Publications by authors named "Parveen Kumar"

209 Publications

Strategic Role and Challenges of Community Pharmacists in SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak.

J Res Pharm Pract 2021 Jan-Mar;10(1):1-9. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Pharmacy, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies.

This study highlights the importance of community pharmacists' strategic role in hindering the progression of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the community setting and innovative measures to protect themselves. This article focuses on the features, control, and prevention of COVID-19 and social awareness measures of the pandemic. The means employed by the community pharmacist to safeguard his health while providing pharmaceutical services during COVID-19 is compiled and presented to benefit health-care professionals around the world. As per the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention, community pharmacists play a crucial role in providing essential drugs to patients without knowing their current COVID-19 status. They also work in conditions that make them susceptible to COVID-19 exposure. Despite the availability of guidelines, community pharmacists need to be trained in personal protective equipment for efficient protection and prevention of spread. Community pharmacists are essential frontline warriors against transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the community and act as frontline workers to educate the public on COVID-19. They are at high risk and need to observe necessary precautions to mitigate the spread of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_20_131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259598PMC
May 2021

Isolated right subclavian artery with interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect and bilateral patent ductus arteriosus: a rare congenital anomaly.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 21;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Radiology, Fortis Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Isolation of the left subclavian artery or its anomalous origin from the pulmonary artery has been documented in several cases, especially in association with a right-sided aortic arch. However, similar anomaly involving the right subclavian artery has been less frequently reported. Isolated right subclavian artery in association with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is extremely rare, and only three cases have been reported so far. Here, we have presented yet another case of isolated right subclavian artery associated with ventricular septal defect, type B IAA and bilateral patent ductus arteriosus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-239654DOI Listing
July 2021

An electrochemical biosensing platform for progesterone hormone detection using magnetic graphene oxide.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jul;9(26):5264-5271

CSIR-Central Scientific Instrument Organisation (CSIR-CSIO), Chandigarh 160030, India.

In recent times, graphene and its derivatives have turned out to be emerging nanomaterials as transducers to promote electron transport in the field of biosensing using electrochemical techniques. In electrochemical biosensing strategies, key factors such as signal amplification, stability, and sensitivity are necessary for attaining improved sensor performance. In the present work, we synthesized magnetic nanocomposites of graphene oxide and employed them as an electrode material for the loading of bio receptors. The increased surface area with high electric conductance enhanced the sensor's response. The immobilization of progesterone (PGN) antibodies on the modified electrode-sensing surface led to a hindered electron transport that decreased the current response. The developed electrochemical immunosensor assembled successfully in a stepwise process using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies along with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The current response decreased linearly with the increased progesterone (PGN) concentration range of 0.01 pM-1000 nM with excellent detection limits of 0.15 pM (DPV) and 0.17 pM (CV) under optimal experimental conditions. The label-free electrochemical immunosensor has shown a promising platform for rapid and direct analysis of PGN due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and repeatability in water samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00380aDOI Listing
July 2021

Iodine intake among pregnant mothers residing in hilly terrains of two districts of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Indian J Public Health 2021 Apr-Jun;65(2):185-189

Lecturer (Statistics), Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background: Under programmatic settings, routine monitoring and evaluation of household consumption of iodized salt are recommended to track the reach of universal salt iodization strategy. The program needs evaluation in different settings and locations.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess urine-based estimation for recent iodine intake among pregnant women living in hilly terrains of two districts of northern state of India.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted during September- December 2019 among 202 randomly selected pregnant women in two districts of Himachal Pradesh. With a predesigned schedule, data regarding sociodemographic and behavioral factors and salt consumption were collected by interview. Iodine level of salt was assessed by spot iodine testing kit and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured using ammonium persulfate digestion using spectrophotometer.

Results: Women had a mean age of about 26 years, and the period of gestation was of mean 163.7 days. The consumption of iodized salt (>15 ppm) at family level was found to be 83.7%, and the median UIC was 169.0 μg/L. Among assessed, 26.7% had an acceptable level of UIC, whereas 41.1% and 32.2% of women had less (<150 μg/L) and excessive (>250 μg/L) level of UIC, respectively.

Conclusion: Recent iodine intake among pregnant women was observed to be adequate, but efforts are to be done to assess the reasons for less and excessive UIC among women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_1407_20DOI Listing
June 2021

Multiple Esophageal Duplication Cysts in a Toddler: A Rare Scenario.

