé, Université Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Pôle neuro-locomoteur, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, 104 boulevard Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Paris-Saclay, France. Electronic address:

Tenascin-X, is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein expressed in skin, muscle, tendons, and blood vessels with an anti-adhesive function. Biallelic Tenascin-X mutations cause classical-like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We report a 46-year-old woman with slowly progressive weakness of the lower limbs and myalgia from age 28 years. In the past she had Raynaud's phenomenon, multiple sprains and joint dislocations, conjunctival haemorrhages and a colonic perforation during colonoscopy. Neurologic examination showed moderate asymmetric proximal and axial muscular weakness, distal amyotrophy of 4 limbs, moderate skin hyperextensibility, and hypermobility of distal joints of fingers. Whole body Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed symmetric fatty infiltration of thigh and leg muscles, with predominant atrophy of thighs. Next Generation Sequencing revealed two pathogenic TNXB variants, g.32024681C>G, c.7826-1G>C, and g.32016181dup, c.9998dupA, p.(Asn3333Lysfs*35). Western Blot and immunofluorescence studies confirmed a marked Tenascin-X reduction in both patient's serum and muscle. Here we further detail the clinical and genetic spectrum of a patient with classical-like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and prominent muscle involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2020.09.002DOI Listing
October 2020

Phenotypic Spectrum of Myopathies with Recessive Anoctamin-5 Mutations.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2020 ;7(4):443-451

APHP, Department of Neurology, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, North-East-Ile-de-France Neuromuscular Pathology Reference Center, U 1179 INSERM, University Saint Quentin en Yvelines Versailles; Paris-Saclay, France.

Background: Biallelic variants in Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene are causative of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) R12 anoctamin5-related, non-dysferlin Miyoshi-like distal myopathy (MMD3), and asymptomatic hyperCKemia.

Objective: To describe clinic, histologic, genetic and imaging features, of ANO5 mutated patients.

Methods: Five patients, four from France (P1, P2, P3 and P4) and one from Mexico (P5), from four families were included. P1 and P2, belonging to group 1, had normal muscle strength; Group 2, P3, P4 and P5, presented with muscular weakness. Muscle strength was measured by manual muscle testing, Medical Research Council (MRC) grades 1/5 to 5/5. Laboratory exams included serum CK levels, nerve conduction studies (NCS)/needle electromyography (EMG), pulmonary function tests, EKG and cardiac ultrasound. ANO5 molecular screening was performed with different approaches.

Results: Group 1 patients showed myalgias with hyperCKemia or isolated hyperCKemia. Group 2 patients presented with limb-girdle or proximo-distal muscular weakness. Serum CK levels ranged from 897 to 5000 UI/L. Muscle biopsy analysis in P4 and P5 showed subsarcolemmal mitochondrial aggregates. Electron microscopy confirmed mitochondrial proliferation and revealed discontinuity of the sarcolemmal membrane. Muscle MRI showed asymmetrical fibro-fatty substitution predominant in the lower limbs.P1 and P2 were compound heterozygous for c.191dupA (p.Asn64Lysfs*15) and c.1898 + G>A; P3 was homozygous for the c.692G>T. (p.Gly231Val); P4 harbored a novel biallelic homozygous exons 1-7 ANO5 gene deletion, and P5 was homozygous for a c.172 C > T (p.(Arg 58 Trp)) ANO5 pathogenic variant.

Conclusions: Our cohort confirms the wide clinical variability and enlarge the genetic spectrum of ANO5-related myopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-200515DOI Listing
January 2020

Ganglionopathies Associated with MERRF Syndrome: An Original Report.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2020 ;7(4):419-423

Department of Neurology, Neuromuscular Reference Center Nord/Est/Ile de France, Raymond-Poincaré Teaching Hospital, AP-HP, Garches, Paris Saclay University, France.

