Publications by authors named "Pascal Gentile"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reversible Al Propagation in Si Ge Nanowires: Implications for Electrical Contact Formation.

ACS Appl Nano Mater 2020 Oct 29;3(10):10427-10436. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

CNRS, Institut NEEL UPR2940, Université Grenoble Alpes, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38042, France.

While reversibility is a fundamental concept in thermodynamics, most reactions are not readily reversible, especially in solid-state physics. For example, thermal diffusion is a widely known concept, used among others to inject dopants into the substitutional positions in the matrix and improve device properties. Typically, such a diffusion process will create a concentration gradient extending over increasingly large regions, without possibility to reverse this effect. On the other hand, while the bottom-up growth of semiconducting nanowires is interesting, it can still be difficult to fabricate axial heterostructures with high control. In this paper, we report a thermally assisted partially reversible thermal diffusion process occurring in the solid-state reaction between an Al metal pad and a Si Ge alloy nanowire observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The thermally assisted reaction results in the creation of a Si-rich region sandwiched between the reacted Al and unreacted Si Ge part, forming an axial Al/Si/Si Ge heterostructure. Upon heating or (slow) cooling, the Al metal can repeatably move in and out of the Si Ge alloy nanowire while maintaining the rodlike geometry and crystallinity, allowing to fabricate and contact nanowire heterostructures in a reversible way in a single process step, compatible with current Si-based technology. This interesting system is promising for various applications, such as phase change memories in an all crystalline system with integrated contacts as well as Si/Si Ge /Si heterostructures for near-infrared sensing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.0c02303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589613PMC
October 2020

Impact of droplet composition on the nucleation rate and morphology of vapor-liquid-solid GeSn nanowires.

Nanotechnology 2020 Oct 5;31(40):405602. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, 197101, St. Petersburg, Russia.

It is well-known that the chemical potential which drives the vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires is strongly affected by the liquid phase composition. Here, we investigate theoretically how the droplet composition influences the nucleation of Au-catalyzed GeSn nanowires on Ge(111) and Si(111) substrates. We compare the chemical potentials in an Au-Ge-Sn catalyst droplet before and after adding Ga and/or Si atoms. It is found that the presence of these atoms enhances the nucleation rate of nanowires on both substrates. Theoretical results are compared to experimental data on GeSn nanowires grown in a hot-wall reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor. It is shown that the intentional addition of Ga in the de-wetting step improves the uniformity of the nanowire dimensions and yields higher density of nanowires over Ge(111) substrates. The nanowire growth on Si(111) substrate occurs only when Ga and/or Si are added to Au droplets. These results show that controlling the composition of the catalyst droplet is crucial for improving the quality of GeSn nanowires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab99f6DOI Listing
October 2020

In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Aluminum-Germanium Nanowire Solid-State Reaction.

Nano Lett 2019 05 9;19(5):2897-2904. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Université Grenoble Alpes , F-38000 Grenoble , France.

To fully exploit the potential of semiconducting nanowires for devices, high quality electrical contacts are of paramount importance. This work presents a detailed in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of a very promising type of NW contact where aluminum metal enters the germanium semiconducting nanowire to form an extremely abrupt and clean axial metal-semiconductor interface. We study this solid-state reaction between the aluminum contact and germanium nanowire in situ in the TEM using two different local heating methods. Following the reaction interface of the intrusion of Al in the Ge nanowire shows that at temperatures between 250 and 330 °C the position of the interface as a function of time is well fitted by a square root function, indicating that the reaction rate is limited by a diffusion process. Combining both chemical analysis and electron diffraction we find that the Ge of the nanowire core is completely exchanged by the entering Al atoms that form a monocrystalline nanowire with the usual face-centered cubic structure of Al, where the nanowire dimensions are inherited from the initial Ge nanowire. Model-based chemical mapping by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) characterization reveals the three-dimensional chemical cross-section of the transformed nanowire with an Al core, surrounded by a thin pure Ge (∼2 nm), AlO (∼3 nm), and Ge containing AlO (∼1 nm) layer, respectively. The presence of Ge containing shells around the Al core indicates that Ge diffuses back into the metal reservoir by surface diffusion, which was confirmed by the detection of Ge atoms in the Al metal line by EDX analysis. Fitting a diffusion equation to the kinetic data allows the extraction of the diffusion coefficient at two different temperatures, which shows a good agreement with diffusion coefficients from literature for self-diffusion of Al.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b05171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6509643PMC
May 2019

