Publications by authors named "Parisa Sadighara"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HPLC and spectrophotometry methods for measuring melamine migration from melamine dishes to food simulants.

MethodsX 2021 19;8:101284. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Environmental Health, Food Safety Division, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melamine is an organic-based chemical usually found as enriched white nitrogen crystals. Since melamine is used for manufacturing food dishes and containers, there are concerns about melamine migration from the dishes into foods and subsequently the human body, particularly in children. As there are no routine techniques to measure melamine migration in food quality control laboratories in Iran, we here aimed to validate HPLC and spectrophotometry methods to measure migration of this substance. The HPLC and spectrophotometry techniques were adopted and validated. The level of melamine migration was measured in melamine ware of five brands in Iran market. Distilled water and acetic acid 3% were used as simulants. The dishes were in contact with the simulants for 90 min at 90 °C.The accuracy and precision were obtained as 94.9 and 95.3% for HPLC and 95.3% and 96.2% for spectrophotometry, respectively. Furthermore, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were obtained as 145 and 435 ng/ml for HPLC, and 200 and 605 ng/ml for spectrophotometry, respectively. Our results indicated that HPLC can be a reliable method to measure low-level melamine. The spectrophotometry could also be applied as a feasible, accurate, and cost-effective method for measuring melamine in foodstuffs.•This research has tried to adopt a method to measure melamine migration in the regions where there are no routine techniques to measure melamine migration the same as Iranian food laboratories.•The validation results of HPLC and spectrophotometry methods showed 94.9% accuracy and 95.3% precision and 95.3 and 96.2% for spectrophotometry respectively which were reliable.•HPLC can be a reliable method to measure low-level melamine. The spectrophotometry could also be applied as a feasible, accurate, and cost-effective method for measuring melamine in foodstuffs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2021.101284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374290PMC
February 2021

A study on microbial and chemical characterization of mechanically deboned chicken in Tehran, Iran.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 Aug 18:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

This study aimed to investigate microbial, chemical, and heavy metal contamination of mechanically deboned chicken (MDC) in Iran. A total of 24 samples of MDC were obtained from meat plants. TBC of the three samples were acceptable. and were detected in 21 and 6 samples, respectively. Three of the samples were contaminated with spp. was not detected in any of the samples. The moisture content of MDC was in the range of 41% to 75%. Ash had a range of 0.74% to 1.4%. The maximum protein content of the MDC was 21.98% and fat content was in the range of 2.1% to 20%. The highest PV was 15.18 mEq/kg. All of the samples were polluted with Pb, Cd, and As. In conclusion, MDC had microbial and chemical contamination. It is necessary to develop more strict criteria for control of the chicken paste processing method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2021.1967889DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of pesticide residues and risk assessment in apple and grape from western Azerbaijan Province of Iran.

Environ Res 2021 Aug 12;203:111882. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection (IRIPP), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 1475744741, Tehran, Iran.

West Azerbaijan, especially the city of Urmia, is the center of Iranian apple and grape production hence the importance of this, residues of 85 pesticides in these products were investigated using modified QuEChERS extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS technique. Residues of 17 different pesticides detected in some apple samples. In grape sample only 7 pesticides detected. The levels of the residues found in all apple and grape samples were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of Iran, except for iprodione. Health risk assessment associated with pesticide residues in apples and grapes were estimated by hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI), which indicated that the HI value was lower than 1 in adults and children due to apple and consumption. HI in adults and children were 0.012 and 0.054 in apple; 0.001 and 0.003 in grape samples, respectively. Although the health risk assessment showed that the consumers are not at considerable risk but due to pesticide residue, implement control plans to manage the proper application of this pesticide, or replace it with safer alternatives in apple and grape is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111882DOI Listing
August 2021

The aflatoxin B1 content of peanut-based foods in Iran: a systematic review.

Rev Environ Health 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Tehran, Iran.