Neuropathies in Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers (MERRF) syndrome are frequent but ganglionopathies have never been reported. We retrospectively identified 24 patients with MERRF mutations in the neuromuscular center Nord/Est/Ile de France (Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France). Seventeen nerve conduction studies (NCS) were available. Five patients had MERRF syndrome and ganglionopathy, a pure sensory neuropathy. All of them displayed ataxia and mild clinical sensory abnormalities. Ganglionopathies have been reported in mitochondrial diseases but never in MERRF syndrome. We suggest that patients presenting with ganglionopathy, especially if associated with myopathy, lipomatosis or epilepsy, should be screened for MERRF mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-200513DOI Listing
January 2020

Long-term benefit of enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa in adults with Pompe disease: Prospective analysis from the French Pompe Registry.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 11 27;43(6):1219-1231. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Centre de référence des maladies neuromusculaires Nord-Est-Ile de France, Service de Neurologie, CHU Raymond Poincaré, AP-HP, Garches, France.

Despite a wide clinical spectrum, the adult form of Pompe disease is the most common one, and represents more than 90% of diagnosed patients in France. Since the marketing of enzyme replacement therapy (alglucosidase alfa, Myozyme), all reports to date in adults demonstrated an improvement of the walking distance, and a trend toward stabilization of respiratory function, but the majority of these studies were less than 5 years of duration. We report here the findings from 158 treated patients included in the French Pompe Registry, who underwent regular clinical assessments based on commonly used standardized tests (6-minute walking test, MFM scale, sitting vital capacity, MIP and MEP). For longitudinal analyses, the linear mixed effects models were used to assess trends in primary endpoints over time under ERT. A two-phase model better described the changes in distance traveled in the 6-minute walk test and MFM. 6MWT showed an initial significant increase (1.4% ± 0.5/year) followed by a progressive decline (-2.3%/year), with a cut-off point at 2.2 years. A similar pattern was observed in total MFM score (6.6% ± 2.3/year followed by a - 1.1%/year decline after 0.5 years). A single-phase decline with a slope of -0.9 ± 0.1%/year (P < .001) was observed for FVC, and MEP remained stable over the all duration of follow-up. This study provides further evidence that ERT improves walking abilities and likely stabilizes respiratory function in adult patients with Pompe disease, with a ceiling effect for the 6MWT in the first 3 years of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12272DOI Listing
November 2020

Glycogenin-1 deficiency mimicking limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2020 Sep 24;24:100597. Epub 2020 May 24.

Neurology Department, Raymond Poincaré University Hospital, Garches, APHP, France.

Glycogen storage disease type XV (GSD XV) is a recently described muscle glycogenosis due to glycogenin-1 () deficiency characterized by the presence of polyglucosan bodies on muscle biopsy (Polyglucosan body myopathy-2, PGBM2). Here we describe a 44 year-old man with limb-girdle muscle weakness mimicking a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD), and early onset exertional myalgia. Neurologic examination revealed a waddling gait with hyperlordosis, bilateral asymmetric scapular winging, mild asymmetric deltoid and biceps brachii weakness, and pelvic-girdle weakness involving the gluteal muscles and, to a lesser extent, the quadriceps. Serum creatine kinase levels were slightly elevated. Electrophysiological examination showed a myopathic pattern. There was no cardiac or respiratory involvement. Whole-body muscle MRI revealed atrophy and fat replacement of the tongue, biceps brachii, pelvic girdle and erector spinae. A deltoid muscle biopsy showed the presence of PAS-positive inclusions that remained non-digested with alpha-amylase treatment. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the presence of polyglucosan bodies. A diagnostic gene panel designed by the Genetic Diagnosis Laboratory of Strasbourg University Hospital (France) for 210 muscular disorders genes disclosed two heterozygous, pathogenic gene mutations (c.304G>C;p.(Asp102His) + c.164_165del). Considering the clinical heterogeneity found in the previously described 38 GYG-1 deficient patients, we suggest that should be systematically included in targeted NGS gene panels for LGMDs, distal myopathies, and metabolic myopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251390PMC
September 2020

A New Glycogen Storage Disease Caused by a Dominant PYGM Mutation.

Ann Neurol 2020 08 3;88(2):274-282. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), Illkirch, France.

Objective: Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are severe human disorders resulting from abnormal glucose metabolism, and all previously described GSDs segregate as autosomal recessive or X-linked traits. In this study, we aimed to molecularly characterize the first family with a dominant GSD.

Methods: We describe a dominant GSD family with 13 affected members presenting with adult-onset muscle weakness, and we provide clinical, metabolic, histological, and ultrastructural data. We performed exome sequencing to uncover the causative gene, and functional experiments in the cell model and on recombinant proteins to investigate the pathogenic effect of the identified mutation.