J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2021 Mar-Apr;26(2):126-127. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

The foregut duplication cysts are rare congenital malformation and are usually "solitary" midline noncommunicating mediastinal structures. We present a 2-year-old asymptomatic boy having multiple noncommunicating foregut cysts in the neck as well as the thorax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_67_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152396PMC
March 2021

Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System: A Comprehensive Review.

J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiodiagnosis & Imaging, Fortis Escort Heart Institute, New Delhi, India.

The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) is a standardized reporting method for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). It summarizes the findings of CCTA in 6 categories ranging from CAD-RADS 0 (complete absence of coronary artery disease) to CAD-RADS 5 (total occlusion of at least one vessel). It is applied on per patient basis for the highest grade of the stenotic lesion. The CAD-RADS also provides category-specific treatment recommendations, helping patient management. The main objectives of the CAD-RADS are to improve the consistency in reporting, facilitate the communication between interpreting and referring clinicians, recommend the best course of patient management, and produce consistent data for quality improvement, research and education. However, CAD-RADS has many limitations, resulting into the misclassification of the observed findings, misinterpretation of the final category, and misguidance for the treatment based upon the single score. In this review, the authors discuss the CAD-RADS categories and modifiers, along with the strengths and limitations of this new classification system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcvi.2020.0195DOI Listing
March 2021

Role of Computed Tomography in Pre- and Postoperative Evaluation of a Double-Outlet Right Ventricle.

J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jul 8;29(3):205-227. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Fortis Escort Heart Institute, New Delhi, India.

Double-outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a type of ventriculoarterial connection in which both great arteries arise entirely or predominantly from the right ventricle. The morphology of DORV is characterized by a ventricular septal defect (location and relationship with the semilunar valve); bilateral coni and aortomitral continuity; the presence or absence of outflow tract obstruction; tricuspid-pulmonary annular distance; and associated cardiac anomalies. The surgical approach varies with the type of DORV and is based on multiple variables. Computed tomography (CT) is a robust diagnostic tool for the preoperative and postoperative assessment of DORV. Unlike echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT imaging is not limited by small acoustic window, need for anaesthesia and can be used in patients with metallic implants. Current generations CT scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, wide detectors, high-pitch scanning mode, dose-reduction algorithms, and advanced three-dimensional post-processing tools provide a low-risk, high-quality alternative to diagnostic cardiac catheterization or MRI, and have been increasingly utilized in nearly every type of congenital heart defect, including DORV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcvi.2020.0196DOI Listing
July 2021

Profiles of Volatile Biomarkers Detect Tuberculosis from Skin.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 2:e2100235. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003, Israel.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that threatens >10 million people annually. Despite advances in TB diagnostics, patients continue to receive an insufficient diagnosis as TB symptoms are not specific. Many existing biodiagnostic tests are slow, have low clinical performance, and can be unsuitable for resource-limited settings. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a rapid, sputum-free, and cost-effective triage test for real-time detection of TB is urgently needed. This article reports on a new diagnostic pathway enabling a noninvasive, fast, and highly accurate way of detecting TB. The approach relies on TB-specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are detected and quantified from the skin headspace. A specifically designed nanomaterial-based sensors array translates these findings into a point-of-care diagnosis by discriminating between active pulmonary TB patients and controls with sensitivity above 90%. This fulfills the WHO's triage test requirements and poses the potential to become a TB triage test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100235DOI Listing
June 2021

Congenital Cutaneous Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (pPNET) of Scalp: Youngest Case So Far.

J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2021 Jan-Feb;26(1):60-62. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Congenital cutaneous peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is very rare and also very rarely located in scalp. Only two cases of PNET as primary tumor in scalp are reported so far in the literature. Non mutilating surgical excision, combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used in treating these rare tumors. We present the youngest case report of PNET of scalp in 10-month-old girl who was managed by surgical excision with good cosmetic outcome and disease-free 20 months post-operative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_68_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074827PMC
January 2021

Neonate with Congenital Duodenal Obstruction and Ectopic Hepatic Parenchyma.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2021 May 4:1-5. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology, Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalya, New Delhi, India.

