Publications by authors named "Partow Kebriaei"

255 Publications

Real-world long-term outcomes in multiple myeloma with VRD induction, Mel200-conditioned auto-HCT, and lenalidomide maintenance.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Oct 22:1-12. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation & Cellular Therapy, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USA.

Standard-of-care for newly-diagnosed, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT)-eligible, multiple myeloma (MM) patients includes bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) induction followed by melphalan 200 mg/m (Mel200)-conditioned auto-HCT and lenalidomide maintenance. We completed a retrospective case series assessing outcomes of 187 MM patients who received this regimen at our institution. The 100-day non-relapse mortality incidence was zero. Before auto-HCT, 9.6 and 52.9% of patients achieved a complete response (CR) or ≥ very good partial response (VGPR), respectively. At day-100 post-transplant, 29.4 and 74.9% had achieved a CR/stringent-CR (sCR) or ≥ VGPR, respectively. At the last evaluation, 57.2% of patients had CR/sCR and 87.1% had ≥ VGPR. Median follow-up, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 63.2, 50, and 101.7 months, respectively. The 5-year PFS and OS were 43.1 and 79%. High-risk cytogenetics was associated with worse outcomes. This study illustrates that VRD induction, Mel200-conditioned auto-HCT, and lenalidomide maintenance are associated with good outcomes in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1992763DOI Listing
October 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.

Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematological malignancy; however, some patients achieve durable remission with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We report on all 17 patients with BPDCN who underwent allo-HCT at our center between 2000 and 2020. The median age was 39 (18-67) years. All (n = 16, 94%), except one patient, had systemic disease involving bone marrow and/or other organs. Ten patients (59%) were in first complete remission (CR1) at allo-HCT. The donor source was matched related or unrelated in ten (59%) and alternate donor in seven (41%) patients. Five (31%) patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), all grade I-II. The cumulative incidence (CI) of chronic GVHD at five-year was 34%. The CI of non-relapse mortality at one-year was 29%. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at two-year and five-year were 49% (95% CI = 22-71%) and 39% (95% CI = 14-64%), respectively. The two-year and five-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65% (95% CI = 38-82%) and 40% (95% CI = 12-68%), respectively. The five-year rate for both PFS and OS was 80% in CR1 patients versus 0% in patients not in CR1. In conclusion, allo-HCT provides long-lasting remissions in BPDCN patients, particularly when performed in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01478-5DOI Listing
October 2021

The Unique Symptom Burden of Patients Receiving CAR T-Cell Therapy.

Semin Oncol Nurs 2021 Oct 7:151216. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

Objectives: There is little research on the patient experience of symptom burden from CAR T-cell therapy, and no validated measure specific to the symptoms of CAR T-cell therapy currently exists. The purpose of this study was to identify symptoms experienced and to determine the content domain for a patient-reported outcome (PRO) measuring symptom burden for patients who had received standard of care CAR T-cell therapy for advanced B-cell lymphoid malignancies.

Data Sources: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a sample of 21 patients who had received CAR T-cell therapy. Content analysis was used to define the symptom burden content domain.

Conclusion: Sixty-two percent of patients were interviewed within 3 months of therapy; 81.0% experienced cytokine release syndrome and 28.6% experienced neurotoxicity. Content analysis found 31 symptoms related to disease and treatment. The most common disease-related symptom identified by patients was pain (43%). The most common symptoms identified by patients as related to CAR T-cell therapy included fatigue (tiredness) (62%), lack of appetite (29%), headache (29%), chills or feeling cold (24%), and feeling confused (24%). The qualitative analysis also confirmed that symptoms interfere with daily activities, work, walking, relationships with others, mood, and enjoyment of life.

Implications For Nursing Practice: Patients who receive standard CAR T-cell therapy experience numerous symptoms related to disease and CAR T-cell therapy, including symptoms related to the T-cell infusion. Symptoms may result in interference with daily activities, relationships, treatment adherence, and mood. Oncology nurses should be aware of and assess symptom related to CAR T-cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soncn.2021.151216DOI Listing
October 2021