Results: We identified a heterozygous missense mutation in PYGM segregating with the disease in the family. PYGM codes for myophosphorylase, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step of glycogen breakdown. Enzymatic tests revealed that the PYGM mutation impairs the AMP-independent myophosphorylase activity, whereas the AMP-dependent activity was preserved. Further functional investigations demonstrated an altered conformation and aggregation of mutant myophosphorylase, and the concurrent accumulation of the intermediate filament desmin in the myofibers of the patients.

Interpretation: Overall, this study describes the first example of a dominant glycogen storage disease in humans, and elucidates the underlying pathomechanisms by deciphering the sequence of events from the PYGM mutation to the accumulation of glycogen in the muscle fibers. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:274-282.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25771DOI Listing
August 2020

Urine glucose tetrasaccharide: A good biomarker for glycogenoses type II and III? A study of the French cohort.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2020 Jun 1;23:100583. Epub 2020 May 1.

Centre de Référence des Maladies Neuromusculaires Nord-Est-Ile de France, Service de Neurologie, CHU Raymond Poincaré, AP-HP, 104 bd Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200937PMC
June 2020

A Proteomics-Based Analysis Reveals Predictive Biological Patterns in Fabry Disease.

J Clin Med 2020 May 2;9(5). Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Metabolic Biochemistry, Rouen University Hospital, 76000 Rouen, France.

: Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked progressive lysosomal disease (LD) due to glycosphingolipid metabolism impairment. Currently, plasmatic globotriaosylsphingosine (LysoGb3) is used for disease diagnosis and monitoring. However, this biomarker is inconstantly increased in mild forms and in some female patients. : We applied a targeted proteomic approach to explore disease-related biological patterns that might explain the disease pathophysiology. Forty proteins, involved mainly in inflammatory and angiogenesis processes, were assessed in 69 plasma samples retrieved from the French Fabry cohort (FFABRY) and from 83 healthy subjects. For predictive performance assessment, we also included other LD samples (Gaucher, Pompe and Niemann Pick C). : The study yielded four discriminant proteins that include three angiogenesis proteins (fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC)) and one cytokine interleukin 7 (IL-7). A clear elevation of FGF2 and IL-7 concentrations was observed in FD compared to other LD samples. No correlation was observed between these proteins and globotriaosylsphingosine (LysoGb3). A significant correlation exists between IL-7 and residual enzyme activity in a non-classical phenotype. This highlights the orthogonal biological information yielded by these proteins that might help in stratifying Fabry patients. : This work highlights the potential of using proteomics approaches in exploring FD and enhancing FD diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290805PMC
May 2020

A high prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with mitochondrial diseases.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 05 15;43(3):478-485. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Cardiology Department, AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, FILNEMUS, Centre de Référence de Pathologie Neuromusculaire Nord/Est/Ile de France, Paris, France.

The prevalence of arterial hypertension in mitochondrial diseases remains unknown. Between January 2000 and May 2014, we retrospectively included patients with genetically proven mitochondrial diseases. We recorded clinical, genetic and cardiac exploration data, including the measure of arterial pressure. Among the 260 patients included in the study (mean age = 44 ± 15 years, women = 158), 108 (41.5%) presented with arterial hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension by sex and age was higher than that observed in the general population for all groups. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in patients with MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) mutations (66%) and MERRF (myoclonus, epilepsy, ataxia with ragged ref fibres) mutations (61%). In patients with MELAS mutation, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with age and mutation rate in the blood (odds ratio = 1.12; P = .02) in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was more important in patients having a mitochondrial disease. The increased risk was more important in patient with MELAS or MERRF and depended on the rate of heteroplasmy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12195DOI Listing
May 2020

Deep morphological analysis of muscle biopsies from type III glycogenesis (GSDIII), debranching enzyme deficiency, revealed stereotyped vacuolar myopathy and autophagy impairment.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 10 28;7(1):167. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

APHP, Department of Neurology, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France.