Background: The presence of hepatic parenchyma at ectopic locations is infrequently reported in neonatal age. A male neonate presented with clinical signs and symptoms of duodenal obstruction. At exploration, an annular pancreas was found as the causative factor and he underwent a Kimura's duodeno-duodenostomy. A pedicled cyst was attached to the stomach's greater curvature, was excised, and histologically was a mesothelial-lined cyst with ectopic liver, complete with bile ducts, in the cyst wall. Ectopic liver tissue may be clinically silent and found within the wall of a mesothelial cyst. Long-term complications of this ectopic tissue are not known.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2021.1919809DOI Listing
May 2021

The RSNA Pulmonary Embolism CT Dataset.

Radiol Artif Intell 2021 Mar 20;3(2):e200254. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Medical Imaging, Unity Health Toronto, University of Toronto, 30 Bond St, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 1W8 (E.C.); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (F.C.K.); Diagnósticos da América SA (Dasa) (F.C.K.); Department of Radiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky (S.B.H.); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex (C.C.W.); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif (M.P.L., S.S.H.); Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (L.M.P.); Department of Radiology and Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Mass (J.K.); The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine (R.L.B.); Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (G.S.); MD.ai, New York, NY (A.S.); Department of Radiology, Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey (E.A.); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Alfred Health, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia (M.L.); Department of Radiodiagnosis, Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi, India (P.K.); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan (K.A.M.); Department of Departamento de Imagenología, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de la Península de Yucatán, Mérida, Mexico (D.C.N.R.); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa (J.W.S.); Department of Radiology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (P. Germaine); A Coruña University Hospital, A Coruña, Spain (E.C.L.); Swiss Medical Group, Buenos Aires, Argentina (T.A.); Inland Imaging, Spokane, Wash (P. Gupta); AMRI Hospitals, Kolkata, India (M.J.); Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (F.U.K.); Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md (C.T.L.); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, India (S.S.); Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (J.W.R.); Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Jette, Belgium (C.C.B.); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif (J.M).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/ryai.2021200254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043364PMC
March 2021

Dietary Oxalate Loading Impacts Monocyte Metabolism and Inflammatory Signaling in Humans.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:617508. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Urology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Diet has been associated with several metabolic diseases and may impact immunity. Increased consumption of meals with high oxalate content may stimulate urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, which are precursors to CaOx kidney stones. We previously reported that CaOx stone formers have decreased monocyte cellular bioenergetics compared to healthy participants and oxalate reduces monocyte metabolism and redox status . The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dietary oxalate loading impacts monocyte cellular bioenergetics, mitochondrial complex activity, and inflammatory signaling in humans. Healthy participants (n = 40; 31.1 ± 1.3 years) with a BMI of 24.9 ± 0.6 kg/m consumed a controlled low oxalate diet for 3 days before drinking a blended preparation of fruits and vegetables containing a large amount of oxalate. Blood and urine were collected before (pre-oxalate) and for 5 h after the oxalate load to assess urinary oxalate levels, monocyte cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial complex activity, and plasma cytokine/chemokine levels. Urinary oxalate levels significantly increased in post-oxalate samples compared to pre-oxalate samples. Monocyte cellular bioenergetics, mitochondrial complex I activity, and plasma cytokine and chemokine levels were altered to varying degrees within the study cohort. We demonstrate for the first time that dietary oxalate loading may impact monocyte metabolism and immune response in a cohort of healthy adults, but these response are variable. Further studies are warranted to understand oxalate mediated mechanisms on circulating monocytes and how this potentially influences CaOx kidney stone formation.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03877276.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.617508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959803PMC
June 2021

Estimation of Urinary Nanocrystals in Humans using Calcium Fluorophore Labeling and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis.

J Vis Exp 2021 02 9(168). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Urology, University of Alabama at Birmingham;

Kidney stones are becoming more prevalent worldwide in adults and children. The most common type of kidney stone is comprised of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Crystalluria occurs when urine becomes supersaturated with minerals (e.g., calcium, oxalate, phosphate) and precedes kidney stone formation. Standard methods to assess crystalluria in stone formers include microscopy, filtration, and centrifugation. However, these methods primarily detect microcrystals and not nanocrystals. Nanocrystals have been suggested to be more harmful to kidney epithelial cells than microcrystals in vitro. Here, we describe the ability of Nanoparticle Tracking analysis (NTA) to detect human urinary nanocrystals. Healthy adults were fed a controlled oxalate diet prior to drinking an oxalate load to stimulate urinary nanocrystals. Urine was collected for 24 hours before and after the oxalate load. Samples were processed and washed with ethanol to purify samples. Urinary nanocrystals were stained with the calcium binding fluorophore, Fluo-4 AM. After staining, the size and count of nanocrystals were determined using NTA. The findings from this study show NTA can efficiently detect nanocrystalluria in healthy adults. These findings suggest NTA could be a valuable early detection method of nanocrystalluria in patients with kidney stone disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006546PMC
February 2021

Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Fontan Circulation.

