Publications by authors named "Parinda Shah"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and its Mimics/Variants: A Comprehensive Review.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 6;8:53. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiology, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a debilitating subset of diseases, which result in progressive neuronal destruction and eventual loss of voluntary muscular function. These entities are often challenging to distinguish and accurately diagnose given overlapping clinical pictures and overall rarity. This group of diseases has a high morbidity and mortality rate overall and delineating each type of disease can help guide appropriate clinical management and improve quality of life for patients. Of all MNDs, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is by far the most common comprising 80%-90% of cases. However, other mimics and variants of ALS can appear similar both clinically and radiographically. In this review, we delve into the epidemiological, physiological, neuroimaging, and prognostic characteristics and management of ALS and its most common MND mimics/variants. In doing so, we hope to improve accuracy in diagnosis and potential management for this rare group of diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcis.JCIS_40_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302559PMC
December 2018

Residents' Perceptions of Usage of the Current Alumni and Attending Network for a Formal Mentorship Program in an Academic Affiliated Community Hospital Radiology Residency.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2019 Mar - Apr;48(2):105-107. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Chicago, IL; Department of Radiology, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Mentor-mentee relationships within radiology residencies can add significant value to a resident's overall experience. Studies demonstrate that mentorship programs can increase satisfaction for residents and faculty alike by reducing stress, easing career related decisions, increasing involvement with research, improving teaching and communication skills, and finally increasing leadership roles. In a survey of radiology program directors, 85% of program directors find such a program beneficial but only 57% have a formal program in place. Totally, 42% of program directors believe a structured mentorship program is necessary. Studies have also shown that female residents prefer female mentors. Alumni serve as an ideal group for resident mentorship as they do not face the pressures of internal faculty. No study to date in diagnostic radiology literature uses an alumni network in establishing a formal mentorship program. The objective of this study is to implement a formal mentorship program within an academic affiliated radiology residency by using program alumni and internal attending physicians for potentially increasing faculty engagement, improving resident morale, research opportunities, and networking for fellowship and job opportunities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/j.cpradiol.2018.01.006DOI Listing
March 2019

Radiologic Considerations in Heterotaxy: The Need for Detailed Anatomic Evaluation.

Cureus 2016 Jan 27;8(1):e470. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Biomedical Sciences, Denver University.

So-called "heterotaxy" is a laterality defect characterized by isomerism of the thoracic organs and random arrangement of the abdominal organs. These findings go beyond anatomic curiosity and have functional implications. It is, thus, of the utmost importance to be able to properly identify these findings. Radiologic studies can be invaluable in determining anomalies in the central nervous, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and immunologic systems in patients with isomerism. Here, we review findings associated with isomerism and their importance in the setting of isomerism with the aim of ensuring that radiologists effectively describe findings in these patients and that cardiologists understand the wide variety of congenital malformations that may be present.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4771576PMC
January 2016

Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Malformations Associated with Heterotaxy.

Cureus 2015 May 21;7(5):e269. Epub 2015 May 21.

Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an investigation during fetal life, particularly for assessment of intracranial masses, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, myelomeningocele, and abdominal masses. As the number of scans increases, so is the variety of congenital malformations being recognized. It is axiomatic that interpretation of the findings is enhanced when attention is paid to the likely findings in the setting of known syndromes, this information then dictating the need for additional acquisition of images. One such syndrome is so-called "visceral heterotaxy", in which there is typically an isomeric, rather than a lateralized, arrangement of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Typically associated with complex congenital cardiac malformations, heterotaxy can also involve the central nervous system, and produce pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immunologic, and genitourinary malformations. In this review, we discuss how these findings can be demonstrated using fetal MRI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4494530PMC
May 2015

Determining bronchial morphology for the purposes of segregating so-called heterotaxy.

Cardiol Young 2016 Apr 10;26(4):725-37. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

3Institute of Genetic Medicine,Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne,United Kingdom.

Unlabelled: Introduction Heterotaxy is a unique clinical entity in which lateralisation of the thoraco-abdominal organs is abnormal, typically with isomerism of the bronchial tree and atrial appendages. This study was carried out to determine whether routine clinical imaging such as chest radiographs, angiographic images, and CT/MRI can determine bronchial isomerism, and how sidedness of bronchial isomerism correlates with overall features anticipated in hearts with isomeric atrial appendages. Methods and results We identified 73 patients with heterotaxy, in whom imaging clearly demonstrated the bronchial tree, seen at our institution since 1998. We calculated bronchial angles and lengths using all the available imaging modalities to determine the presence and sidedness of bronchial isomerism. This was then compared with the anticipated presence of isomeric atrial appendages based on the overall clinical findings, as the appendages themselves had not specifically been imaged. The ratio of bronchial lengths revealed bronchial isomerism in all patients, with bronchial angles permitting distinction of right as opposed to left isomerism. We noted discordances between the identified bronchial isomerism and the presumed arrangement of the atrial appendages in nearly 20% of the patients in our cohort.