Backgrounds: One of the common consumed snacks among Iranian is nuts. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the rate of peanut contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) in different provinces of the Iran.

Materials And Methods: The research studies with keywords "aflatoxin B1", "peanut", "peanut butter", "peanut oil", "coated peanut", "roasted peanut", "snack peanut" were searched in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and scientific information databases (SID), regardless of publication time. A total of 43 studies were obtained and only six articles were finally selected according to exclusion and inclusion criteria. Margin of Exposure (MOE) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) were also calculated to evaluate the oral exposure of AfB1 through peanuts and peanut-based products.

Results: The contamination of AFB1 in peanut was high in Mashhad and Tehran compared with the other cities. The value of MOE was calculated less than 10,000. The results of MOE indicate that there are chances of the risk of developing cancer and these products may not be safe. Therefore, AFB1 levels should be measured regularly in peanut products in large cities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2021-0065DOI Listing
July 2021

GC-MS determination of the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bread and potato Tahdig prepared with the common edible oil.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jul 31;193(8):540. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the Tahdig of the breads and potatoes prepared with edible oil was determined by GC-MS. The Tahdigs of bread and potato were baked under the same condition (volume of any oil 40 cc, temperature 180 °C, time 30 min). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon determination was performed by an Agilent 6890 N Gas chromatography with mass selective detector, equipped with a capillary column. The highest contents of PAHs in Tahdig of bread and Tahdig of potato were observed in canola with 550 ± 3.9 ng/kg and sesame with 408.3 ± 41 ng/kg. The mean of PAH content was significantly higher in the Tahdig of bread compared to the Tahdig of potato (p < 0.05). Among the 16 PAHs examined by GC/MS, 10 PAHs were detected. The amount of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were significantly more than low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (p < 0.05). Benzo [b]fluoranthene and benz[a]anthracene concentrations were significantly more than the other detected compounds (p < 0.05). Due to high PAH contamination of both Tahdig groups, the consumption of Tahdig (any type) was not recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09347-wDOI Listing
July 2021

The analysis and probabilistic health risk assessment of acrylamide level in commercial nuggets samples marketed in Iran: effect of two different cooking methods.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021 Jun 6;19(1):465-473. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Food Safety Research Center (salt), Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

The aim of current study was to evaluate the acrylamide level in chicken, meat and shrimp nugget samples cooked in both traditional and industrial methods using "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe" QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID). Results revealed the traditional frying method has significant effect on the increase of acrylamide compared to industrial frying method and it was also found that the different cooking temperatures and time have significant effect on increase of acrylamide formation ( < 0.05), but type of edible oils had no significant effect. The highest acrylamide level found in shrimp nuggets (27 ± 1.5 ng/g) which fried by colza oil and traditional cooking method (6 min at 220 °C), while the lowest content of acrylamide found in chicken nuggets (7.3 ± 0.1 ng/g) which fried by corn oil and industrial method (3 min at 180 °C). Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) results indicated that the trend of potential non-carcinogenic risks on THQ for children was chicken nugget (3.51E-3) > meat nugget (1.36E-3) > shrimp nugget (1.43E-4) and for adults was chicken nugget (3.49E-4) > meat nugget (1.35E-4) > shrimp nugget (1.38E-5). The health risk of acrylamide for adults and children, was considerably lower than the safe risk limits (HQ >1 and CR > 1E-4) for Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-021-00619-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172649PMC
June 2021