J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 27;29(2):108-122. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Radiodiagnosis & Imaging, Fortis Escort Heart Institute, New Delhi, India.

The Fontan procedure is a well-established surgical technique to improve survival in patients with univentricular heart disease. The procedure reroutes the systemic venous flow to the lungs, bypassing the right ventricle. The originally proposed method involved direct anastomosis of the right atrium to the pulmonary artery. Since then, several modifications have been made in the original technique leading to the modern Fontan, or total cavopulmonary connection. The modern Fontan technique has shown improved surgical outcomes and increased life expectancy in patients with univentricular disease. Due to the increased survival of these patients, long-term complications are becoming more prevalent. Common complications of Fontan procedure include right atrial dilatation and thrombosis; conduit stenosis and thrombosis; right-to-left and left-to-right shunts; hepatic congestion and cirrhosis; and lymphovascular. Computed tomography (CT) can reliably depict the normal Fontan anatomy and various postoperative complications. A fundamental understanding of the techniques of CT, including imaging protocols and common interpretive pitfalls, allows targeted imaging and precise reporting of clinically significant findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the multiple stages of single-ventricle palliation, normal Fontan anatomy, pathophysiology, and imaging features of common Fontan-related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcvi.2020.0119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099570PMC
April 2021

Prunella vulgaris L: Critical Pharmacological, Expository Traditional uses and Extensive Phytochemistry: A Review.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006, Kashmir. India.

Background: Prunella vulgaris, family Lamiaceae also known as self-heal, has been traditionally used as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and anti-rheumatic. Due to widespread distribution of the plant, Vulgaris is also called 'vulgar' in Latin adjective meaning common.

Objective: The objective of this review was to describe the relevant aspects of phytochemistry and therapeutic uses of different fractions as well as isolated compounds from Prunella vulgaris. An attempt was also made to enumerate the possible leads e.g. betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin, esculetin, luteolin, homoorientin, Rosmarinic acid and cinaroside for further development.

Method: For peer-reviewed research literature, we undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases using a focused review question. Scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were used Results: Phytochemistry of Prunella vulgaris (PV) after a thorough literature survey revealed varied and copious metabolites, such as triterpenoids, phenolic acid, sterols, carbohydrates, coumarins, fatty acids, and volatile oils. Many of these compounds have been found to possess wide range of biological activity per se, including anti-microbial, immunosuppressive, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory.

Conclusion: Prunella vulgaris is a medicinal plant of immense medicinal importance having a variety of compounds such as such as triterpenoids, phenolic acid, sterols, carbohydrates, coumarins, fatty acids, and volatile oils and diversity in pharmacological spectrum. The plant could be further exploited, to isolate the various biologically active constituents responsible for its activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163818666210203181542DOI Listing
February 2021

Role of Computed Tomography in Postoperative Follow-up of Arterial Switch Operation.

J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan;29(1):1-19

Department of Radiodiagnosis & Imaging, Fortis Escort Heart Institute, New Delhi, India.

An arterial switch operation (ASO) is the standard treatment for infants and children born with D-loop transposition of the great arteries. During the ASO, the great vessels are transected from the native roots, switched and anastomosed with the opposite roots. This is accompanied by the relocation of the pulmonary artery anterior to the aorta by using the LeCompte maneuver and the translocation of coronary arteries to the neo-aorta. ASO has led to improved overall survival, and postoperative mortality is rare. Despite the improved outcomes, several postoperative sequelae may occur, and therefore patients require long-term follow-up. Computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a robust imaging modality in pre and postoperative evaluation of a variety of congenital heart disorders including ASO. Unlike echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance, CT is not hindered by a poor acoustic window, metallic devices or the need for sedation or general anesthesia. CT with advanced three-dimensional postprocessing techniques, high pitch scanning, wider detector system, electrocardiogram-dependent modulation and dose-reduction strategies is invaluable in assessing the postoperative complications after ASO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcvi.2020.0106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847786PMC
January 2021

Phonon Dephasing Dynamics in MoS.

