Publications by authors named "Parodi Brunella"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development and characterization of a mucoadhesive sublingual formulation for pain control: extemporaneous oxycodone films in personalized therapy.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017 Jun 31;43(6):917-924. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

a Department of Pharmacy , University of Genova , Genova , Italy.

Objective: The aim of this work was the development of mucoadhesive sublingual films, prepared using a casting method, for the administration of oxycodone.

Materials And Methods: A solvent casting method was employed to prepare the mucoadhesive films. A calibrated pipette was used to deposit single aliquots of different polymeric solutions on a polystyrene plate lid. Among the various tested polymers, hydroxypropylcellulose at low and medium molecular weight (HPC) and pectin at two different degrees of esterification (PC) were chosen for preparing solutions with good casting properties, capable of producing films suitable for mucosal application.

Results And Discussion: The obtained films showed excellent drug content uniformity and stability and rapid drug release, which, at 8 min, ranged from 60% to 80%. All films presented satisfactory mucoadhesive and mechanical properties, also confirmed by a test on healthy volunteers, who did not experience irritation or mucosa damages. Pectin films based on pectin at lower degrees of esterification have been further evaluated to study the influence of two different amounts of drug on the physicochemical properties of the formulation. A slight reduction in elasticity has been observed in films containing a higher drug dose; nevertheless, the formulation maintained satisfactory flexibility and resistance to elongation.

Conclusions: HPC and PC sublingual films, obtained by a simple casting method, could be proposed to realize personalized hospital pharmacy preparations on a small scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2017.1281290DOI Listing
June 2017

Green Extraction from Pomegranate Marcs for the Production of Functional Foods and Cosmetics.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2016 Oct 18;9(4). Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Genoa, Viale Cembrano 4, I-16148 Genoa, Italy.

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of retrieving polyphenolic antioxidants directly from wet pomegranate marcs: the fresh by-products obtained after pomegranate juice processing. These by-products mainly consist of internal membranes (endocarp) and aril residues. Even if they are still edible, they are usually discharged during juice production and, thus, they represent a great challenge in an eco-sustainable industrial context. Green technologies, such as ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE), have been employed to convert these organic residues into recycled products with high added value. UAE and MAE were used both in parallel and in series in order to make a comparison and to ensure exhaustive extractions, respectively. Water, as an environmentally friendly extraction solvent, has been employed. The results were compared with those ones coming from a conventional extraction. The most promising extract, in terms of total polyphenol yield and radical scavenging activity, has been tested both as a potential natural additive and as a functional ingredient after its incorporation in a real food model and in a real cosmetic matrix, respectively. This study represents a proposal to the agro-alimentary sector given the general need of environmental "responsible care".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph9040063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198038PMC
October 2016

An innovative matrix controlling drug delivery produced by thermal treatment of DC tablets containing polycarbophil and ethylcellulose.

Int J Pharm 2013 Dec 18;458(1):74-82. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Genova, Via Brigata Salerno, 13, 16147 Genova, Italy. Electronic address:

An innovative matrix, produced by thermal treatment on direct compression (DC) tablets containing polycarbophil (POL) and ethylcellulose (EC), identified as matrix forming polymers, and able to control the release of diltiazem hydrochloride, was developed. At pH 7.2, 72 ± 1.2% (w/w) of drug loaded was released in 25 h, mostly at constant rate. This swellable and unerodible matrix controls drug release by an anomalous transport mechanism. The modifications induced by the thermal treatment are irreversible and can be used to control and characterize the matrix. A 3-component constrained mixture design allowed the investigation of the experimental domain in which the matrix forms and the computation of a mathematical model that can be used to optimize the formulation properties. The release rate can be modulated (0.032-0.064% drug released/min) through the choice of suitable treatment conditions and tablet composition. The maximum amount of diltiazem hydrochloride released by zero-order kinetics, at the lowest release rate, occurs for POL:EC ratio in the range of 1:1-2:3 with 20-30% of diluent. The tablets are able to load up to 50% (w/w) of diltiazem hydrochloride without losing their properties. A stability study performed on a selected formulation containing DTZ showed stability for at least 2.7 years at RT conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.10.014DOI Listing
December 2013

A chitosan lactate/poloxamer 407-based matrix containing Eudragit RS microparticles for vaginal delivery of econazole: design and in vitro evaluation.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Dec 8;39(12):1911-20. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari , Genoa , Italy.