Measurement of anisotropic thermal conductivity of a dense forest of nanowires using the 3 method.

Rev Sci Instrum 2018 Aug;89(8):084902

Institut Néel, CNRS, 38000 Grenoble, France.

The 3 method is a dynamic measurement technique developed for determining the thermal conductivity of thin films or semi-infinite bulk materials. A simplified model is often applied to deduce the thermal conductivity from the slope of the real part of the ac temperature amplitude as a function of the logarithm of frequency, which in-turn brings a limitation on the kind of samples under observation. In this work, we have measured the thermal conductivity of a forest of nanowires embedded in nanoporous alumina membranes using the 3 method. An analytical solution of 2D heat conduction is then used to model the multilayer system, considering the anisotropic thermal properties of the different layers, substrate thermal conductivity, and their thicknesses. Data treatment is performed by fitting the experimental results with the 2D model on two different sets of nanowires (silicon and BiSbTe) embedded in the matrix of nanoporous alumina templates, having thermal conductivities that differ by at least one order of magnitude. These experimental results show that this method extends the applicability of the 3 technique to more complex systems having anisotropic thermal properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5025319DOI Listing
August 2018

Tailoring Strain and Morphology of Core-Shell SiGe Nanowires by Low-Temperature Ge Condensation.

Nano Lett 2017 12 14;17(12):7299-7305. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Aix-Marseille Université - CNRS, IM2NP, Faculté des Sciences de Jérôme , F-13397 Marseille France.

Selective oxidation of the silicon element of silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys during thermal oxidation is a very important and technologically relevant mechanism used to fabricate a variety of microelectronic devices. We develop here a simple integrative approach involving vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth followed by selective oxidation steps to the construction of core-shell nanowires and higher-level ordered systems with scalable configurations. We examine the selective oxidation/condensation process under nonequilibrium conditions that gives rise to spontaneous formation of core-shell structures by germanium condensation. We contrast this strategy that uses reaction-diffusion-segregation mechanisms to produce coherently strained structures with highly configurable geometry and abrupt interfaces with growth-based processes which lead to low strained systems with nonuniform composition, three-dimensional morphology, and broad core-shell interface. We specially focus on SiGe core-shell nanowires and demonstrate that they can have up to 70% Ge-rich shell and 2% homogeneous strain with core diameter as small as 14 nm. Key elements of the building process associated with this approach are identified with regard to existing theoretical models. Moreover, starting from results of ab initio calculations, we discuss the electronic structure of these novel nanostructures as well as their wide potential for advanced device applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02832DOI Listing
December 2017

Atomic Layer Deposition Alumina-Passivated Silicon Nanowires: Probing the Transition from Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor to Electrolytic Capacitor.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 Apr 10;9(15):13761-13769. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

University Grenoble Alpes , CEA, CNR INAC-SyMMES UMR 5819, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10 charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights into the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior. Ultimately, thin ALD dielectric coatings can be used to obtain hybrid devices exhibiting large cell voltage and excellent cycle life of dielectric capacitors, while retaining energy and power densities close to the ones displayed by supercapacitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b01574DOI Listing
April 2017

Designing 3D Multihierarchical Heteronanostructures for High-Performance On-Chip Hybrid Supercapacitors: Poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene)-Coated Diamond/Silicon Nanowire Electrodes in an Aprotic Ionic Liquid.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Jul 8;8(28):18069-77. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

SPRAM, CNRS , F-38000 Grenoble, France.