Nano Lett 2021 Feb 28;21(3):1434-1439. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

A variety of quantum degrees of freedom, e.g., spins, valleys, and localized emitters, in atomically thin van der Waals materials have been proposed for quantum information applications, and they inevitably couple to phonons. Here, we directly measure the intrinsic optical phonon decoherence in monolayer and bulk MoS by observing the temporal evolution of the spectral interference of Stokes photons generated by pairs of laser pulses. We find that a prominent optical phonon mode E exhibits a room-temperature dephasing time of ∼7 ps in both the monolayer and bulk. This dephasing time extends to ∼20 ps in the bulk crystal at ∼15 K, which is longer than previously thought possible. First-principles calculations suggest that optical phonons decay via two types of three-phonon processes, in which a pair of acoustic phonons with opposite momentum are generated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04368DOI Listing
February 2021

Deficit saline water irrigation under reduced tillage and residue mulch improves soil health in sorghum-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 21;11(1):1880. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132 001, India.

Judicious application of saline water except for critical growth stages, could be the only practical solution to meet the crop water demand in arid and semi-arid regions, due to limited access to freshwater, especially during dry winter months. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of tillage [conventional (CT), reduced (RT), and zero (ZT)], rice straw mulch and deficit saline-water irrigation in wheat (100, 80 and 60% of wheat water requirement, CWR) followed by rainfed sorghum on soil properties and the yields of the cropping system. Yields of both the crops were comparable between RT and CT, but the wheat yield was reduced in ZT. The RT, mulching and deficit saline irrigation in wheat season (60% CWR) increased the sorghum fodder yield. Olsen's P (8.7-20.6%) and NHOAc-K (2.5-7.5%) increased in RT and ZT, respectively, over CT under both the crops. Deficit irrigation reduced soil salinity (EC) by 0.73-1.19 dS m after each crop cycle, while soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), dehydrogenase, urease and alkaline phosphatase reduced with an increase in EC. The α-glucosidase, MBC, EC, KMnOoxidizable N, and urease were identified as major contributors in developing the soil health index. Deficit irrigation (60% CWR) and rice straw mulching under ZT and RT showed higher values of soil health index. Overall, deficit saline-water irrigation under reduced tillage and straw mulching had the greatest potential in maintaining soil health, saving fresh irrigation water without affecting the productivity of the sorghum-wheat system in the semi-arid regions of India. Results also demonstrated that salt affected areas of arid and semiarid countries can replicate the protocol for indexing and screening of soil health indicators to assess the sustainability of a cropping system. This integrated management based on the nature of the available resources also provided a practical approach to achieve the target of land degradation neutrality and land restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80364-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820430PMC
January 2021

Investigations of potent biocompatible metal-organic framework for efficient encapsulation and delivery of Gemcitabine: biodistribution, pharmacokinetic and cytotoxicity study.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 02 24;6(2):025014. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India. Department of Pharmaceutics, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Mohali, Punjab, India.

Gemcitabine (GEM), a nucleoside analogue, is used for the treatment of various cancers. However, this drug possesses several limitations such as poor pharmacokinetics, metabolic degradation by cytidine deaminase, development of drug resistance, and schedule dependent toxicity. To circumvent these drawbacks, it can be entrapped in a suitable formulation for protection against metabolic degradation or urinary excretion. To this end, we have synthesized and investigated different iron (Fe-III)-based biocompatible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, MIL-101-NH (rigid), MIL-88A, and MIL-53 (flexible). All these MOFs have different topologies, connectivity, and chemical composition. MIL-53 was identified as a promising carrier for GEM delivery, with enhanced encapsulation and progressive release in relation to other candidates. The release of GEM from MIL-53 followed zero order kinetics, leading to an effective plasma concentration within the therapeutic range. Furthermore, in- vitro cytotoxicity study by using pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIAPaCa-2 and PANC1) stipulated that GEM loaded in MIL-53 (MIL53-GEM) had an increased cytotoxic effect relative to native GEM. Additionally, the slow release of GEM in a controlled manner could protect the drug from enzymatic degradation to increase its efficacy, half-life, and bioavailability without toxicity to organs as evidenced by in-vivo studies. This study demonstrates the potential of MIL53-GEM in upgrading the clinical outcome of GEM-based chemotherapy against cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/ab73f7DOI Listing
February 2020