Determination of melamine contamination in chocolates containing powdered milk by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021 Jun 7;19(1):165-171. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melamine is widely being reported as a food adulterant. Although its toxicity is currently recognized, melamine adulterations of dairy products are ongoing to apparently increase the amount of protein. The study was conducted to investigate the determination of melamine amounts in chocolates containing powdered milk. In this study, 60 samples of chocolates containing powdered milk, both imported and domestic brands, were collected. The samples were prepared by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to the results, melamine was found in about 94% of imported samples and about 77% of Iranian samples. Melamine concentration in imported samples ranged from 0.032 to 2.692 mg/kg, while in Iranian ones it ranged from 0.013 to 2.600 mg/kg. The mean melamine concentrations of foreign and Iranian samples were 0.685 ± 0.68 and 0.456 ± 0.73 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of melamine were 0.017 and 0.052 μg/ml, respectively. The recovery rate (R%) at fortified levels of 1-2 mg/kg was found to be 89.20-95.69% with an RSD (Relative Standard Deviation) of 1.8-2.7%. Based on the study results, melamine was present in 85% of all samples and the melamine level in one Iranian brand and one imported brand was higher than the Codex Organization standard. However, the consumption of chocolates containing these low levels of melamine does not constitute a health risk for consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00590-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172743PMC
June 2021

The association between diazinon exposure and dyslipidemia occurrence: a systematic and meta-analysis study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 7;28(4):3994-4006. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

The effects of diazinon (DZN), an organophosphate pesticide, on lipid profiles have been extensively reported. However, controversy on this issue persists. Here, we performed a systematic and meta-analysis study to investigate the association between DZN exposure and dyslipidemia in rodents and fish species. This systematic review was prepared according to the PRISMA guidelines. Main databases, including Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Web of Science, were systematically searched through March 4, 2020. The risk of bias was evaluated with the SYRCLE's RoB tool. Once all articles were assessed for scientific quality, a random-effects model was applied to perform a pooled analysis. I and Q test were used to assess the heterogeneity between articles, and Forest plots, indicating point and pooled estimates, were drawn. Twenty-eight articles were included; between them, 13 publications were selected for meta-analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis showed low heterogeneity between the articles. A pooled analysis indicated that DZN significantly increased total cholesterol levels (95% CI: 0.86-3.79; Z = 3.10; p = 0.002), triglyceride (95% CI: 0.38-3.22; Z = 2.48; p = 0.09), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI: 0.25-2.85; Z = 2.34; p = 0.7) in the DZN vs. control groups. In addition, DZN significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI: - 2.92, - 0.42; Z = 2.62; p = 0.07) in the DZN vs. control groups. No publication bias was observed. Our findings suggest that DZN induces dyslipidemia in rodents and fish species in a dose-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11363-1DOI Listing
January 2021

COVID-19 Infection and Vitamin D: Current Scenario and Future Prospects.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2020 Aug 20. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Division of Food Safety & Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817999200820162217DOI Listing
August 2020

A Comparative Survey on Antioxidant Activity of Iranian Shrimp Waste (Penaeus semisulcatus) and Synthetic Antioxidants.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2021 ;18(5):11-16

Division of Food Safety and Hygiene, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Shrimp waste, as an important source of natural carotenoids, is produced in large quantities in the seafood processing industry. One of the important characteristics of carotenoids is their ability to act as antioxidants, thus protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen.

Aims: The aim of this study was to find an effective method for carotenoid extraction (Enzymatic and alkaline treatment) from shrimp waste and compare their antioxidant potential with synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) using sunflower oil.

Methods: The sunflower oil was exposed to three concentrations of extracted carotenoid (470, 235, and 118 mg/kg) and synthetic antioxidants. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was evaluated for Malondialdehyde and peroxide value.

Results And Discussion: The mean values of carotenoid extract were 243 and 170 mg/kg for enzymatic and alkaline treatment, respectively. Therefore, the highest efficacy of carotenoid extraction was obtained from enzymatic extraction. The oil samples containing 470 ppm carotenoid, which were extracted by alcalase as the default treatment, exhibited a less peroxide value and higher antioxidant potential than the oil samples containing synthetic antioxidants.

Conclusion: According to the results, the synthetic antioxidants can be replaced by extracted carotenoids from shrimp waste as a natural antioxidant to inhibit oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817999201006192141DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of dietary supplementation of nanocurcumin on oxidant stability of broiler chicken breast meat infected with species.