A matrix based on chitosan lactate and poloxamer 407 was evaluated as a delivery system for the vaginal administration of the antifungal drug econazole. The matrix was investigated both containing the pure drug and after introducing microparticles of Eudragit RS 100 containing econazole. Eudragit RS 100 microparticles were prepared using an emulsion-extraction method and dispersed in a solution containing chitosan lactate (2% w/w) and poloxamer 407 (1.7% w/w). The microparticles, obtained with a yield of 64% w/w and an encapsulation efficiency of 42% w/w, had a diameter of less than 2 μm and a drug loading of 13% w/w. The compressed matrices, characterized by DSC, swelling, erosion, release and mucoadhesion studies, had behaviours dependent on the relative amounts of the contained microparticles. The matrix without microparticles (MECN) showed zero-order release kinetics, with a maximum drug-release of 60% w/w, while those containing 50 or 75% w/w microparticles showed a diffusion controlled release up to 8 and 16 h, respectively, and a linear trend after those time intervals, caused by the erosion process, which allowed reaching a drug-release of approximately 100% w/w at 22 h. In in vitro experiments, the matrices were mucoadhesive and active in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans 796.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2012.694589DOI Listing
December 2013

Phytotoxic activity of Salvia x jamensis.

Nat Prod Commun 2009 Dec;4(12):1621-30

Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche e Alimentari, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

A study has been carried out on the surface exudate of Salvia x jamensis, which showed a significant phytotoxic activity against Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. Bioguided separation of the exudate yielded active fractions from which 3 beta-hydroxy-isopimaric acid (1), hautriwaic acid (2), betulinic acid (3), 7,8 beta-dihydrosalviacoccin (4), isopimaric acid (5), 14 alpha-hydroxy-isopimaric acid (7), 15,16-epoxy-7 alpha, 10 beta-dihydroxy-clerod-3,13(16),14-trien-17,12;18,19-diolide (8), cirsiliol (5,3',4'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone, 9) and two new neoclerodane diterpenes (6 and 10) were isolated. The structures of 6 and 10 were identified as 15,16-epoxy-10 beta-hydroxy-clerod-3,13(16),14-trien-17,12;18,19-diolide and 15,16-epoxy-7 alpha,10-dihydroxy-clerod-2,13(16),14-trien-17,12;18,19-diolide respectively on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds, but 7, 8 and 10, were active in inhibiting the germination of the tested species.
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December 2009

Preparation, characterisation and preliminary antitumour activity evaluation of a novel nanoparticulate system based on a cisplatin-hyaluronate complex and N-trimethyl chitosan.

Invest New Drugs 2011 Jun 29;29(3):443-55. Epub 2009 Dec 29.

Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari, Via Brigata Salerno 13, 16147, Genoa, Italy.

In this work, nanoparticles with a positive surface charge were prepared through the electrostatic interaction of a new cisplatin-hyaluronate complex with N-trimethyl chitosan (substitution degree of 85%). Mean particle diameter was approximately 195 nm. Drug loading of nanoparticles, which had a zeta potential of about 27 mV, was equal to 6% w/w. After 24 h, while the cisplatin-hyaluronate complex released approximately 60% w/w drug in phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4, approximately 40% w/w of total cisplatin was released from nanoparticles. The same cumulative amounts of released drug were found after 48 h. These nanoparticles, as well as the starting cisplatin-hyaluronate complex, were active on all cell lines tested (P388, A2780, A549), with an antiproliferative activity similar to that of cisplatin. Apoptosis was markedly induced in A2780 cells by nanoparticles. In a preliminary in vivo experiment, the antitumour activity against a murine tumour (P388 cells) subcutaneously implanted in mice, resulted similar to that of cisplatin for nanoparticles whereas the starting complex showed a non-significant activity at the cisplatin dose tested. Body weight change of treated mice suggested a significantly better tolerance of the nanoparticles compared to cisplatin, after an initial brief period of acute toxicity higher than the parent drug. These results indicate that such a particulate system could be useful as a carrier for cisplatin delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-009-9373-yDOI Listing
June 2011

Study of retinoic acid polymorphism.

J Pharm Sci 2006 Oct;95(10):2207-21

Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Genova, via Brigata Salerno (Ponte), 16147 Genova, Italy.

Some authors recently hypothesized the existence of a new retinoic acid (RA) phase in addition to the two already known polymorphs. We investigated RA polymorphism and our results exclude the presence of new modifications and refine the properties of the known forms. By comparison of simulated and acquired X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) it was possible to identify only the known monoclinic (I) and the triclinic (II) modifications; the same were also characterized by DSC, IR, and Raman spectroscopy. A solubility study associated to DSC allowed establishing an enantiotropic relationship between the two forms, with form II being less stable (DeltaGII/I=0.71 kJ/mol at 37 degrees C) below the transition temperature (136.6 degrees C; DeltaH=3.2 kJ/mol). The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) (I=61 microg/cm2xmin-1; II=125 microg/cm2xmin-1) confirmed this energetic relationship. The kinetics of solid transition I-->II was examined and its activation energy estimated (356 kJ/mol). The attempts to produce new phases allowed the development of methods to obtain the two polymorphs with high chemical and polymorphic purity. A validated DSC method is presented that enables detection of the presence of form I at a level of 1% (w/w) when in mixture with form II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.20699DOI Listing
October 2006

Inhibition of cell growth, induction of apoptosis and mechanism of action of the novel platinum compound cis-diaminechloro-[2-(diethylamino) ethyl 4-amino-benzoate, N(4)]-chloride platinum (II) monohydrochloride monohydrate.