COVID 19 mortality: Probable role of microbiome to explain disparity.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 24;144:110209. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Pathology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Kangra at Tanda, India. Electronic address:

There is a significant difference between COVID 19 associated mortality between different countries. Generally the number of deaths per million population are higher in the developed countries despite better health care efficiency, drinking water quality and expected healthy life span (HALE) at the time of birth. Developing and underdeveloped countries on the other hand have lower mortality even with higher rural and slum populations along with incidence of diarrhea because of lack of sanitation. We analyzed data from 122 countries out of which 80 were high or upper middle income and 42 were low or low middle income countries. There was statistically significant positive correlation between COVID 19 deaths /million population and water current score, health efficiency, and HALE. Statistically significant negative correlation was observed with % rural population and fraction of diarrhea because of inadequate sanitation for all ages. Moreover analysis of 51 countries showed that there is significant negative correlation between COVID 19 deaths /million population and proportion of total population living in slums. We propose that high microbial exposure particularly gram negative bacteria can possibly induce interferon type I which might have a protective effect against COVID 19 since the countries with less mortality also tend to have lack of sanitation and high incidence of attendant diseases. So, far none of the predictive models have taken into account immune status of populations engendered by environmental microbial exposure or microbiome. There might be a need to look at dynamics of COVID 19 pandemic using immune perspective. The approach can potentially inform better policies including interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444648PMC
November 2020

Drawing inference from nationwide lockdown as a response towards novel Cornavirus-19 (CoVID-19) epidemic in India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Sep 30;9(9):4507-4511. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background: Lockdown effectively can only result in relative freezing of populations that is expected to slow down the disease spread rather than zeroing it. Flattening of epidemic curve Current analysis was carried out to observe a pattern in the rise of CoVID-19 cases along with concurrent announcements of strategies to control the spread of disease.

Material And Methods: Data in from of daily number of cases and issued notifications were studied from the official website of Government of India from 30/01/2020 to 03/05/2020. Qualitative assessment with thematic analysis was carried out for notifications issued by the government. The fit to data on cumulative cases was observed with R and checked for linearity, logarithmic, polynomial, and exponential growth. Daily growth fraction (G) was calculated based on the difference between current and previous number of cases, thereafter daily doubling time (T) was estimated.

Results: Daily reported cases were entered and cumulative growth of cases observed with a polynomial increasing pattern (third-order) with better fit (R: 0.999). Total 108 notifications were issued, and as compared to phase-0 and 1 (87.0%), few (12.9%) notifications were issued in phase-2 of study period. As compared to phase-0 and 1, rising trend of cumulative cases and T was high in phase-2.

Conclusion: Across phases of lockdown along with a rising trend of COVID-19 cases, the country has managed to increase the doubling time of cases with an effort to flatten the epidemic curve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_807_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652191PMC
September 2020

Tumor microenvironment responsive nanogels as a smart triggered release platform for enhanced intracellular delivery of doxorubicin.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2021 Feb 28;32(3):385-404. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Chemistry, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The fabrication of novel and intelligent delivery systems that can effectively deliver therapeutics to the targeted site and release payload in enhanced/controlled manner is highly desired to overcome the multiple challenges in chemotherapy. The present article demonstrates the potential application of dual stimuli responsive nanogels as tumor microenvironment targeted drug delivery carrier. Disulfide cross-linked pH and redox responsive PEG-PDMAEMA nanogels were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The nanogels were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PEG-PDMAEMA nanogels exhibited dual stimuli-responsive release of the encapsulated model anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) due to the acidic pH-response of dimethyl amine group in PDMAEMA and reductive cleavage of the disulfide linkages. A relatively higher release of DOX was observed from the nanogels at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4. DOX release was further accelerated in tumor simulated environment of pH 5.0 and 10 mM glutathione (GSH). Confocal microscopy images revealed that DOX-loaded PEG-PDMAEMA nanogels can rapidly internalize and effectively deliver the drug into the cells. The nanogels exhibited higher cytotoxicity in GSH-OEt pretreated HeLa cells than untreated cells. The dual stimuli responsive nanogels synthesized in this study exhibited many favorable traits, such as pH and redox dependent controlled release of drug, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and enhanced cytotoxicity, which endow them as a promising candidate for anticancer drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1837504DOI Listing
February 2021

Oreganum Vulgare: In-vitro assessment of cytotoxicity, Molecular docking studies, Antioxidant, and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

Med Chem 2020 Sep 4. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Inflammation Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, JammuTawi, Jammu 180001. India.