A versatile and robust hierarchically multifunctionalized nanostructured material made of poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated [email protected] nanowires has been demonstrated to be an excellent capacitive electrode for supercapacitor devices. Thus, the electrochemical deposition of nanometric PEDOT films on diamond-coated silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrodes using N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ionic liquid displayed a specific capacitance value of 140 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1). The as-grown functionalized electrodes were evaluated in a symmetric planar microsupercapacitor using butyltrimethylammonium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide aprotic ionic liquid as the electrolyte. The device exhibited extraordinary energy and power density values of 26 mJ cm(-2) and 1.3 mW cm(-2) within a large voltage cell of 2.5 V, respectively. In addition, the system was able to retain 80% of its initial capacitance after 15 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 1 mA cm(-2) while maintaining a Coulombic efficiency around 100%. Therefore, this multifunctionalized hybrid device represents one of the best electrochemical performances concerning coated SiNW electrodes for a high-energy advanced on-chip supercapacitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b04816DOI Listing
July 2016

3D hierarchical assembly of ultrathin MnO2 nanoflakes on silicon nanowires for high performance micro-supercapacitors in Li- doped ionic liquid.

Sci Rep 2015 May 18;5:9771. Epub 2015 May 18.

1] Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CIN2, ICN2 (CSIC-ICN), Campus UAB E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona [2] Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain.

Building of hierarchical core-shell hetero-structures is currently the subject of intensive research in the electrochemical field owing to its potential for making improved electrodes for high-performance micro-supercapacitors. Here we report a novel architecture design of hierarchical [email protected] nanowires ([email protected]) hetero-structures directly supported onto silicon wafer coupled with Li-ion doped 1-Methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluromethylsulfonyl)imide (PMPyrrBTA) ionic liquids as electrolyte for micro-supercapacitors. A unique 3D mesoporous [email protected] in Li-ion doped IL electrolyte can be cycled reversibly across a voltage of 2.2 V and exhibits a high areal capacitance of 13 mFcm(-2). The high conductivity of the SiNWs arrays combined with the large surface area of ultrathin MnO2 nanoflakes are responsible for the remarkable performance of these [email protected] hetero-structures which exhibit high energy density and excellent cycling stability. This combination of hybrid electrode and hybrid electrolyte opens up a novel avenue to design electrode materials for high-performance micro-supercapacitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep09771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4434954PMC
May 2015

Tensile strained germanium nanowires measured by photocurrent spectroscopy and X-ray microdiffraction.

Nano Lett 2015 Apr 16;15(4):2429-33. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

†Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, SINAPS, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

Applying tensile strain in a single germanium crystal is a very promising way to tune its bandstructure and turn it into a direct band gap semiconductor. In this work, we stress vapor-liquid-solid grown germanium nanowires along their [111] axis thanks to the strain tranfer from a silicon nitride thin film by a microfabrication process. We measure the Γ-LH direct band gap transition by photocurrent spectrometry and quantify associated strain by X-ray Laue microdiffraction on beamline BM32 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Nanowires exhibit up to 1.48% strain and an absorption threshold down to 0.73 eV, which is in good agreement with theoretical computations for the Γ-LH transition, showing that the nanowire geometry is an efficient way of applying tensile uniaxial stress along the [111] axis of a germanium crystal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl5048219DOI Listing
April 2015

Highly organised and dense vertical silicon nanowire arrays grown in porous alumina template on <100> silicon wafers.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2013 Jun 17;8(1):287. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38054, France.