An adapted European LeukemiaNet genetic risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. A CIBMTR analysis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Division of Hematology/BMT, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities are known to influence post-transplant outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but data assessing the prognostic value of combined genetic models in the HCT setting are limited. We developed an adapted European LeukemiaNet (aELN) risk classification based on available genetic data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, to predict post-transplant outcomes in 2289 adult AML patients transplanted in first remission, between 2013 and 2017. Patients were stratified according to aELN into three groups: favorable (Fav, N = 181), intermediate (IM, N = 1185), and adverse (Adv, N = 923). Univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in 2-year overall survival (OS) (Fav: 67.7%, IM: 64.9% and Adv: 53.9%; p < 0.001); disease-free survival (DFS) (Fav: 57.8%, IM: 55.5% and Adv: 45.3; p < 0.001) and relapse (Fav: 28%, IM: 27.5% and Adv: 37.5%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis (MVA) revealed no differences in outcomes between the Fav and IM groups, thus they were combined. On MVA, patients in the Adv risk group had the highest risk of relapse (HR 1.47 p ≤ 0.001) and inferior DFS (HR 1.35 p < 0.001) and OS (HR 1.39 p < 0.001), even using myeloablative conditioning or in those without the pre-HCT measurable-residual disease. Novel approaches to mitigate relapse in this high-risk group are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01450-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-HCT outcomes in intermediate-, adverse-risk, and KMT2A-rearranged AML.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States.

Little is known about whether risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. We evaluated 8709 AML patients from the CIBMTR database and, after selection and manual curation of cytogenetics data, 3779 patients in CR1 were included in the final analysis: 2384 with intermediate-risk, 969 with adverse-risk, and 426 with KMT2A-rearranged disease. An adjusted multivariable analysis compared to intermediate-risk patients detected an increased risk of relapse for KMT2A-rearranged and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.27, p = 0.01 and HR 1.71, p < 0.001, respectively). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was similar for KMT2A and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.26, p = 0.002 and HR 1.47, p < 0.001), as was overall survival (OS) (HR 1.32, p < 0.001 and HR 1.45, p < 0.001). No differences in outcome could be detected when patients were stratified by KMT2A fusion partner. This is the largest study conducted to date on post-HCT outcomes in AML using manually curated cytogenetics for risk stratification. Our work demonstrates that risk classification at diagnosis remains predictive of post-HCT outcomes in AML. It also highlights the critical need to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with KMT2A rearrangements and adverse-risk disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004881DOI Listing
September 2021

Haploidentical vs. sibling, unrelated, or cord blood hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.

The role of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is being defined. We performed a retrospective, multivariate analysis comparing outcomes of HCT approaches by donor for adults with ALL in remission. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between haploidentical HCT using PTCy and HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) , 7/8 HLA-matched UD, or umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT. Comparing haploidentical to MSD HCT, OS, leukemia-free survival (LFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were not different but chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was higher with MSD HCT. Compared to MUD HCT, OS, LFS, and relapse were not different but MUD HCT had increased NRM (HR 1.42, P=0.02), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.59, P=0.005), and cGVHD. Compared to 7/8 UD HCT, LFS and relapse were not different, but 7/8 UD HCT had worse OS (HR 1.38, P=0.01) and increased NRM (HR 2.13, P=<0.001), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.86, P=0.003), and cGVHD (HR 1.72, P=<0.001). Compared to UCB HCT, late OS , late LFS, relapse, and cGVHD were not different but UCB HCT had worse early OS (≤18 months, HR 1.93, P<0.001), worse early LFS (HR 1.40, P=0.007) and increased incidences of NRM (HR 2.08, P<0.001) and grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.97, P<0.001). Haploidentical HCT using PTCy showed no difference in survival but less GVHD compared to traditional MSD and MUD HCT and is the preferred alternative donor HCT option for adults with ALL in CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004916DOI Listing
September 2021

Bone Marrow versus Peripheral Blood Grafts for Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504778PMC
September 2021

Serial frailty assessments following allogeneic stem cell transplant in older adults: A pilot study.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Division of Geriatric and Palliative Medicine, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States of America.

Introduction: Increasing numbers of older adults undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) as the only chance of meaningful survival for hematologic malignancies. However, toxicities in vulnerable patients may offset the benefits of SCT. Frailty and abnormal geriatric assessment (GA) prior to SCT have been associated with decreased overall survival in persons aged 60 and older. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of baseline GA deficits and frailty, the prevalence of frailty or death at three and six months after allogeneic SCT, and associations between baseline assessments and the presence of frailty or death post-SCT.

Methods: We enrolled 50 patients aged 60 years and older and completed a baseline GA including comorbidity, polypharmacy, nutrition, physical performance, functional status, social support, depression and anxiety, and cognition. Frailty was defined as three or more abnormalities of gait speed, grip strength, weight loss, physical activity, and exhaustion, and was assessed at baseline, three months, and six months after SCT. A composite outcome of frailty or death at three months and six months was analyzed.