Glycogen storage disorder type III (GSDIII), or debranching enzyme (GDE) deficiency, is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by variable liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle involvement. GSDIII manifests with liver symptoms in infancy and muscle involvement during early adulthood. Muscle biopsy is mainly performed in patients diagnosed in adulthood, as routine diagnosis relies on blood or liver GDE analysis, followed by AGL gene sequencing. The GSDIII mouse model recapitulate the clinical phenotype in humans, and a nearly full rescue of muscle function was observed in mice treated with the dual AAV vector expressing the GDE transgene.In order to characterize GSDIII muscle morphological spectrum and identify novel disease markers and pathways, we performed a large international multicentric morphological study on 30 muscle biopsies from GSDIII patients. Autophagy flux studies were performed in human muscle biopsies and muscles from GSDIII mice. The human muscle biopsies revealed a typical and constant vacuolar myopathy, characterized by multiple and variably sized vacuoles filled with PAS-positive material. Using electron microscopy, we confirmed the presence of large non-membrane bound sarcoplasmic deposits of normally structured glycogen as well as smaller rounded sac structures lined by a continuous double membrane containing only glycogen, corresponding to autophagosomes. A consistent SQSTM1/p62 decrease and beclin-1 increase in human muscle biopsies suggested an enhanced autophagy. Consistent with this, an increase in the lipidated form of LC3, LC3II was found in patients compared to controls. A decrease in SQSTM1/p62 was also found in the GSDIII mouse model.In conclusion, we characterized the morphological phenotype in GSDIII muscle and demonstrated dysfunctional autophagy in GSDIII human samples.These findings suggest that autophagic modulation combined with gene therapy might be considered as a novel treatment for GSDIII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0815-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819650PMC
October 2019

Incidence and predictors of total mortality in 267 adults presenting with mitochondrial diseases.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 05 26;43(3):459-466. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

APHP, Raymond-Poincaré Teaching Hospital, Neurology department, Nord/Est/Ile de France Neuromuscular Reference Center, Garches, France.

Assessing long-term mortality and identifying predictors of death in adults with mitochondrial diseases. We retrospectively included adult patients with genetically proven mitochondrial diseases referred to our centre between January 2000 and June 2016, and collected information relative to their genetic testing, clinical assessments, and vital status. We performed single and multiple variable analyses in search of predictors of total mortality, and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 267 patients (women 59%; median age 43.3 [31.3-54.2] years), including 111 with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) single large-scale deletions, 65 with m.3243A>G, 24 with m.8344A>G, 32 with other mtDNA point mutations, and 36 patients with nuclear genes mutations. Over a median follow-up of 8.9 years (0.3 to 18.7), 61 patients (22.8%) died, at a median age of 50.7 (37.9-51.9) years. Primary cause of death was cardiovascular disease in 16 patients (26.2%), respiratory in 11 (18.0%), and gastrointestinal in 5 (8.1%). By multiple variable analysis, diabetes (HR 2.75; 95% CI 1.46-5.18), intraventricular cardiac conduction defects (HR 3.38; 95% CI 1.71-6.76) and focal brain involvement (HR 2.39; 95% CI 1.25-4.57) were independent predictors of death. Adult patients with mitochondrial diseases present high morbidity that can be independently predicted by the presence of diabetes, intraventricular cardiac conduction defects, and focal brain involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12185DOI Listing
May 2020

Large variation in effects during 10 years of enzyme therapy in adults with Pompe disease.

Neurology 2019 11 16;93(19):e1756-e1767. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

From the Departments of Neurology (L.H., E.B., P.A.v.D., N.A.M.E.v.d.B.) and Pediatrics (M.E.K., A.T.v.d.P.), Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases Erasmus MC, and Department of Biostatistics (D.R.), University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands; Institute of Myology (J.-Y.H., B.P., N.T., A.C.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Nord/Est/Ile de France Neuromuscular Center, Raymond Poincaré Teaching Hospital, AP-HP, Garches; and INSERM U1179 (P.L.), END-ICAP, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Objective: To determine the effects of 10 years of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in adult patients with Pompe disease, focusing on individual variability in treatment response.