Invest New Drugs 2004 Jan;22(1):3-16

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Oncologia Umana, Sezione di Patologia Generale e Oncologia Sperimentale, Università di Bari, Italy.

Cis-diaminechloro-[2-(diethylamino) ethyl 4-amino-benzoate, N(4)]-chloride platinum (II) monohydrochloride monohydrate (DPR) is a new platinum triamine complex obtained from the synthesis of cisplatin and procaine. In this paper we analyzed, adopting a disease-oriented strategy, the tumour selectivity of this compound, its ability to induce apoptosis and its mechanism of interaction with DNA. The inhibition of cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay using a panel of 51 tumour cell lines. Some of them were also evaluated for the induction of apoptosis by 4'-6-diamidine-2'-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Western blot of p53 protein and agarose gel electrophoresis of ladder DNA. Finally, interstand cross-links (ISCL) were evaluated by ethidium bromide fluorescence technique. When evaluated by the MTT assay, DPR showed a high selective activity for neuroblastoma, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), ovarian cancer and leukemia cell lines. The comparison of mean graphs of DPR and cisplatin suggested that our compound possesses a mechanism of action similar to that, at least in part, of its parent compound. Moreover, DPR showed itself to be a good trigger of programmed cell death, as demonstrated by DAPI staining, activation of p53 protein and agarose gel electrophoresis of ladder DNA. Finally, the study of the formation of ISCLs demonstrated that DPR, despite being a monofunctional platinum compound, is able to form bifunctional adducts through the release of procaine residue. Data presented here suggest that DPR is an antitumour agent able to trigger apoptosis, and that it is endowed with a peculiar mechanism(s) of action and a special selective activity against two tumours, namely neuroblastoma and SCLC, which are still characterized by a low incidence of long-term survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:drug.0000006170.38419.c9DOI Listing
January 2004

Embryo-lethal and teratogenic effect of the new platinum compound DPR in pregnant mice.

Arch Toxicol 2003 Oct 23;77(10):584-90. Epub 2003 Aug 23.

Servizio Modelli Animali, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Lgo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova, Italy.

Embryo-lethal and teratogenic effects caused by the cisplatin-procaine complex cis-diaminechloro-[2-(diethylamino) ethyl 4-amino-benzoate, N(4)]-chlorideplatinum(II) monohydrochloride monohydrate (DPR) were examined in CD-1 mice after a single administration of 7, 14, 21 or 28 mg/kg, injected on day 6, 9, 13 or 16 of pregnancy. At day 18 of pregnancy fetuses were removed and carefully examined for external, visceral and skeletal malformations under a dissecting microscope. A significant reduction of maternal weight gain was observed in pregnant mice after the administration of 21 (day 13) or 28 mg/kg (days 9 and 13) DPR. The exposure to DPR during the organogenesis and early histogenesis periods of prenatal development (administration on day 9 or 13) induced a significant reduction of the mean percentage of live fetuses and a significant increase of the mean percentage of dead and resorbed fetuses. A dose-dependent reduction of fetal body weight was observed in surviving specimens exposed to DPR on embryonic day 9, 13 or 16. The analysis of surviving fetuses killed on day 18 of gestation showed that a few, but statistically significant, external malformations and visceral anomalies were observed after administration of 21 or 28 mg/kg DPR on embryonic day 13. External malformations consisted of three hepato-omphalocele and six palatoschisis (one random palatoschisis was also observed at 21 mg/kg DPR given on day 9), while visceral anomalies included only renal pelvis dilatation. Skeletal anomalies affected fetuses independently of the day of treatment and were more frequent at the highest doses of DPR. They consisted of a delay in skull ossifications, vertebral and sternal anomalies, and formation of extra ribs. A low and non-significant incidence of skeletal malformations (asymmetric sternum) was noticed in fetuses. Our data demonstrated that DPR can cause embryotoxic effects if administered during the period of organogenesis and early histogenesis. Beside embryo-lethality, DPR induced growth retardation and malformations in surviving fetuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-003-0494-3DOI Listing
October 2003

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of platinum after combined treatment of cisplatin and procainamide hydrochloride in mice bearing P388 leukemia.

Anticancer Res 2003 Mar-Apr;23(2B):1509-16

Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Unità di Farmacologia Tossicologica, Lgo R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova.