Results: Frailty was present in 11/50 (22%) of patients at baseline. Ten patients did not complete three- month follow-up, and twelve patients did not complete six-month follow-up. Of those with follow-up data, 22 patients (55%) were frail or deceased three months after SCT, and 27 patients (71%) were frail or deceased six months after SCT. Frailty at baseline was not significantly associated with frailty or death at three or six months after SCT. However, the study's small enrollment limits conclusions on these associations.

Conclusion: GA deficits and frailty are prevalent in older adult SCT recipients at baseline and after transplant. Future studies should aim for larger enrollment in order to validate associations between these deficits and outcomes, especially survival, functional status, and quality of life following SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2021.08.008DOI Listing
September 2021

Allogeneic Transplantation to Treat Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Adults.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Section of Bone Marrow Transplant and Cell Therapy, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Patients who develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, either myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (t-AML), have a poor prognosis. An earlier Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis of 868 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (allo-HCTs) performed between 1990 and 2004 showed a 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 22% and 21%, respectively. Modern supportive care, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have led to improved outcomes. Therefore, the CIBMTR analyzed 1531 allo-HCTs performed in adults with t-MDS (n = 759) or t-AML (n = 772) between and 2000 and 2014. The median age was 59 years (range, 18 to 74 years) for the patients with t-MDS and 52 years (range, 18 to 77 years) for those with t-AML. Twenty-four percent of patients with t-MDS and 11% of those with t-AML had undergone a previous autologous (auto-) HCT. A myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen was used in 49% of patients with t-MDS and 61% of patients with t-AML. Nonrelapse mortality at 5 years was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30% to 37%) for patients with t-MDS and 34% (95% CI, 30% to 37%) for those with t-AML. Relapse rates at 5 years in the 2 groups were 46% (95% CI, 43% to 50%) and 43% (95% CI, 40% to 47%). Five-year OS and DFS were 27% (95% CI, 23% to 31%) and 19% (95% CI, 16% to 23%), respectively, for patients with t-MDS and 25% (95% CI, 22% to 28%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 26%), respectively, for those with t-AML. In multivariate analysis, OS and DFS were significantly better in young patients with low-risk t-MDS and those with t-AML undergoing HCT with MAC while in first complete remission, but worse for those with previous auto-HCT, higher-risk cytogenetics or Revised International Prognostic Scoring System score, and a partially matched unrelated donor. Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure, with little improvement seen over the past 2 decades. These data mandate caution when recommending allo-HCT in these conditions and indicate the need for more effective antineoplastic approaches before and after allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.010DOI Listing
August 2021

Myeloablative Fractionated Busulfan With Fludarabine in Older Patients: Long Term Disease-Specific Outcomes of a Prospective Phase II Clinical Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients because of higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for 6 days over a 2-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. However, the disease-specific efficacy of this regimen is not known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of fractionated busulfan regimen by estimating diseases specific survival outcomes. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. On days -13 and -12 before HCT, patients received 80 mg/m busulfan intravenously (IV) daily in an outpatient clinic. Additional chemotherapy was administered during inpatient treatment from day -6 through day -3, including fludarabine 40 mg/m and busulfan IV once daily. The dosing of busulfan was determined from pharmacokinetic analyses to achieve for the course a target area under the curve of 20,000 ± 12% μmol/min, which is close to the average exposure of myeloablative dose of busulfan. One hundred fifty patients with high-risk hematological malignancies up to 75 years were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. The objective was to evaluate NRM, relapse, survival, the rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term complications. The median age of the patient population was 61 years (interquartile range, 55-67). The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (AML; N = 59 [39.3%]), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 29 [19.3%]), and myelofibrosis (MF; N = 22 [14.7%]). Most had an unrelated donor (n = 93 [62%]) and received peripheral blood graft (n = 110 [73.3%]). Over half had an HCT-specific comorbidity index of ≥3 (n = 79 [52.7%]). The median follow-up among survivors was 43.4 months (interquartile range, 38.9-50.4). In patients with AML in complete remission, MDS, and myelofibrosis, 3-year overall survival was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-88.5%), 43.6% (95% CI, 28.6-66.4%), and 59.1% (95% CI, 41.7-83.7%) respectively. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% (15.3%-28.7%), extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 20-34%), bronchiolitis obliterans was 4.7% (95% CI, 1.3-8.1%), and secondary malignancy was 8.7% (95% CI, 4.1-13.2%) at 3 years. Lengthening the duration of busulfan (fractionation) permits safe delivery of myeloablative conditioning in older patients, leading to prolonged survival. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.021DOI Listing
July 2021