Methods: In this prospective, multicenter cohort study, we studied 30 patients from the Netherlands and France who had started ERT during the only randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with ERT in late-onset Pompe disease (NCT00158600) or its extension (NCT00455195) in 2005 to 2008. Main outcomes were walking ability (6-minute walk test [6MWT]), muscle strength (manual muscle testing using Medical Research Council [MRC] grading), and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC] in the upright and supine positions), assessed at 3- to 6-month intervals before and after the start of ERT. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models for repeated measurements.

Results: Median follow-up duration on ERT was 9.8 years (interquartile range [IQR] 8.3-10.2 years). At the group level, baseline 6MWT was 49% of predicted (IQR 41%-60%) and had deteriorated by 22.2 percentage points (pp) at the 10-year treatment point ( < 0.001). Baseline FVC upright was 54% of predicted (IQR 47%-68%) and decreased by 11 pp over 10 years ( < 0.001). Effects of ERT on MRC sum score and FVC supine were similar. At the individual level, 93% of patients had initial benefit of ERT. Depending on the outcome measured, 35% to 63% of patients had a secondary decline after ≈3 to 5 years. Still, at 10 years of ERT, 52% had equal or better 6MWT and/or FVC upright compared to baseline.

Conclusions: The majority of patients with Pompe disease benefit from long-term ERT, but many patients experience some secondary decline after ≈3 to 5 years. Individual variation, however, is considerable.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for the majority of adults with Pompe disease, long-term ERT positively affects, or slows deterioration in, muscle strength, walking ability, and/or pulmonary function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946483PMC
November 2019

European muscle MRI study in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type R1/2A (LGMDR1/LGMD2A).

J Neurol 2020 Jan 25;267(1):45-56. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

APHP, Department of Radiology, Garches Neuromuscular Center (GNMH), Raymond Poincaré University Hospital (UVSQ, U 1179), Garches, France.

Background: Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type R1/2A (LGMDR1/LGMD2A) is a progressive myopathy caused by deficiency of calpain 3, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease of skeletal muscle, and it represents the most frequent type of LGMD worldwide. In the last few years, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a tool for identifying patterns of muscular involvement in genetic disorders and as a biomarker of disease progression in muscle diseases. In this study, 57 molecularly confirmed LGMDR1 patients from a European cohort (age range 7-78 years) underwent muscle MRI and a global evaluation of functional status (Gardner-Medwin and Walton score and ability to raise the arms).

Results: We confirmed a specific pattern of fatty substitution involving predominantly the hip adductors and hamstrings in lower limbs. Spine extensors were more severely affected than spine rotators, in agreement with higher incidence of lordosis than scoliosis in LGMDR1. Hierarchical clustering of lower limb MRI scores showed that involvement of anterior thigh muscles discriminates between classes of disease progression. Severity of muscle fatty substitution was significantly correlated with CAPN3 mutations: in particular, patients with no or one "null" alleles showed a milder involvement, compared to patients with two null alleles (i.e., predicting absence of calpain-3 protein). Expectedly, fat infiltration scores strongly correlated with functional measures. The "pseudocollagen" sign (central areas of sparing in some muscle) was associated with longer and more severe disease course.

Conclusions: We conclude that skeletal muscle MRI represents a useful tool in the diagnostic workup and clinical management of LGMDR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09539-yDOI Listing
January 2020

No effect of triheptanoin on exercise performance in McArdle disease.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 10 14;6(10):1949-1960. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: To study if treatment with triheptanoin, a 7-carbon triglyceride, improves exercise tolerance in patients with McArdle disease. McArdle patients have a complete block in glycogenolysis and glycogen-dependent expansion of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), which may restrict fat oxidation. We hypothesized that triheptanoin metabolism generates substrates for the TCA, which potentially boosts fat oxidation and improves exercise tolerance in McArdle disease.

Methods: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in patients with McArdle disease completing two treatment periods of 14 days each with a triheptanoin or placebo diet (1 g/kg/day). Primary outcome was change in mean heart rate during 20 min submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer. Secondary outcomes were change in peak workload and oxygen uptake along with changes in blood metabolites and respiratory quotients.