Vet Res Forum 2020 15;11(2):159-163. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Poultry meat is very susceptible to oxidation because of the high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively affects the quality and nutritional values of chicken meat. Coccidiosis is the most common parasitic disease of poultry. Intending to limit anti-parasites usage in poultry feed and also because of the concerns about antibiotic resistance and residues in poultry products, there is a need for research to discover natural alternatives. The effect of nanocurcumin on antioxidant profile (carotenoid and vitamin E contents, lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity) and pH of broiler chicken breast meat infected with species was investigated. Fifty, one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to five treatments including non-infected and non-medicated control (NNC), infected non-supplemented control (INC), infected and medicated with nanocurcumin 300 mg kg feed (NCRM1), infected and medicated with nanocurcumin 400 mg kg feed (NCRM2) and infected and antibiotic medicated group. Infection with , and decreased vitamin E and carotenoid contents of chicken breast meat significantly. The NCRM2 had significantly enhanced carotenoid and vitamin E levels in chicken breast meat, so  there was no significant difference between NCRM2 and NNC group. No significant change was observed in pH value among groups. Malondialdehyde value of breast meat was significantly lower in NCRM1 and NCRM2 than the INC group. The NCRM2 and NCRM1 showed the best antioxidant capacity even better than NNC. In conclusion, nanocurcumin could be a potential feed additive that can increase oxidant stability of broiler chicken breast meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.86733.2125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413004PMC
June 2020

The Toxicity Effect of Echium amoenum on the Liver and Kidney of Mice.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2021 ;18(4):548-553

Department of Environmental Health, Food Safety Division, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effect of Echium amoenum plants on the liver and kidney of the animal model.

Background: Echium amoenum is one of the medicinal plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids with several properties which has widely consumed among different communities.

Objective: The toxic effects of Echium amoenum on the liver and kidney were investigated in this study.

Methods: Sixty mice were kept for 28 days under the appropriate laboratory conditions. Echium amoenum extract (25, 12.5, 50 mg / kg, ip.) was administered for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were drawn and liver and kidneys were removed for evaluating hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of extract. Additionally, experiments were conducted to assay the enzymatic and oxidative activities.

Results: There was no significant difference in the levels of copper ion in the liver and kidneys among all groups. There was a significant difference in the levels of lipid peroxidation in the liver of treated groups versus the control group. The significant difference was not observed in the levels of glutathione of the liver of all groups. However, the levels of glutathione of the kidney significantly decreased in the treated groups versus the control group. There was no significant difference in the liver enzymes, including ALP, SGOT, and SGPT, between all groups. This indicates that damage increases with enhancing the time and concentrations of the extract. Biochemical analysis showed the creatinine and urea levels did not change in the treated groups versus the control group.

Conclusion: According to the present findings, it is suggested that Echium amoenum causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity effects in dose and time-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817666200712170922DOI Listing
January 2021

Melamine migration measurement through spectrophotometry device and the effect of time and tableware type on it.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2019 Dec 30;12(4):163-168. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Environmental Health, Food Safety Division, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melamine is an organic-based chemical material widely used in the production of tableware. Given the adverse effects of melamine on human health, melamine tableware can be a source for its introduction into the human body. The aim of this study was to use a simple method for monitoring the rate of melamine migration from the tableware to food and the effect of time and tableware on this migration. To measure the migration, spectrophotometry was used. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.2 (μg/ml), which is functional for measuring the rate of migration. The investigation of sample migration of melamine tableware revealed that migration has occurred across all samples. The rate of migration in all samples was less than the standard level of the European Union (30 μg/ml). Statistical analysis indicated that time is an important factor in melamine migration, which significantly increased (<0.05) in 93% of cases with lengthening the contact time from 30 minutes to 90 minutes. The type of tableware (new or old) and production conditions (standard or non-standard) were found to significantly affect (<0.001) the rate of migration. Statistical analysis of the results suggested that old tableware increased melamine migration in 41% of cases (<0.05). Non-standard tableware significantly (<0.001) increased the rate of migration and thus the effect of non-standard production on melamine tableware was more significant than the age of the tableware.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/intox-2019-0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247367PMC
December 2019