Background: Inflammation involves a dynamic network that is highly regulated by signals that initiate the inflammation process as well as signals that downregulate it. However, an imbalance between the two leads to tissue damage. Throughout the world, inflammatory disease becomes common in the aging society. The drugs which are used clinically suffer serious side effects. Natural products or compounds derived from natural products show diversity in structure and play an important role in drug discovery and development.

Objective: Oreganum Vulgare is used in traditional medicine for various ailments including respiratory and rheumatic disorders, severe cold, suppression of tumors. The current study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential by evaluating various in-vitro parameters.

Results: The extracts (OVEE, OVEAF) as well as the isolated compound(OVRA)of Oreganum Vulgare inhibit the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and NO without affecting cell viability.

Conclusion: our study established that the leaf extracts of Oreganum Vulgare exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and thus confirm its importance in traditional medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406416666200904110828DOI Listing
September 2020

α-Hemolysin of uropathogenic E. coli regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in THP-1 macrophages.

Sci Rep 2020 07 28;10(1):12653. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi (North Campus), Delhi, 110007, India.

Hemolysin expressing UPEC strains have been associated with severe advanced kidney pathologies, such as cystitis and pyelonephritis, which are associated with an inflammatory response. Macrophages play an important role in regulating an inflammatory response during a urinary tract infection. We have studied the role of purified recombinant α-hemolysin in inducing inflammatory responses and cell death in macrophages. Acylation at lysine residues through HlyC is known to activate proHlyA into a fully functional pore-forming toxin, HlyA. It was observed that active α-hemolysin (HlyA) induced cleavage of caspase-1 leading to the maturation of IL-1β, while inactive α-hemolysin (proHlyA) failed to do so in THP-1 derived macrophages. HlyA also promotes deubiquitination, oligomerization, and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which was found to be dependent on potassium efflux. We have also observed the co-localization of NLRP3 within mitochondria during HlyA stimulations. Moreover, blocking of potassium efflux improved the mitochondrial health in addition to a decreased inflammatory response. Our study demonstrates that HlyA stimulation caused perturbance in potassium homeostasis, which led to the mitochondrial dysfunction followed by an acute inflammatory response, resulting in cell death. However, the repletion of intracellular potassium stores could avoid HlyA induced macrophage cell death. The findings of this study will help to understand the mechanism of α-hemolysin induced inflammatory response and cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69501-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387347PMC
July 2020

Management of a nine litre abdominal wall seroma post ventral hernia repairs: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 12;72:572-576. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

General Surgery Department, Armadale Health Service, Australia.

Introduction: seromas are a common and challenging complication post mesh hernia repairs (Morales-Conde, 2012; Salamone, 2015; Vasilakis, 2014).

Presentation Of Case: A 52-year-old male was referred to General Surgery with a large abdominal mass in the setting of morbid obesity and multiple abdominal operations culminating in a ventral hernia repair seven years prior. He had no other abdominal symptoms or malignancy red flags. Imaging demonstrated a large, complex anterior abdominal wall seroma of 40 × 25 × 20 cm. No seromas of this size and location have been reported in the literature.

Discussion: Surgical management required drainage, partial capsulectomy and scarification of the remnants with multidisciplinary team involvement for recovery including general surgeons, anaesthesia, intensivists and allied health professionals.

Conclusion: The patient recovered well from his operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.06.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327846PMC
June 2020

Dietary Oxalate Induces Urinary Nanocrystals in Humans.