Results: Nineteen of 22 patients completed the trial. Malate levels rose on triheptanoin treatment versus placebo (8.0 ± SD2.3 vs. 5.5 ± SD1.8 µmol/L, P < 0.001), but dropped from rest to exercise (P < 0.001). There was no difference in exercise heart rates between triheptanoin (120 ± SD16 bpm) and placebo (121 ± SD16 bpm) treatments. Compared with placebo, triheptanoin did not change the submaximal respiratory quotient (0.82 ± SD0.05 vs. 0.84 ± SD0.03), peak workload (105 ± SD38 vs. 102 ± SD31 Watts), or peak oxygen uptake (1938 ± SD499 vs. 1977 ± SD380 mL/min).

Interpretation: Despite increased resting plasma malate with triheptanoin, the increase was insufficient to generate a normal TCA turnover during exercise and the treatment has no effect on exercise capacity or oxidative metabolism in patients with McArdle disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.50863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801166PMC
October 2019

X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy manifesting with adult onset axial weakness, camptocormia, and minimal joint contractures.

Neuromuscul Disord 2019 09 19;29(9):678-683. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

APHP, Department of Neurology, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Centre de Référence de Pathologie Neuromusculaire Nord-Est-Ile-de-France, 104 Bld Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France; Service de Neurologie, U1179 UVSQ-INSERM Handicap Neuromusculaire: Physiologie, Biothérapie et Pharmacologie appliquées, UFR Simone Veil-Santé, Université Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Pôle neuro-locomoteur, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, Paris-Saclay, 104 boulevard Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France. Electronic address:

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is an early-onset, slowly progressive myopathy characterized by the development of multiple contractures, muscle weakness and cardiac dysfunction. We present here the case of a 65-year-old male patient with a 20 year history of slowly progressive camptocormia, bradycardia and shortness of breath. Examination showed severe spine extensor and neck flexor muscle weakness with slight upper limb proximal weakness. Cardiologic assessment revealed slow atrial fibrillation. Whole body MRI demonstrated adipose substitution of the paravertebral, limb girdle and peroneal muscles as well as the tongue. Emerin immunohistochemistry on patient muscle biopsy revealed the absence of nuclear envelope labeling confirmed by Western Blot. Genetic analysis showed a hemizygous duplication of 5 bases in exon 6 of the EMD, emerin, gene on the X chromosome. This is an unusual presentation of X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy with adult onset, predominant axial muscles involvement and minimal joint contractures. Diagnosis was prompted by the analysis of emerin on muscle biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2019.06.009DOI Listing
September 2019

Progress and challenges of gene therapy for Pompe disease.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Jul;7(13):287

Genethon and Spark Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Pompe disease (PD) is a monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the acid alpha-glucosidase gene (). GAA is a lysosomal enzyme essential for the degradation of glycogen. Deficiency of GAA results in a severe, systemic disorder that, in its most severe form, can be fatal. About a decade ago, the prognosis of PD has changed dramatically with the marketing authorization of an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) based on recombinant GAA. Despite the breakthrough nature of ERT, long-term follow-up of both infantile and late-onset Pompe disease patients (IOPD and LOPD, respectively), revealed several limitations of the approach. In recent years several investigational therapies for PD have entered preclinical and clinical development, with a few next generation ERTs entering late-stage clinical development. Gene therapy holds the potential to change dramatically the way we treat PD, based on the ability to express the gene long-term, ideally driving enhanced therapeutic efficacy compared to ERT. Several gene therapy approaches to PD have been tested in preclinical animal models, with a handful of early phase clinical trials started or about to start. The complexity of PD and of the endpoints used to measure efficacy of investigational treatments remains a challenge, however the hope is for a future with more therapeutic options for both IOPD and LOPD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.04.67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642941PMC
July 2019

Impaired fat oxidation during exercise in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

JIMD Rep 2019 Mar 14;46(1):79-84. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Department of Neurology Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Rigshospitalet Copenhagen Denmark.