Background: Our previous studies showed that procainamide hydrochloride may be an important modulator of cisplatin toxicity and antitumour activity. This study was performed in order to investigate if procainamide hydrochloride may influence the therapeutic index of cisplatin by inducing modifications of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodymanics in vivo.

Materials And Methods: The pharmacokinetic profile of cisplatin administered either in the presence or absence of procainamide hydrochloride was investigated in BDF1 female mice bearing 6-day P388 leukemia. Procainamide hydrochloride was administered i.v. at the dose of 50 mg/kg, immediately before cisplatin which, in turn, was administered i.p. at the dose of 8 mg/kg.

Results: The combined administration of the antiarrhythmic drug and cisplatin caused significant differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles of Pt in plasma, ascites fluid and tissues. Filterable Pt was significantly increased both in plasma and ascites fluid in animals given the combined treatment. Similarly, a small increase was also found for total plasma Pt. These differences caused some changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters of filterable (plasma: AUC0-1 h = +16%, t1/2 alpha = +29%, t1/2b = +14%, K2p = -32%; ascites fluid: AUC0-1 h = +23%, t1/2 alpha = +78%, t1/2 beta = -49%, and total Pt (plasma: AUC0-1 h = +19%, t1/2 alpha = +27%, t1/2 beta = -22%; ascites fluid: AUC0-1 h = +6%, AUC0-infinity = +43%, t1/2 alpha = +30%). The analysis of tissue Pt content showed the general increase of Pt concentration in the main organs of animals treated with cisplatin and procainamide hydrochloride, with AUC0-24 h increased by 95%, 22%, 90% and 28% in kidney, liver, spleen and lung, respectively. The analysis of binding of Pt to DNA and percent interstrand cross-links (%ISCL) in P388 tumour cells showed that the % ISCL (10.44 +/- 3.81% vs. 3.51 +/- 0.01%) and the efficiency of ISCL formation (0.51 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.17 +/- 0.02 %ISCL.microgram DNA/pg Pt) were significantly greater when cisplatin was administered in association with procainamide hydrochloride.

Conclusion: Our results show that procainamide hydrochloride may alter the pharmacodynamics and the pharmacokinetics and distribution of Pt in tumored mice treated with cisplatin.
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July 2003

Preclinical in vitro evaluation of hematotoxicity of the cisplatin-procaine complex DPR.

Anticancer Drugs 2003 Feb;14(2):163-6

Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Unità di Farmacologia Tossicologica, Genova.

We evaluated in vitro the inhibitory effect of cis-diaminechloro-[2-(diethylamino) ethyl 4-amino-benzoate, N4]-chlorideplatinum(II) monohydrochloride monohydrate (DPR) on colony formation by granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) peripheral blood progenitor cells, representing a method to quantitate the toxicity of drugs to the hematopoietic system, and human leukemic cell lines. The results were compared with those obtained exposing cells to cisplatin and carboplatin. Our data showed that while DPR had a significantly better cytotoxic activity than cisplatin and carboplatin against HL60 and K562, and than carboplatin against Molt 4 cells, it showed 12 and 43 times less inhibitory effect on CFU-GM than cisplatin and carboplatin, respectively. These results suggest that the myelosuppressive activity of DPR could be lower than that of cisplatin and carboplatin, and, furthermore, that leukemic cells represent a preferential target for its cytotoxic activity compared to normal committed hemopoietic progenitor cells. All our results speak in favor of a better therapeutic index for DPR than for the other platinum compounds considered here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001813-200302000-00010DOI Listing
February 2003

Identification of degradation products of ibuprofen arising from oxidative and thermal treatments.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2002 Oct;30(3):499-509

Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Genova, Via Brigata Salerno (ponte), 16147 Genova, Italy.

Ibuprofen is a widely utilised analgesic anti-inflammatory drug. It is sensitive to oxidation and photodegradation. In this work, the oxidative and thermal degradations were investigated. The treatments adopted allowed the detection of 13 degradation products, seven of which have never been reported: hydratropic acid, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, 4-(1-carboxyethyl)benzoic acid, 1-(4-isobutylphenyl)-1-ethanol, 2-[4-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoic acid, 1-isobutyl-4-vinylbenzene, 4-isobutylphenol. For 1-(4-isobutylphenyl)-1-ethanol, the in vitro toxic effects have already been described in the literature. To detect all degradation products, two RP-HPLC methods and a GC-MS procedure were developed or modified from the official monographs. The identification was conducted by evaluating chromatographic and spectral data and the structural attributions were confirmed by simple and univocal synthesis. Moreover, the actual presence of these molecules in marketed medicinal products was investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0731-7085(02)00400-4DOI Listing
October 2002