Patient-Reported Symptom and Functioning Status during the First 12 Months after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy for Hematologic Malignancies.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is being increasingly used to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies; however, the symptoms related to standard of care CAR T cell therapy during the first year after treatment have not been assessed using patient-reported outcome (PRO) measurements. This study aimed to quantify patients' perspectives of symptom burden and functional status using PROs during the first year after CAR T cell therapy for hematologic malignancies, especially in patients who experienced grade 2-4 toxicities. Sixty patients were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study at any time during their first 12 months post-treatment. All 60 had received CAR T cell therapy as standard of care at MD Anderson Cancer Center in 2019. PROs were measured using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), the PROs Measurement Information System 29 (PROMIS-29), the global health tool EQ5D-5L, and the single-item health-related quality of life scale (HRQoL). Twenty-two additional symptoms related to CAR T cell therapy, as identified by an expert panel, were also evaluated. CAR T cell therapy-related toxicities were rated according to the ASTCT consensus grading criteria. The majority of patients (52 of 60; 87%) received axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta). One-third of the patients developed grade 2-4 cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity. The first 90 days after infusion represented the most symptomatic period, in which >10% of patients rated 18 symptoms as severe (ie, MDASI symptom score of 7 to 10 on scale of 0 to 10), strongly indicating the need for effective symptom management. Physical functioning, measured by interference on the "general activity" item on the MDASI and this domain on the PROMIS-29, were significantly worse in patients who underwent therapy during the first 30 days compared with those who underwent therapy over 90 days (all P < .05 with the Hochberg step-up procedure), whereas the EQ5D-5L and single-item HRQoL did not detect such differences. Compared with patients who had mild cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity (grade 0-1), patients who developed grade 2-4 toxicities persistently reported multiple severe symptoms after 30 days following therapy (all P < .05). Furthermore, although using a different recall period, patient-reported scores on several PROMIS-29 domains were significantly correlated with the scores of corresponding MDASI symptom items. This real-world quantitative PRO symptoms study provides evidence of unique profiles of the physical, psychological, and cognitive symptom burden in patients undergoing CAR T cell therapy that varies within the first year after infusion and demonstrates differences among PRO measurement scales. These results support the need for validation of fit-for-purpose PRO measurements for routinely monitoring symptom and toxicity burdens in CAR T cell therapy care settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.007DOI Listing
July 2021

CRP and ferritin in addition to the EASIX score predict CAR-T-related toxicity.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2799-2806

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

The Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) score, defined as [(creatinine × lactate dehydrogenase [LDH])/platelets], is a marker of endothelial activation that has been validated in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Endothelial activation is one of the mechanisms driving immune-mediated toxicities in patients treated with chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T)-cell therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate the association between EASIX and other laboratory parameters collected before lymphodepletion and the subsequent onset of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) those patients. Toxicity data were collected prospectively on 171 patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). CRS grades 2 to 4 were diagnosed in 81 (47%) patients and ICANS grades 2 to 4 in 84 (49%). EASIX combined with ferritin (EASIX-F) identified 3 risk groups with CRS grades 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (hazards ratio [HR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-11; P < .001), 49% (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.02-5; P = .04), and 23% (reference), respectively. EASIX combined with CRP and ferritin (EASIX-FC) identified 3 risk groups with an ICANS grade 2 to 4 cumulative incidence of 74% (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.9-6.9; P < .001), 51% (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9; P = .025), and 29% (reference). Our results indicate that common laboratory parameters before lymphodepletion correlate with CAR-T-related toxicities and can help support clinical decisions, such as preemptive toxicity management, hospitalization length, and proper setting for CAR-T administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341350PMC
July 2021

Hyper-CVAD plus ofatumumab versus hyper-CVAD plus rituximab as frontline therapy in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A propensity score analysis.

Cancer 2021 Sep 17;127(18):3381-3389. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: The outcome of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone plus ofatumumab hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab (hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab) has not been compared with the outcome of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone plus ofatumumab hyper-CVAD plus rituximab (hyper-CVAD + Rituximab) in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a randomized clinical trial.