Conclusion: Routine clinical imaging with chest radiographs, angiographic imaging, and CT/MRI can determine the presence of bronchial isomerism in patients with so-called heterotaxy. Right as opposed to left isomerism can be distinguished based on bronchial angles. The finding of bronchial isomerism correlates well, but not totally, with the presumed isomerism of the atrial appendages as predicted from the identified intra-cardiac morphology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951115001195DOI Listing
April 2016

Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

Future Cardiol 2015 Mar;11(2):171-5

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin/Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fca.15.5DOI Listing
March 2015

Role of N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Meta-analysis.

Am J Ther 2016 Jan-Feb;23(1):e172-83

1Children's Hospital of Wisconsin/Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Wauwatosa, WI; 2Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Chicago, IL; and 3James A. Lovell Federal Health Center/Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL.

It is unclear whether N-acetylcysteine is useful in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Because of different inclusion and exclusion criteria and different definitions of studied parameters, various studies have reported different outcomes. A systematic search was done using PubMed, Ovid, and the Cochrane library, and studies were pooled after strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Separate analysis was conducted for all endpoints including only studies that used an N-acetylcysteine (NAC) dose of 600 mg, and another separate analysis was conducted for all endpoints including only studies that used oral route NAC to study how the dose and route of administration of NAC affect the outcomes. The results of the pooled analysis significantly favored the use of NAC to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography but failed to show any significant benefit in terms of creatinine levels preangiography and postangiography, need for dialysis, and all-cause mortality. The effects of route and dose of NAC did not show any significant difference except in respect to incidence of postcatheterization nephropathy. This study shows that NAC may not have any impact on clinical outcomes after peripheral or coronary artery catheterization and that dose and route do not seem to have any effect on these outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e31829dbc1cDOI Listing
October 2016

Effects of music on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate: a meta-analysis.

Indian Heart J 2012 May-Jun;64(3):309-13

James A Lovell Federal Health Centre/Chicago Medical School, 3001 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

There are a handful of studies that have been done investigating the effect of music on various vital signs, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Many studies have also assessed effects of music on self-reported anxiety level, attributing some degree of music-induced anxiety relief to the beneficial impacts of music on vital signs. Several randomised studies have shown varying effects of music on these vital parameters and so a meta-analysis was done to compare the effect of music on them. The fixed effects model was used as studies were homogenous. A two-sided alpha error < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Compared to those who did not receive music therapy, those who did receive music therapy had a significantly greater decrease in SBP before and after (difference in means, -2.629, confidence interval (CI), -3.914 to -1.344, P < 0.001), a significantly greater decrease in DBP (difference in means, -1.112, CI, -1.692 to -0.532, P < 0.001), and a significantly greater decrease in HR (difference in means, -3.422, CI, -5.032 to -1.812, P < 0.001).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0019-4832(12)60094-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860955PMC
August 2013

Influenza vaccination and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: analysis of 292,383 patients.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2012 Sep 14;17(3):277-83. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Children's Hospital of Wisconsin/Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Wauwatosa, WI 53226, USA.

Studies have documented an association between influenza vaccination and risk reduction in myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, and major adverse cardiac events. This meta-analysis pooled data from 5 trials with a total of 292 383 patients. Influenza vaccination was found to be associated with significant reductions in myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, and major adverse cardiac events. The risk reduction afforded by vaccination and the lack of major adverse events related to the influenza vaccination makes it particularly important to vaccinate those with a known cardiovascular disease or those at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074248411429965DOI Listing
September 2012

Thigh-length versus knee-length compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in the inpatient setting.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2012 Mar;23(2):168-71

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, USA.