The impact of age-related sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos on metabolic indexes in male rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 20;27(18):22390-22399. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus pesticide (OP), has been implicated in metabolic diseases; however, the data are controversial. Rising age has been found as a main risk factor for metabolic diseases, and it has been proposed that advanced age increases susceptibility to the toxic effects of OPs. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate the impact of CPF on hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation in animals with different ages. CPF (5 mg/kg) for 45 consecutive days was administered orally to male Wistar rats with different ages including 2-, 10-, and 20-month-old. The results indicated an increase in glucose and inflammatory indices, and also lipid profile was changed in the serum of aged animals in comparison with the 2-month-old animals. CPF administration amplified these parameters in the 20-month-old rats in comparison with that of aged-matched controls. The histopathological examination also indicated that CPF caused slight to moderate changes in the liver of 2-, 10-, and 20-month-old animals. Cholestasis was also observed in the CPF-administrated 20-month-old rats. In conclusion, aging may increase the susceptibility to CPF-induced metabolic disturbances in the animal models. It is proposed that advancing in age elevates the susceptibility to the metabolic effects of CPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08814-0DOI Listing
June 2020

The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the processed meat samples collected from Iran's market: a probabilistic health risk assessment study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 8;27(17):21126-21139. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80. Caixa Postal: 6121, Campinas, São Paulo, 13083-862, Brazil.

The concentration of PAHs among raw and cooked meat products (sausages and burgers), randomly collected from five regions of Tehran, Iran, was investigated by the aid of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the risk assessment was conducted. The concentration of 16 types of PAHs in sausage and burger samples was found in the range of 8.08 to 29.55 and 10.18 to 29.85 μg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of some PAHs such as anthracene (A) (14.12 μg/kg) and acenaphthylene (Acl) (13.4 μg/kg) were higher than the European Standard (2 μg/kg). Among the meat products with different meat percentages (50, 70, and 90), the highest level of total PAHs was noted in the product containing 90% meat (19.34 μg/kg), while the highest mean level of PAHs was noted in fried meat products (23.31 μg/kg). A positive and significant correlation between cooking method and brand of product with the concentration of PAHs (p-value < 0.05) was noted. Also, no concern regarding the non-carcinogenic risk due to the ingestion of PAHs via consumption of the meat products was demonstrated by the health risk. However, the carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of sausage and burger was at the tolerable (1E-6 to 1E-4) and considerable (> 1E-4) risk levels, respectively. In this regard, further assessments to control and modify the cooking method among the Iranian population were recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08413-zDOI Listing
June 2020

Occurrence of Histamine in Canned Fish Samples (Tuna, Sardine, Kilka, and Mackerel) from Markets in Tehran.

J Food Prot 2020 Jan;83(1):136-141

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato 80, Caixa Postal 6121, CEP 13083-862, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil (ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5769-0004 [A.M.K.]).

Food poisoning is one of the most addressed health issues and has raised notable concerns. Histamine is the biogenic amine responsible for scombroid poisoning, which is due to the histidine decarboxylation by bacterial decarboxylases in various types of fish and fish products. The present investigation was conducted to measure the concentration of histamine in canned fish samples of tuna in oil ( = 18), tuna in oil with vegetables ( = 15), tuna in brine ( = 9), kilka in oil ( = 9), sardine in oil ( = 3), and mackerel in oil ( = 6) collected from markets in Tehran, Iran. Histamine concentrations were determined with a high-performance liquid chromatography device equipped with a UV detector. For method validation, the correlation coefficient (), recovery percentage, relative standard deviation for repeatability, limit of detection, and limit of quantification were 0.99, 82%, 1.3%, 1.5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg, respectively. Histamine was detected in 46.6% of the samples, and 18.3% of samples exceeded the histamine limit stipulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (50 mg/kg). The overall mean histamine concentration was 17.36 ± 15.44 mg/kg, with a range of 0 to 88 mg/kg. A significant difference in histamine concentration was found between canned tuna in oil and canned tuna in brine ( < 0.05). However, no significant difference in histamine concentration was found among samples of canned tuna in brine, canned sardine in oil, canned kilka in oil, and canned mackerel in oil. Because of the high histamine concentrations detected in some brands of Iranian canned tuna, precise control programs, hazard analysis critical control point systems, and good hygiene practices should be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-19-288DOI Listing
January 2020