Methods: The authors compared the outcomes of 69 patients treated with hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab and 95 historical-control patients treated with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab. Historical-control patients were treated with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab if they had CD20 expression ≥ 20%. Ofatumumab (day 1 of course 1, 300 mg intravenously; subsequent doses, 2000 mg intravenously) was administered on days 1 and 11 of courses 1 and 3 and on days 1 and 8 of courses 2 and 4 for a total of 8 doses. A propensity score analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was performed to adjust for baseline covariates between groups.

Results: The median event-free survival with stem cell transplantation (SCT) censoring was 33 and 65 months with hyper-CVAD + Rituximab and hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab, respectively (crude P = .064; IPTW P = .054). The median overall survival with SCT censoring was 52 months and not reached, respectively (crude P = .087; IPTW P = .097).

Conclusions: Hyper-CVAD + ofatumumab was associated with better outcomes than hyper-CVAD + Rituximab among patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33655DOI Listing
September 2021

Current Approaches to Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive B-Cell Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Role of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor and Stem Cell Transplant.

Curr Oncol Rep 2021 Jun 14;23(8):95. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Over the past two decades, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the management of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and this has led to significant improvement in their outcome. In this review, we will provide an overview of the current understanding of treatment of Ph+ ALL focusing on TKIs, alloHSCT, and novel therapies.

Recent Findings: The advent of more potent TKIs and the novel therapeutic options including blinatumomab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, and CD19 CAR-T therapy has changed the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) and intensive chemotherapy. To avoid toxicity from the historical treatment strategies, a more individualized, targeted approach to therapy including detection and monitoring of measurable residual disease (MRD) has become of interest. The treatment of patients with Ph+ ALL has been rapidly evolving with a more individualized, targeted treatment and use of TKIs and novel therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11912-021-01086-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of anticoagulation on recurrent thrombosis and bleeding after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2021 09 24;96(9):1137-1146. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

History of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is prevalent among patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Management of anticoagulation is particularly challenging as most patients will have chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia while awaiting engraftment post-HCT. We conducted a retrospective study of autologous and allogeneic HCT recipients with prior VTE from 2006-2015 to 1) compare anticoagulant strategies on short-term VTE recurrence and bleeding and 2) assess predictors for VTE recurrence beyond 30 days. Patients with VTE were allocated to two cohorts based on anticoagulant strategy at thrombocytopenia onset and underwent inverse probability weighting to assess primary outcomes of VTE recurrence and bleeding within 30 days post-HCT. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the association of 100-day VTE recurrence by the HIGH-2-LOW VTE risk assessment score and whether patients resumed anticoagulation at platelet recovery. Thirteen percent of recipients had VTE prior to HCT; of those meeting inclusion criteria, 227 continued anticoagulation and 113 temporarily discontinued it. Anticoagulant strategy was not significantly associated with decreased risk of VTE recurrence within 30 days (3% vs 4%, p = 0.61); however, risk of overall bleeding was non-significantly higher in those who continued vs discontinued anticoagulation (41% vs 31%, p = 0.08). In a subgroup of 250 allogeneic HCT patients, every one-point increase of HIGH-2-LOW score was significantly associated with VTE recurrence at 100 days (OR 1.57 [95% CI 1.10-2.23]), while anticoagulation resumption upon platelet engraftment was associated with lower recurrent risk (OR 0.48 [0.20-1.14]). Temporarily withholding anticoagulation during thrombocytopenia may optimize risk-benefit tradeoffs, though additional strategies are essential to prevent VTE recurrence after hematopoietic recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26268DOI Listing
September 2021

Hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: review of current indications and outcomes.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jun 3:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The treatment landscape for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is changing. Continued investigation into the biology of ALL, and broader use and more precise methods of measuring residual disease allow for improved risk stratification of patients and identification of the subset of patients at greatest risk of disease relapse and who may benefit from hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission. Further, recent advances in HCT preparative regimens, donor selection, graft manipulation, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and treatment have resulted in fewer transplant-related morbidities and mortality and better survival outcomes. Finally, the development of effective immunotherapeutic salvage agents, such as the chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, tisagenlecleucel, have significantly changed the treatment landscape of this disease, allowing patients with advanced disease to be considered for HCT with curative intent. In this review, we will provide an update on the indications and outcome of pediatric and adult ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1933475DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcomes of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 21;27(8):689-695. Epub 2021 May 21.