We investigated the in vivo skeletal muscle metabolism in patients with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) during exercise, and the effect of a glucose infusion. Two adults with MADD on riboflavin and l-carnitine treatment and 10 healthy controls performed an incremental exercise test measuring maximal oxidative capacity (VO) and a submaximal exercise test (≤1 hour) on a cycle ergometer. During submaximal exercise, we studied fat and carbohydrate oxidation, using stable isotope tracer methodology and indirect calorimetry. On another day, the patients repeated the submaximal exercise receiving a 10% glucose infusion. The patients had a lower VO than controls and stopped the submaximal exercise test at 51 and 58 minutes due to muscle pain and exhaustion. The exercise-induced increase in total fatty acid oxidation was blunted in the patients (7.1 and 1.1 vs 12 ± 4 μmol × kg × min in the healthy controls), but total carbohydrate oxidation was higher (67 and 63 vs 25 ± 11 μmol × kg × min in controls). With glucose infusion, muscle pain decreased and average heart rate during exercise dropped in both patients from 124 to 119 bpm and 138 to 119 bpm. We demonstrate that exercise intolerance in MADD-patients relates to an inability to increase fat oxidation appropriately during exercise, which is compensated partially by an increase in carbohydrate metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmd2.12024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498824PMC
March 2019

Development and Validation of a New Risk Prediction Score for Life-Threatening Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Laminopathies.

Circulation 2019 07 3;140(4):293-302. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

APHM, Centre de référence des maladies neuromusculaires PACA-Réunion-Rhône Alpes, Hôpital Timone; Aix Marseille Université, Inserm UMR_S 910, GMGF, France (E.S.).

Background: An accurate estimation of the risk of life-threatening (LT) ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) in patients with LMNA mutations is crucial to select candidates for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

Methods: We included 839 adult patients with LMNA mutations, including 660 from a French nationwide registry in the development sample, and 179 from other countries, referred to 5 tertiary centers for cardiomyopathies, in the validation sample. LTVTA was defined as (1) sudden cardiac death or (2) implantable cardioverter defibrillator-treated or hemodynamically unstable VTA. The prognostic model was derived using the Fine-Gray regression model. The net reclassification was compared with current clinical practice guidelines. The results are presented as means (SD) or medians [interquartile range].

Results: We included 444 patients, 40.6 (14.1) years of age, in the derivation sample and 145 patients, 38.2 (15.0) years, in the validation sample, of whom 86 (19.3%) and 34 (23.4%) experienced LTVTA over 3.6 [1.0-7.2] and 5.1 [2.0-9.3] years of follow-up, respectively. Predictors of LTVTA in the derivation sample were: male sex, nonmissense LMNA mutation, first degree and higher atrioventricular block, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and left ventricular ejection fraction (https://lmna-risk-vta.fr). In the derivation sample, C-index (95% CI) of the model was 0.776 (0.711-0.842), and the calibration slope 0.827. In the external validation sample, the C-index was 0.800 (0.642-0.959), and the calibration slope was 1.082 (95% CI, 0.643-1.522). A 5-year estimated risk threshold ≥7% predicted 96.2% of LTVTA and net reclassified 28.8% of patients with LTVTA in comparison with the guidelines-based approach.

Conclusions: In comparison with the current standard of care, this risk prediction model for LTVTA in laminopathies significantly facilitated the choice of candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03058185.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.039410DOI Listing
July 2019

Diaphragm sniff ultrasound: Normal values, relationship with sniff nasal pressure and accuracy for predicting respiratory involvement in patients with neuromuscular disorders.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214288. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Service de Physiologie-Explorations fonctionnelles, CHU Raymond Poincaré, APHP, Université de Versailles saint Quentin en Yvelines, Garches, France.

Background: In patients with neuromuscular disorders, assessment of respiratory function relies on forced vital capacity (FVC) measurements. Providing complementary respiratory outcomes may be useful for clinical trials. Diaphragm sniff ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive technique that can assess diaphragm function that may be affected in patients with neuromuscular disorders.

Purpose: We aimed to provide normal values of sniff diaphragm ultrasound, to assess the relationship between sniff diaphragm US, vital capacity (VC) and sniff nasal pressure. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sniff diaphragm US for predicting restrictive pulmonary insufficiency.

Materials And Methods: We included patients with neuromuscular disorders that had been tested with a sniff diaphragm US and functional respiratory tests. Healthy subjects were also included to obtain normal diaphragm sniff ultrasound. We performed diaphragm tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and time movement (TM) diaphragm echography combined with sniff maneuver.