In this work, nanoimprint lithography combined with standard anodization etching is used to make perfectly organised triangular arrays of vertical cylindrical alumina nanopores onto standard <100>-oriented silicon wafers. Both the pore diameter and the period of alumina porous array are well controlled and can be tuned: the periods vary from 80 to 460 nm, and the diameters vary from 15 nm to any required diameter. These porous thin layers are then successfully used as templates for the guided epitaxial growth of organised mono-crystalline silicon nanowire arrays in a chemical vapour deposition chamber. We report the densities of silicon nanowires up to 9 × 109 cm-2 organised in highly regular arrays with excellent diameter distribution. All process steps are demonstrated on surfaces up to 2 × 2 cm2. Specific emphasis was made to select techniques compatible with microelectronic fabrication standards, adaptable to large surface samples and with a reasonable cost. Achievements made in the quality of the porous alumina array, therefore on the silicon nanowire array, widen the number of potential applications for this technology, such as optical detectors or biological sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-8-287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3686656PMC
June 2013

Ultradense and planarized antireflective vertical silicon nanowire array using a bottom-up technique.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2013 Mar 9;8(1):123. Epub 2013 Mar 9.

SiNaPS Laboratory SP2M, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, CEA/INAC, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38054, France.

The production and characterization of ultradense, planarized, and organized silicon nanowire arrays with good crystalline and optical properties are reported. First, alumina templates are used to grow silicon nanowires whose height, diameter, and density are easily controlled by adjusting the structural parameters of the template. Then, post-processing using standard microelectronic techniques enables the production of high-density silicon nanowire matrices featuring a remarkably flat overall surface. Different geometries are then possible for various applications. Structural analysis using synchrotron X-ray diffraction reveals the good crystallinity of the nanowires and their long-range periodicity resulting from their high-density organization. Transmission electron microscopy also shows that the nanowires can grow on nonpreferential substrate, enabling the use of this technique with universal substrates. The good geometry control of the array also results in a strong optical absorption which is interesting for their use in nanowire-based optical sensors or similar devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-8-123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3599999PMC
March 2013

Micro-ultracapacitors with highly doped silicon nanowires electrodes.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2013 Jan 21;8(1):38. Epub 2013 Jan 21.

SiNaPS Laboratory SP2M, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, Grenoble, 38054, France.

Highly n-doped silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with several lengths have been deposited via chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrate. These nanostructured silicon substrates have been used as electrodes to build symmetrical micro-ultracapacitors. These devices show a quasi-ideal capacitive behavior in organic electrolyte (1 M NEt4BF4 in propylene carbonate). Their capacitance increases with the length of SiNWs on the electrode and has been improved up to 10 μFcm-2 by using 20 μm SiNWs, i.e., ≈10-fold bulk silicon capacitance. This device exhibits promising galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling stability with a maximum power density of 1.4 mW cm-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-8-38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3563566PMC
January 2013

Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires.

Nano Lett 2012 Jun 29;12(6):3074-9. Epub 2012 May 29.

SPSMS/LaTEQS, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

We report on the electronic transport properties of multiple-gate devices fabricated from undoped silicon nanowires. Understanding and control of the relevant transport mechanisms was achieved by means of local electrostatic gating and temperature-dependent measurements. The roles of the source/drain contacts and of the silicon channel could be independently evaluated and tuned. Wrap gates surrounding the silicide-silicon contact interfaces were proved to be effective in inducing a full suppression of the contact Schottky barriers, thereby enabling carrier injection down to liquid helium temperature. By independently tuning the effective Schottky barrier heights, a variety of reconfigurable device functionalities could be obtained. In particular, the same nanowire device could be configured to work as a Schottky barrier transistor, a Schottky diode, or a p-n diode with tunable polarities. This versatility was eventually exploited to realize a NAND logic gate with gain well above one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl300930mDOI Listing
June 2012

Joule-assisted silicidation for short-channel silicon nanowire devices.

ACS Nano 2011 Sep 17;5(9):7117-23. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

SPSMS/LaTEQS, CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

We report on a technique enabling electrical control of the contact silicidation process in silicon nanowire devices. Undoped silicon nanowires were contacted by pairs of nickel electrodes, and each contact was selectively silicided by means of the Joule effect. By a real-time monitoring of the nanowire electrical resistance during the contact silicidation process we were able to fabricate nickel-silicide/silicon/nickel-silicide devices with controlled silicon channel length down to 8 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn202524jDOI Listing
September 2011

Growth and characterization of gold catalyzed SiGe nanowires and alternative metal-catalyzed Si nanowires.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2011 Mar 1;6(1):187. Epub 2011 Mar 1.