Departments of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) leads to poor survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A second HCT (HCT2) may achieve durable remission. To determine the outcomes of patients who received an HCT2 for relapsed AML and to evaluate the predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of adult patients who underwent an HCT2 for relapsed AML at our institution during 2000 to 2019. Ninety-one patients were identified with a median age of 44 years (range 18-73) at HCT2. Donor types were HLA-identical sibling (n = 37 [41%]), HLA-matched-unrelated (n = 34 [37%]), haploidentical (n = 19 [21%]), and cord blood (n=1 [1%]). Donors were different at HCT2 in 53% of patients. The majority of patients received reduced intensity conditioning (n = 71 [78%]) and were in remission (n = 56 [61%]) at HCT2. The median remission duration after HCT1 was 8.4 months (range 1-70) and the median time between transplants was 14 months (range 3-73). The median follow-up of surviving patients after HCT2 was 66 months (range 2-171), with 32% alive at time of analysis. The most common cause of death was disease recurrence (n = 45 [73%]). At 2 years, the rates of OS, PFS, progression, and nonrelapse mortality were 36%, 27%, 42%, and 18%, respectively. The development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after first HCT and HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI) ≥2 at HCT2 were associated with inferior PFS and OS after HCT2. A second HCT is feasible in selected patients with AML who have relapsed after HCT1. Long-term survival benefit is possible in patients without chronic GVHD after HCT1 and HCT-CI <2 at HCT2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316329PMC
August 2021

Inotuzumab ozogamicin with bosutinib for relapsed or refractory Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoid blast phase of chronic myeloid leukemia.

Am J Hematol 2021 08 28;96(8):1000-1007. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Relapsed/refractory (R/R) Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph + ALL) and lymphoid blast phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (LBP-CML) have poor outcomes. We designed a phase 1/2 study combining inotuzumab ozogamicin with bosutinib for this patient population. Patients with T315I mutation were excluded. Bosutinib was administered daily at three dose levels (300 mg/d, 400 mg/d, 500 mg/d) in a 3 + 3 design. Inotuzumab ozogamicin was dosed weekly during cycle one, and once every 4 weeks subsequently for a total of six cycles. The primary objective was to determine the safety and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of bosutinib in combination with inotuzumab ozogamicin. Eighteen patients were enrolled (Ph-positive ALL, n = 16; LBP-CML, n = 2). The median age was 62 years (range, 19-74) and the median number of prior therapies was one (range, 1-5). Dose limiting toxicities included grade 3 skin rash and bosutinib 400 mg daily was determined as the MTD. The most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (60%) and neutropenia (38%). A complete response (CR) / CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) was achieved in 15/18 (83%) patients; 11/18 (61%) patients achieved negative measurable residual disease by flow cytometry. Complete molecular response was noted in 10/18 (56%) patients. The 30-day mortality was 0%. After a median follow-up of 44 months, the median duration of response and overall survival were 7.7 months and 13.5 months, respectively. Six patients had a subsequent allogeneic stem cell transplant. No patient developed veno-occlusive disease. Inotuzumab ozogamicin with bosutinib was well tolerated in R/R Ph-positive ALL and LBP-CML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26238DOI Listing
August 2021

Eltrombopag for Post-Transplantation Thrombocytopenia: Results of Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 6;27(5):430.e1-430.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in up to 37% of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with adverse prognosis and increased risk of bleeding. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can increase platelet counts in thrombocytopenic patients. We conducted a phase II study, adaptively randomizing patients at ≥35 days post-HSCT to receive placebo or eltrombopag at a platelet count ≤20,000/µL for 7 days or platelet transfusion-dependent and a neutrophil count ≥1500/µL. Sixty patients were randomized to eltrombopag (n = 42) or placebo (n = 18) and received at least 1 dose. Fifteen patients (36%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥30,000/µL, compared with 5 patients (28%) in the placebo arm, with a posterior probability of 0.75. (The protocol required this probability to be >0.975 to declare a winner; thus, the results are inconclusive.) However, 9 patients (21%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL, compared with no patients in the placebo arm (P = .046). The overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality were similar in the 2 arms. In conclusion, compared with placebo, treatment with eltrombopag led to a higher percentage of patients achieving a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of Cell of Origin Classification on Survival Outcomes after Autologous Transplantation in Relapsed/Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 12;27(5):404.e1-404.e5. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