Results: A total of 89 patients with neuromuscular diseases and 27 healthy subjects were included in our study. In patients, the median age was 32 years [25; 50] and the median FVC was 34% of predicted [18; 55]. Sniff diaphragm motion using TM ultrasound was significantly associated with sniff nasal pressure, both for the right hemidiaphragm (r = 0.6 p <0.0001) and the left hemidiaphragm (r = 0.63 p = 0.0008). Right sniff peak TDI velocity was also significantly associated with FVC (r = 0.72, p<0.0001) and with sniff nasal pressure (r = 0.66 p<0.0001). Sniff diaphragm ultrasound using either TM mode or TDI displayed significant accuracy for predicting FVC<60% with an area under curve (AUC) reaching 0.93 (p<0.0001) for the right sniff diaphragm ultrasound in TM mode and 0.86 (p<0.001) for right peak diaphragm TDI velocity.

Conclusion: Sniff diaphragm TM and TDI measures were significantly associated with sniff nasal pressure. Sniff diaphragm TM and TDI had a high level of accuracy to reveal respiratory involvement in patients with neuromuscular disorders. This technique is useful to assess and follow up diaphragm function in patients with neuromuscular disorders. It may be used as a respiratory outcome for clinical trials.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214288PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481788PMC
December 2019

FSHD1 and FSHD2 form a disease continuum.

Neurology 2019 05 12;92(19):e2273-e2285. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

From the Peripheral Nervous System (S.S., M.G., C.C., A.P.), Muscle & ALS Department, Pasteur 2 Hospital, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, and Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging of Nice (S.S., C.B., N.L., P.N., G.C.), CNRS, INSERM, Université Côte d'Azur; Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology (A.B.-S., S.R., M.J.), Cochin Hospital, Paris, France; Department of Human Genetics (R.J.L.F.L., S.M.v.d.M.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; Rare Neuromuscular Diseases Centre (C.C.), Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; Pathology Department (F.C.), CHRU of Caen, INSERM U1075, University of Caen, Normandy; Myology Institute (T.S., A.B., B.E.), Center of Research in Myology, APHP, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM UMRS974, CNRS FRE3617, Paris; Electromyography and Neuromuscular Department (C.V., F.B., P.P.), Neurologic Hospital, Lyon East Hospital Group, Lyon-Bron, France; Neuromuscular Center, Department of Neuroscience (M.C., E.P.), and Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health (L.S.), University of Padova, Italy; Institut Imagine, Imagine Bioinfomatics Platform (M.B.), Paris Descartes University; Département de Neurologie (A.E.-L.), Hôpitaux Universitaires, Strasbourg; Nord/Est/Ile de France Neuromuscular Center (P.L.), Neurology Department, Raymond Poincaré Teaching Hospital, Garches; INSERM U1179 (P.L.), END-ICAP, Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France; and IRP Città della Speranza (L.S.), Padova, Italy.

Objective: To compare the clinical features of patients showing a classical phenotype of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) with genetic and epigenetic characteristics of the FSHD1 and FSHD2 loci D4Z4 and .

Methods: This is a national multicenter cohort study. We measured motor strength, motor function, and disease severity by manual muscle testing sumscore, Brooke and Vignos scores, clinical severity score (CSS), and age-corrected CSS, respectively. We correlated these scores with genetic (D4Z4 repeat size and haplotype; variant status) and epigenetic (D4Z4 methylation) parameters.

Results: We included 103 patients: 54 men and 49 women. Among them, we identified 64 patients with FSHD1 and 20 patients with FSHD2. Seven patients had genetic and epigenetic characteristics of FSHD1 and FSHD2, all carrying repeats of 9-10 D4Z4 repeat units (RU) and a pathogenic variant. In the remaining patients, FSHD was genetically excluded or remained unconfirmed. All clinically affected mutation carriers had a D4Z4 repeat of 9-16 RU on a disease permissive 4qA haplotype. These patients are significantly more severely affected by all clinical scales when compared to patients with FSHD1 with upper-sized FSHD1 alleles (8-10 RU).

Conclusion: The overlap between FSHD1 and FSHD2 patients in the 9-10 D4Z4 RU range suggests that FSHD1 and FSHD2 form a disease continuum. The previously established repeat size threshold for FSHD1 (1-10 RU) and FSHD2 (11-20 RU) needs to be reconsidered.

Clinicaltrialsgov Identifier: NCT01970735.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537132PMC
May 2019