Kidney Int Rep 2020 Jul 7;5(7):1040-1051. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Urology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Introduction: Crystalluria is thought to be associated with kidney stone formation and can occur when urine becomes supersaturated with calcium, oxalate, and phosphate. The principal method used to identify urinary crystals is microscopy, with or without a polarized light source. This method can detect crystals above 1 μm in diameter (microcrystals). However, analyses of calcium oxalate kidney stones have indicated that crystallite components in these calculi are 50-100 nm in diameter. Recent studies have suggested that nanocrystals (<200 nm) elicit more injury to renal cells compared to microcrystals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (i) urinary nanocrystals can be detected and quantified by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, a high-resolution imaging technology), (ii) early-void urine samples from healthy subjects contain calcium nanocrystals, and (iii) a dietary oxalate load increases urinary nanocrystal formation.

Methods: Healthy subjects consumed a controlled low-oxalate diet for 3 days before a dietary oxalate load. Urinary crystals were isolated by centrifugation and assessed using NTA before and 5 hours after the oxalate load. The morphology and chemical composition of crystals was assessed using electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS).

Results: Urinary calcium oxalate nanocrystals were detected in pre-load samples and increased substantially following the oxalate load.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that NTA can quantify urinary nanocrystals and that meals rich in oxalate can promote nanocrystalluria. NTA should provide valuable insight about the role of nanocrystals in kidney stone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.04.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335953PMC
July 2020

Real-Time Analysis of the Stability of Oil-In-Water Pickering Emulsion by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

Molecules 2020 Jun 24;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China.

In this paper, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to investigate the stability of oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions prepared with negatively charged silica nanoparticles in combination with a trace amount of redox switchable fluorescent molecules, ferrocene azine (FcA). Electrical impedance values of emulsions obtained at different emulsification speeds were estimated according to the frequency response data with frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to 1 Hz. The equivalent circuit model of toluene-in-water emulsion was established by the resistor (R) and capacitor (C) in parallel connection. Nyquist diagrams for the emulsions prepared by toluene and water were characterized by the formation of one semi-circle. The droplet size distribution is one of the important factors that affect the stability of the emulsion, except for the volume fraction of water and oil, the size of stabilizing particles, etc. The average particle size of the emulsion droplets decreased as the emulsification speed increased, indicating the higher stability of the emulsion. It was found that the fitted impedance value R of the emulsion decreased with decreasing particle size prepared at different emulsification speeds and storage time by performing real-time EIS detection techniques. The results suggested that EIS could be used to characterize the stability of a toluene-in-water emulsion stabilized by FcA modified silica nanoparticles. Moreover, based on the good electrochemical activity of the FcA molecule, the stability of the Pickering emulsion can be modulated by adding oxidant and reductant and detected by EIS in real-time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355891PMC
June 2020

Global Variations in Practices Concerning Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass-an Online Survey of 651 Bariatric and Metabolic Surgeons with Cumulative Experience of 158,335 Procedures.

Obes Surg 2020 Nov;30(11):4339-4351

Bariatric Unit, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, UK.

Introduction: There is significant variation in practices concerning Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) among bariatric surgeons, but there is currently a lack of robust data on the nature and extent of these variations. The purpose of this study was to understand global variations in practices concerning RYGB.

Methods: A questionnaire-based survey on Survey Monkey® was created, and the link was shared freely on various social media platforms. The link was also distributed through a personnel email network of authors.

Results: A total of 657 surgeons from 65 countries completed the survey. Crohn's disease and liver cirrhosis were considered absolute contraindications for RYGB by 427 surgeons (64.98%) and 347 surgeons (53.30%), respectively. More than 68.5% of surgeons performed routine upper GI endoscopy while 64.17% performed routine ultrasound of abdomen preoperatively. The majority of surgeons (77.70%) used the perigastric technique for Gastric pouch creation. Approximately, 79.5% used orogastric bougie. More than 70% of the respondents did not use any staple line reinforcement routinely. Only 17.67% of surgeons measured the whole small bowel length, and the majority of surgeons (86.5%) used constant length of BP limb. Approximately, 89% used constant length of alimentary limb. Approximately, 95% of surgeons preferred antecolic bypass, and more than 86% routinely closed the Petersen defect. Marginal ulcer prophylaxis was used by the majority (91.17%). Almost 95% of surgeons recommended lifelong vitamin and mineral supplements.

Conclusion: This survey identifies global variations in practices concerning RYGB. It identifies several areas for future research and consensus building.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04796-7DOI Listing
November 2020
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