The cell of origin (COO) classification into germinal center B cell (GCB) and non-GCB types has been shown to predict survival outcomes in newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting, there is building evidence that COO does not predict prognosis after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The present analysis aimed to compare survival outcomes based on COO classification in R/R DLBCL patients who underwent auto-SCT. This retrospective study included adult patients with R/R DLBCL who underwent auto-SCT at MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 2007 and December 2016. The Hans algorithm using CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 markers was used to classify patients by COO. A total of 122 patients with DLBCL (71 GCB, 51 non-GCB) were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the 2 groups, except for older median age in the GCB cohort (64 years versus 58 years; P < .004). The median overall survival (OS) time was 68.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3 to not reached) months for the total population, 68.5 (95% CI, 44.8 to not reached) for GCB, and not reached for non-GCB. The 3-year OS rate was 0.659 (95% CI, 0.575 to 0.755) for the total population, 0.653 (95% CI, 0.547 to 0.779) for GCB, and 0.666 (95% CI, 0.537 to 0.824) for non-GCB. When adjusted for age and other factors of interest, no statistically significant associations for OS or progression-free survival were observed between the 2 cohorts. Our results confirm that COO loses its prognostic potential in patients with R/R DLBCL who receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT and both GCB and non-GCB types of DLBCL derive similar benefit from auto-SCT. Younger age, female sex, and pretransplantation disease status were associated with better OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes for Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy: A Systematic Review.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 7;27(5):390.e1-390.e7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Databases were searched to identify studies published over the past 10 years that addressed the utility of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in patients with hematological malignancies. Among 280 records, three articles covering 206 patients were eligible. The data were prospectively collected at multiple time points. The compliance rates were 70% to 94%. There was an inverse relationship between fatigue and social function among adults. The quality of life (QoL) improvement and ability to complete PROs were linked to disease status. About 40% of adults reported at least some cognitive difficulties, with a detrimental impact on mental and physical health status. In adults, the most commonly reported cognitive impairment was memory difficulties. Depression was associated with cognitive difficulties. Younger adults were at higher risk of long-term poor mental health, anxiety, and depression. For pediatric and adolescent patients, emotional dysfunction improves over time. QoL status improved over time; yet, severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity caused delayed improvement. Information regarding whether the PROs were integrated into medical records and clinical guidelines is lacking. Utilizing PROs in patients on CAR T cell therapy seems feasible and informative. Studies utilizing larger sample sizes and using validated PRO tools at different time points remain unmet needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110951PMC
May 2021

Improved outcomes of high-risk relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma patients after high-dose chemotherapy: a 15-year analysis.

Haematologica 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Nuclear Medicine at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplant (HDC/ASCT) is standard treatment of chemosensitive relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), although outcomes of high-risk relapse (HRR) patients remain suboptimal. We retrospectively analyzed all HRR cHL patients treated with HDC/ASCT at our institution between 01/01/2005-12/31/2019. HRR criteria included primary refractory disease/relapse within 1 year, extranodal extension, B symptoms, requiring > 1 salvage line, or PET+ disease at ASCT. All patients met the same ASCT eligibility criteria. We treated 501 patients with BEAM (N=146), BuMel (N=38), GemBuMel (N=189) and vorinostat/GemBuMel (N=128). The GemBuMel and vorinostat/GemBuMel cohorts had more HRR criteria and more patients with PET+ disease at ASCT. Pre-ASCT BV, anti-PD1, PET-negative disease at ASCT, and maintenance BV increased over time. BEAM and BuMel predominated in earlier years (2005-2007), GemBuMel and BEAM in middle years (2008-2015), and vorinostat/GemBuMel and BEAM in later years (2016-2019). Median follow-up is 50 months (6-186). Outcomes improved over time, with 2-year PFS/OS rates of 58%/82% (2005-2007), 59%/83% (2008-2011), 71%/94% (2012-2015) and 86%/99% (2016-2019) (P.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2021.278311DOI Listing
May 2021

Third-Party BK Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Therapy for Hemorrhagic Cystitis Following Allotransplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 30;39(24):2710-2719. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Purpose: BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), particularly in recipients of alternative donor transplants, which are being performed in increasing numbers. BKV-HC typically results in painful hematuria, urinary obstruction, and renal dysfunction, without a definitive therapeutic option.

Methods: We performed a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02479698) to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of administering most closely HLA-matched third-party BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), generated from 26 healthy donors and banked for off-the-shelf use. The cells were infused into 59 patients who developed BKV-HC following AHSCT. Comprehensive clinical assessments and correlative studies were performed.