Deep vein thrombosis may be a complication of extended length hospital stays. Immobilized patients, such as patients in the postoperative period, are at particularly high risk of developing a deep vein thrombosis, which can be associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Due to this, prevention of deep vein thrombosis is of great importance in the inpatient setting. Compression stockings have proven to play an important role in prophylaxis and may be used in their knee-length or thigh-length variety. Although randomized trials have studied the efficacy of both varieties in prevention of deep vein thrombosis, selection is often made without regard to evidence. This meta-analysis pools the findings of current studies comparing knee-length and thigh-length compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. A fixed effects model was used for this study with a two-sided α-error less than 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. When both varieties of compression stockings are compared, thigh-length stockings offer a risk reduction in deep vein thrombosis development when compared with knee-length (odds ratio 1.197, confidence interval 0.983-1.458). This, however, is an insignificant finding. This analysis concludes that current data does not favor either thigh-length or knee-length compression stockings when it comes to prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBC.0b013e32834cb25bDOI Listing
March 2012

The developing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of congenital cardiac anomalies: A systematic review.

Ann Pediatr Cardiol 2011 Jul;4(2):172-6

Department of Pediatrics, Chicago Medical School, 3333 North Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL.

Advances in the fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the last few years have resulted in the exploring the use of fetal MRI to detect congenital cardiac anomalies. Early detection of congenital cardiac anomalies can help more appropriately manage the infant's delivery and neonatal management. MRI offers anatomical and functional studies and is a safe adjunct that can help more fully understand a fetus' cardiac anatomy. It is important for the obstetricians and pediatric cardiologists to be aware of the recent advancements in fetal MRI and it`s potential utility in diagnosing congenital cardiac anomalies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-2069.84665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180979PMC
July 2011

Short-term outcome comparison of Norwood procedures with right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit versus modified Blalock-Taussig shunt: A meta-analysis.

Ann Pediatr Cardiol 2011 Jul;4(2):145-9

Department of Pediatrics, 9000 Wisconsin Avenue, Wauwatosa, WI.

A small number of nonrandomized and retrospective studies have compared outcomes of classical Norwood procedures for hypoplasticleft-heart syndrome and single ventricle lesions involving a Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt to the modified procedure using a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. Some of these studies reported data for the same outcomes and a meta-analysis was done to analyze pooled outcomes comparing in-hospital mortality, interstage mortality, cardiopulmonary bypass time, systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h postoperatively, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and need for postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit was associated with an insignificant reduction of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.674, 95% confidence interval, 0.367 to 1.238), and in the length of hospital stay. There were significant reductions in cardiopulmonary bypass time, length of intensive care unit stay, and need for postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, postoperative ventilation times, and interstage mortality (odds ratio, 0.191, confidence interval, 0.0620 to 0.587). There was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure and an insignificant increase in systolic blood pressure 24 h postoperatively. This pooled analysis demonstrates potential advantages associated with the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit when compared to the modified BT shunt in palliation and demonstrates the need for large randomized controlled trials that compare a number of outcomes in both procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-2069.84653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180972PMC
July 2011

Association of atrial tachyarrhythmias with atrial septal defect, Ebstein's anomaly and Fontan patients.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2011 Jul;9(7):887-93

James A Lovell Federal Health Center/Chicago Medical School, 3001 North Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

The number of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing as medical and surgical palliation for congenital heart lesions improves. With this comes long-term complications of congenital heart disease such as the increased risk of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Atrial septal defect, Ebstein's anomaly and post-Fontan patient subsets are particularly important to focus on due to their unique characteristics and association with atrial tachyarrhythmias. Reviews, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses were obtained using electronic search strategies such as Medline and the Cochrane Library. References of electronically obtained studies were then used to obtain additional relevant studies. Sources were deemed relevant if they discussed the relationship between atrial septal defects/Ebstein's anomaly/Fontan procedure and atrial tachyarrhythmias in respect to incidence, mechanism, recurrence or treatment. Selected sources were then stratified on the basis of quality. Patients in these subsets of congenital heart disease are at increased risk of atrial tachyarrhythmias for a variety of reasons when compared with the general population. It is necessary for pediatric and adult cardiologists alike to understand these differences, as well as their implications in diagnosis and management of such occurrences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/erc.11.39DOI Listing
July 2011

Ideal antiplatelet therapy for coronary artery disease: focus on adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors.

Am J Ther 2013 Jul-Aug;20(4):337-43

Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL, USA.

With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease, antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention is becoming more important. As such realm is still very dynamic, it is important for clinicians to understand the evolution of antiplatelet therapies and current issues that are yet to be settled in the search for an ideal antiplatelet agent. Electronic searches were done using databases such as PubMed and Cochrane Library with appropriate keywords. Randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies found were then assessed for quality, and their references used to find additional studies. The field of study regarding the antiplatelet therapy is still an area in which much has yet to be found. Although clopidogrel and aspirin are cornerstones of therapy currently, other agents such as ticagrelor offer potential alternatives. This review presents an overview of current antiplatelet therapies and their relative risks and benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e31820b8668DOI Listing
February 2014

The need for novel anticoagulation therapy in acute coronary syndrome.