Measurement of melamine migration from melamine-ware products by designed HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of migration.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2018 Dec 18;11(4):316-320. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melamine-ware is widely used around the world. There is a public health concern as regards the safety of melamine when exposed to food. This study was carried out to measure the level of melamine migration in melamine-ware products by HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of melamine migration. In food control laboratories in Iran, there is no common method to measure and monitor melamine migration, hence a method using HPLC technique was adopted and validated to solve this problem. The validation results showed the reliability with 94.9% accuracy and 95.3% precision. Furthermore, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.145 and 0.435 μg/ml, which for a new method were within acceptable ranges. Melamine migrations from 4 most available melamine wares were measured. Distilled water, 3% acetic acid and 15% ethanol were used as food simulant at 30 °C for 90 min. Although melamine migration occurred in all samples and acidic conditions had a significant effect, the values were not higher than the European standard (30 μg/ml). The study revealed that the HPLC method was valid and could be applied and developed to measure melamine migration. However, precautions should be considered while choosing melamine-ware utensil as long-term exposure to this substance has a negative effect on health, especially on the kidneys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/intox-2018-0031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853010PMC
December 2018

Data on the levels of Melamine- migration from Melamine- ware products and effect of food type and time on it.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 17;21:758-762. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Food Safety Division, School of Public Health and Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nowadays, Melamine- containers is widely use to because of heat- resistant. Due to the effects of Melamine- on human health, constant and long-term usage of Melamine- containers can be a source of Melamine- exposure to human body. The objective of this research was to measure the levels of Melamine- migration from Melamine- ware-products into foods at different test conditions and Effect of food type and Time on it. Spectrophotometer UV/VIS method was used to detect the limits of Melamine- and the method was based on the in the complex of Melamine- formaldehyde and Uranin (a ketone group).The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.2 (µg/ml) which is functional for measuring. Migration was less than the standard level of European Union (30 µg/ml). In this study, 3% acetic acid, distilled water and 15% ethanol were used as simulants. The results showed the temperature is an important factor in Melamine- migration and in 97% of cases, with increasing temperature from 30 to 90 there is a significant increase ( < 0.05) in Melamine- migration furthermore migration from acidic simulants was more than alcoholic and neutral ones ( < 0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.10.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214836PMC
December 2018

The Effect of Borage (Echium amoenum) on the Mouse Heart and Hematology Parameters.

Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(2):154-159

North Research Center-Pasture Institute of Iran, Amol, Iran.

Background: There has been considerable interest in the potential health benefits of borage. Little information is available regarding the safety of this plant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of borage on the mouse heart.

Methods: Different amounts of borage extract were injected in mice. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups including group1 (Control group without injection), group2, 3 and 4 that received 12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively for 28 days. Oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, total glutathione groups assay and cupric assay) and biochemical (Creatine kinase activity and total cholesterol) and hematology parameters were evaluated. Furthermore, histopathology study was carried out on heart tissues.

Results: We found that there was no significant difference in oxidative stress parameters and biochemical parameters between the control group and the groups that received different amounts of borage extract. There were also no changes in histopathology study. In blood parameters, the level of erythrocytes, hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to 50mg/kg, whereas the level of MCH and MCV decreased in high doses.