Results: Response to BKV-CTL infusion was rapid; the day 14 overall response rate was 67.7% (40 of 59 evaluable patients), which increased to 81.6% among evaluable patients at day 45 (40 of 49 evaluable patients). No patient lost a previously achieved response. There were no cases of de novo grade 3 or 4 graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, or infusion-related toxicities. BKV-CTLs were identified in patient blood samples up to 3 months postinfusion and their in vivo expansion predicted for clinical response. A matched-pair analysis revealed that, compared with standard of care, after accounting for prognostic covariate effects, treatment with BKV-CTLs resulted in higher probabilities of response at all follow-up timepoints as well as significantly lower transfusion requirement.

Conclusion: Off-the-shelf BKV-CTLs are a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with BKV-HC after AHSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02608DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of depth of clinical response on outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients in first complete remission who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 16;56(9):2108-2117. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Haematology Research Centre, Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in first complete remission (CR). We examined the effect of depth of clinical response, including incomplete count recovery (CRi) and/or measurable residual disease (MRD), in patients from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) registry. We identified 2492 adult patients (1799 CR and 693 CRi) who underwent alloHCT between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors. Baseline characteristics were similar. Patients in CRi compared to those in CR had an increased likelihood of death (HR: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.43). Compared to CR, CRi was significantly associated with increased non-relapse mortality (NRM), shorter disease-free survival (DFS), and a trend toward increased relapse. Detectable MRD was associated with shorter OS, shorter DFS, higher NRM, and increased relapse compared to absence of MRD. The deleterious effects of CRi and MRD were independent. In this large CIBMTR cohort, survival outcomes differ among AML patients based on depth of CR and presence of MRD at the time of alloHCT. Further studies should focus on optimizing post-alloHCT outcomes for patients with responses less than CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01261-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425595PMC
September 2021

Acute graft-versus-host disease is the foremost cause of late nonrelapse mortality.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 08 12;56(8):2005-2012. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Despite low nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at day 100 after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), NRM at 1 year remains substantial. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 199 patients who were treated on a phase II clinical trial assessing safety and efficacy of myeloablative fractionated busulfan and fludarabine conditioning regimen for hematologic malignancies. The goal of the study was to identify factors associated with NRM occurring between days 101 and 365 post-HCT and generate a hypothesis for future studies to reduce the risk of NRM at 1 year. We found that a vast majority (83%) of patients who experienced NRM between days 101 and 365 had prior grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which was the leading cause of death either by itself (33.3%) or complicated by infections (37.5%). In multivariate analysis, grade II-IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-6.6, p = 0.01) was the only significant predictor of NRM between days 101 and 365. Measures to reduce the risk of acute GVHD could lower the risk of NRM at 1 year and improve overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01274-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Prognostic factors for progression in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in complete molecular response within 3 months of therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Cancer 2021 Aug 1;127(15):2648-2656. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: The achievement of a 3-month complete molecular response (CMR) is a major prognostic factor for survival in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, 25% of patients relapse during therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

Methods: The authors reviewed 204 patients with Ph-positive ALL who were treated between January 2001 and December 2018 using the combination of hyper-CVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) plus a TKI (imatinib, 44 patients [22%]; dasatinib, 88 patients [43%]; or ponatinib, 72 patients [35%]). Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as the time from the start date of therapy to the date of relapse, death, or last follow-up. Overall survival (OS) was defined as the time from the start date of therapy to the date of death or last follow-up.

Results: Overall, a 3-month CMR was observed in 57% of patients, including 32% of those who received imatinib, 52% of those who received dasatinib, and 74% of those who received ponatinib. The median follow-up was 74 months (imatinib, 180 months; dasatinib, 106 months; ponatinib, 43 months). Among 84 patients in 3-month CMR, 17 (20%) proceeded to undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 68% and 72%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, ponatinib therapy was the only significant favorable independent factor predicting for progression (P = .028; hazard ratio, 0.388; 95% CI, 0.166-0.904) and death (P = .042; hazard ratio, 0.379; 95% CI, 0.149-0.966). ASCT was not a prognostic factor for PFS and OS by univariate analysis.

Conclusions: In patients with Ph-positive ALL, ponatinib is superior to other types of TKIs in inducing and maintaining a CMR, thus preventing disease progression. ASCT does not improve outcome once a 3-month CMR is achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33529DOI Listing
August 2021
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