Am J Ther 2013 Jan;20(1):61-6

Chicago Medical School,North Chicago, IL, USA.

As acute coronary syndrome (ACS) becomes more common nationwide and current anticoagulation regimens used in patients with ACS continue to possess their shortcomings, the need for new anticoagulants is on the rise. Although heparin and warfarin are used effectively in patients with ACS, they both have significant side effects and delivery issues. New factor Xa inhibitors offer an oral alternative that functions early in the coagulation cascade. The role of these new drugs in ACS is explored here. Electronic search strategies were used to collect reviews, randomized controlled trials, and other studies. Databases used included Medline and Cochrane Library and hand selection. Sources selected were limited to those that discussed factor Xa inhibitors in the context of ACS. Selected studies were then assessed for quality and relevance and those deemed relevant included for analysis. Some of the factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban offer anticoagulation as effective as, if not more effective, heparin and warfarin with lower risks of bleeding and other adverse effects such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Many of these new agents also come in oral form, making them easy for patients to manage and use daily.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e31820543a3DOI Listing
January 2013

Decreasing temporal lobe dose with five-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for treatment of pituitary macroadenomas.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 Oct 16;78(2):379-84. Epub 2009 Dec 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.

Purpose: To compare temporal lobe dose delivered by three pituitary macroadenoma irradiation techniques: three-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), three-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (3F IMRT), and a proposed novel alternative of five-field IMRT (5F IMRT).

Methods And Materials: Computed tomography-based external beam radiotherapy planning was performed for 15 pituitary macroadenoma patients treated at New York University between 2002 and 2007 using: 3D-CRT (two lateral, one midline superior anterior oblique [SAO] beams), 3F IMRT (same beam angles), and 5F IMRT (same beam angles with additional right SAO and left SAO beams). Prescription dose was 45 Gy. Target volumes were: gross tumor volume (GTV) = macroadenoma, clinical target volume (CTV) = GTV, and planning target volume = CTV + 0.5 cm. Structure contouring was performed by two radiation oncologists guided by an expert neuroradiologist.

Results: Five-field IMRT yielded significantly decreased temporal lobe dose delivery compared with 3D-CRT and 3F IMRT. Temporal lobe sparing with 5F IMRT was most pronounced at intermediate doses: mean V25Gy (% of total temporal lobe volume receiving ≥25 Gy) of 13% vs. 28% vs. 29% for right temporal lobe and 14% vs. 29% vs. 30% for left temporal lobe for 5F IMRT, 3D-CRT, and 3F IMRT, respectively (p < 10(-7) for 5F IMRT vs. 3D-CRT and 5F IMRT vs. 3F IMRT). Five-field IMRT plans did not compromise target coverage, exceed normal tissue dose constraints, or increase estimated brain integral dose.

Conclusions: Five-field IMRT irradiation technique results in a statistically significant decrease in the dose to the temporal lobes and may thus help prevent neurocognitive sequelae in irradiated pituitary macroadenoma patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.07.1695DOI Listing
October 2010

Rate of peripheral glucose change during cognitive testing predicts performance in diabetes mellitus.

J Diabetes 2009 Mar 17;1(1):43-9. Epub 2008 Dec 17.

Department of Psychology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA.

Background: The reason for cognitive deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unknown. One suggestion is that despite elevated glucose levels, patients with DM generally have difficulty utilizing glucose during cognitive tasks. This assumption was tested in the present study.

Methods: Male outpatients with DM (n = 46; age 52-85 years) were administered a series of standard neuropsychological and cognitive tests. In addition to assessing the time to complete the series of tests, peripheral blood glucose levels were measured prior to and following testing.

Results: The rate at which peripheral blood glucose levels changed was examined in relation to cognitive performance. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant relationships between the rate of glucose change and performance on tests measuring psychomotor skills, attention, visuoperceptual abilities, sequencing skills, mental flexibility, and planning. Higher rates of decline in peripheral blood glucose levels were associated with better performance on all cognitive measures, except verbal fluency.

Conclusions: During cognitive testing, higher rates of decline in peripheral blood glucose levels may reflect stronger glucose utilization by the brain, thereby facilitating higher levels of cognitive performance. This non-invasive measure may be useful in primary care settings to provide a link between blood glucose changes and cognitive status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-0407.2008.00007.xDOI Listing
March 2009
-->