Conclusion: This article suggested that borage did not cause significant damage to the heart tissue in mice model. In hematology factors, significant changes were observed in erythrocytes and related parameters. Therefore, hematotoxicity of consumption this plant should be considered at high doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871529X18666181105113617DOI Listing
July 2020

Safety assessment of rice bran oil in a chicken embryo model.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 May-Jun;6(3):351-6

Department of Environmental Health Engineer, Food Safety Division, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model.

Materials And Methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated.

Results: The changes in the liver enzymes activity were not statistically significant. There was significant decrease and increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione level, respectively. It is suggested that RBO is a natural antioxidant source. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) also decreased. No abnormal findings were observed in the chickens.

Conclusion: No toxic effect was observed following RBO administration in chicken embryos. This study showed that RBO is not a safety concern.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4930543PMC
July 2016

The Effect of Stevia on the Chicken Embryo Heart.

Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2016 ;16(1):38-40

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Stevioside is one of the most important food additives that has become well known for its sweetness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Stevioside on the heart.

Methods: 4-day-old embryonated chickens eggs were inoculated with Stevioside and kept until hatching. Shortly after, the heart tissue samples were taken to examine organ Oxidative stresses by measuring Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, ferric reducing /antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric ion reducing assay (CUPRIC).

Results: There was no significant difference in glutathione level, lipid peroxidation, FRAP, and cupric assay.

Conclusion: It was suggested that stevioside did not cause marked damages to heart tissues in chicken embryo model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871529x16666160527140939DOI Listing
February 2017

The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2012 ;2(3):113-7

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman, I. R. Iran.

Objective: There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application.

Materials And Methods: Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and flavonoids content.

Results: The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075668PMC
July 2014

Cell damage through pentose phosphate pathway in fetus fibroblast cells exposed to methyl mercury.

J Appl Toxicol 2011 Oct 24;31(7):685-9. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Department of Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global pollutant that causes malformations. There has been no direct evidence for the effect of MeHg on pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In embryonic development, PPP is much more active. This pathway produces ribose for DNA/RNA production. It is possible that one of teratogenicity mechanisms of MeHg is through PPP. The fetus fibroblast cells were incubated with different concentrations of MeHg (0.1-100 μm). A dose-response dependence was observed in MTT assay. Transketolase activity and DNA content were determined in cell exposed to MeHg. A defect at the level of DNA content was observed. This amount of DNA was highly correlated with transketolase activity (r = 0.76). This study has demonstrated that the potential teratogenic action of MeHg is through PPP. To assess the protective effects of thiamin, the infected cells were incubated with different concentrations of thiamin. The obtained results show that thiamin pyrophosphate supplementation correlated with the toxicity. This finding confirms that thiamin therapy is suitable for the prevention of MeHg toxicity. Our study provides basic data for prevention and treatment of MeHg toxicity via boosting PPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.1628DOI Listing
October 2011

Histopathology and cholinergic assessment of Pterocarya fraxinifolia on chicken embryo.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2009 Dec 28;2(4):254-6. Epub 2009 Dec 28.

Department of toxicology, Faculty of veterinary, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

There are no reports of toxicological studies of Pterocarya fraxinifolia. The leaves are used for fishing, which also an anesthetic agent. Currently, many drugs utilized in anesthesia practice are modified cholinergic transmission and acetylcholine esterase inhibitors; these are parts of anaesthetic pharmacy. Therefore, cholinergic assessment was surveyed in chicken embryo, which Pterocarya fraxinifolia extractes were injected in 0.1, 1 and 10 mg concentration at day 4 of incubation. Serum and brain cholinesterase were analyzed on day 20 of incubation. The signs were not due to the changes of cholinesterase activity. In histopathology examination, massive necrosis was observed in the spinal cord. Other tissues such as heart, kidneys, skeletal bones and muscles, trachea and lungs, digestive system and endocrine glands were completely developed. This data suggests that the spinal cord is a target organ of the bioactive component of this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10102-009-0023-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2984111PMC
December 2009
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