LTM/CNRS-CEA-LETI, 17, rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, France.

The growth of semiconductor (SC) nanowires (NW) by CVD using Au-catalyzed VLS process has been widely studied over the past few years. Among others SC, it is possible to grow pure Si or SiGe NW thanks to these techniques. Nevertheless, Au could deteriorate the electric properties of SC and the use of other metal catalysts will be mandatory if NW are to be designed for innovating electronic. First, this article's focus will be on SiGe NW's growth using Au catalyst. The authors managed to grow SiGe NW between 350 and 400°C. Ge concentration (x) in Si1-xGex NW has been successfully varied by modifying the gas flow ratio: R = GeH4/(SiH4 + GeH4). Characterization (by Raman spectroscopy and XRD) revealed concentrations varying from 0.2 to 0.46 on NW grown at 375°C, with R varying from 0.05 to 0.15. Second, the results of Si NW growths by CVD using alternatives catalysts such as platinum-, palladium- and nickel-silicides are presented. This study, carried out on a LPCVD furnace, aimed at defining Si NW growth conditions when using such catalysts. Since the growth temperatures investigated are lower than the eutectic temperatures of these Si-metal alloys, VSS growth is expected and observed. Different temperatures and HCl flow rates have been tested with the aim of minimizing 2D growth which induces an important tapering of the NW. Finally, mechanical characterization of single NW has been carried out using an AFM method developed at the LTM. It consists in measuring the deflection of an AFM tip while performing approach-retract curves at various positions along the length of a cantilevered NW. This approach allows the measurement of as-grown single NW's Young modulus and spring constant, and alleviates uncertainties inherent in single point measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-6-187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3211240PMC
March 2011

Size effects in mechanical deformation and fracture of cantilevered silicon nanowires.

Nano Lett 2009 Feb;9(2):525-9

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080, USA.

Elastic modulus and fracture strength of vertically aligned Si [111] nanowires (ø = 100-700 nm) in an as-grown state have been measured using a new, multipoint bending protocol in an atomic force microscope. All wires showed linear elastic behavior, spring constants which scale with (length)(3), and brittle failure at the wire-substrate junction. The "effective" Young's modulus increased slightly (100 --> 160-180 GPa) as wire diameter decreased, but fracture strength increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude (MPa --> GPa). These results indicate that vapor-liquid-solid grown wires are relatively free of extended volume defects and that fracture strength is likely controlled by twinning and interfacial effects at the wire foot. Small wires (100 nm) grown with a colloidal catalyst were the best performers with high modulus ( approximately 180 GPa) and fracture stress >1 GPa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl802556dDOI Listing
February 2009

Control of gold surface diffusion on si nanowires.

Nano Lett 2008 May 19;8(5):1544-50. Epub 2008 Apr 19.

Laboratoire d'Etude des Matériaux par Microscopie Avancée, CEA/DRFMC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38052 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

Silicon nanowires (NW) were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using gold as the catalyst and silane as the precursor. Gold from the catalyst particle can diffuse over the wire sidewalls, resulting in gold clusters decorating the wire sidewalls. The presence or absence of gold clusters was observed either by high angle annular darkfield scanning transmission electron microscopy images or by scanning electron microscopy. We find that the gold surface diffusion can be controlled by two growth parameters, the silane partial pressure and the growth temperature, and that the wire diameter also affects gold diffusion. Gold clusters are not present on the NW side walls for high silane partial pressure, low temperature, and small NW diameters. The absence or presence of gold on the NW sidewall has an effect on the sidewall morphology. Different models are qualitatively discussed. The main physical effect governing gold diffusion seems to be the adsorption of silane on the NW sidewalls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl073356iDOI Listing
May 2008
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