Publications by authors named "Pardeep S Jhund"

215 Publications

Resistance to antihypertensive treatment and long-term risk: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Minneapolis VA Health Care System and University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

More stringent blood pressure (BP) goals have led to greater prevalence of apparent resistant hypertension (ARH), yet the long-term prognostic impact of ARH diagnosed according to these goals in the general population remains unknown. We assessed the prognostic impact of ARH according to contemporary BP goals in 9612 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without previous cardiovascular disease. ARH, defined as BP above goal (traditional goal <140/90 mmHg, more stringent goal <130/80 mmHg) despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive drug classes or any BP with ≥4 antihypertensive drug classes (one of which was required to be a diuretic) was compared with controlled hypertension (BP at goal with 1-3 antihypertensive drug classes). Cox regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, study center, BMI, heart rate, smoking, eGFR, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and diabetes. Using the traditional BP goal, 133 participants (3.8% of the treated) had ARH. If the more stringent BP goal was instead applied, 785 participants (22.6% of the treated) were reclassified from controlled hypertension to uncontrolled hypertension (n = 725) or to ARH (n = 60). Over a median follow-up time of 19 years, ARH was associated with increased risk for a composite end point (all-cause mortality, hospitalization for myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) regardless of whether traditional (adjusted HR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.23-1.82) or more stringent (adjusted HR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.20-1.70) blood pressure goals were applied. We conclude that in patients free from cardiovascular disease, ARH predicted long-term risk regardless of whether traditional or more stringent BP criteria were applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14269DOI Listing
September 2021

Heart failure and atrial flutter: a systematic review of current knowledge and practices.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

While the interplay between heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively studied, little is known regarding HF and atrial flutter (AFL), which may be managed differently. We reviewed the incidence, prevalence, and predictors of HF in AFL and vice versa, and the outcomes of treatment of AFL in HF. A systematic literature review of PubMed/Medline and EMBASE yielded 65 studies for inclusion and qualitative synthesis. No study described the incidence or prevalence of AFL in unselected patients with HF. Most cohorts enrolled patients with AF/AFL as interchangeable diagnoses, or highly selected patients with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of HF in AFL ranged from 6% to 56%. However, the phenotype of HF was never defined by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). No studies reported the predictors, phenotype, and prognostic implications of AFL in HF. There was significant variation in treatments studied, including the proportion that underwent ablation. When systolic dysfunction was tachycardia-mediated, catheter ablation demonstrated LVEF normalization in up to 88%, as well as reduced cardiovascular mortality. In summary, AFL and HF often coexist but are understudied, with no randomized trial data to inform care. Further research is warranted to define the epidemiology and establish optimal management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13526DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of dapagliflozin on ventricular arrhythmias, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or sudden death in DAPA-HF.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep;42(36):3727-3738

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dapagliflozin on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods And Results: In a post hoc analysis of DAPA-HF, we examined serious adverse event reports related to ventricular arrhythmias or cardiac arrest, in addition to adjudicated sudden death. The effect of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, on the composite of the first occurrence of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or sudden death was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. A serious ventricular arrhythmia was reported in 115 (2.4%) of the 4744 patients in DAPA-HF (ventricular fibrillation in 15 patients, ventricular tachycardia in 86, 'other' ventricular arrhythmia/tachyarrhythmia in 12, and torsade de pointes in 2 patients). A total of 206 (41%) of the 500 cardiovascular deaths occurred suddenly. Eight patients survived resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Independent predictors of the composite outcome (first occurrence of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, resuscitated cardiac arrest or sudden death), ranked by chi-square value, were log-transformed N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, history of ventricular arrhythmia, left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure, history of myocardial infarction, male sex, body mass index, serum sodium concentration, non-white race, treatment with dapagliflozin, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Of participants assigned to dapagliflozin, 140/2373 patients (5.9%) experienced the composite outcome compared with 175/2371 patients (7.4%) in the placebo group [hazard ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.63-0.99), P = 0.037], and the effect was consistent across each of the components of the composite outcome.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of any serious ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, or sudden death when added to conventional therapy in patients with HFrEF.

Clinical Trial Registration:  ClinicalTrials.gov unique identifier: NCT03036124 (DAPA-HF).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455345PMC
September 2021

Sacubitril-valsartan as a treatment for apparent resistant hypertension in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

Eur Heart J 2021 Sep;42(36):3741-3752

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Aims: Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) frequently have difficult-to-control hypertension. We examined the effect of neprilysin inhibition on 'apparent resistant hypertension' in patients with HFpEF in the PARAGON-HF trial, which compared the effect of sacubitril-valsartan with valsartan.

Methods And Results: In this post hoc analysis, patients were categorized according to systolic blood pressure at the end of the valsartan run-in (n = 4795). 'Apparent resistant hypertension' was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (≥135 mmHg if diabetes) despite treatment with valsartan, a calcium channel blocker, and a diuretic. 'Apparent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)-resistant' hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (≥135 mmHg if diabetes) despite the above treatments and an MRA. The primary outcome in the PARAGON-HF trial was a composite of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes. We examined clinical endpoints and the safety of sacubitril-valsartan according to the hypertension category. We also examined reductions in blood pressure from the end of valsartan run-in to Weeks 4 and 16 after randomization. Overall, 731 patients (15.2%) had apparent resistant hypertension and 135 (2.8%) had apparent MRA-resistant hypertension. The rate of the primary outcome was higher in patients with apparent resistant hypertension [17.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.6-19.1 per 100 person-years] compared to those with a controlled systolic blood pressure (13.4; 12.7-14.3 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted rate ratio of 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57). The reduction in systolic blood pressure at Weeks 4 and 16, respectively, was greater with sacubitril-valsartan vs. valsartan in patients with apparent resistant hypertension [-4.8 (-7.0 to -2.5) and 3.9 (-6.6 to -1.3) mmHg] and apparent MRA-resistant hypertension [-8.8 (-14.0 to -3.5) and -6.3 (-12.5 to -0.1) mmHg]. The proportion of patients with apparent resistant hypertension achieving a controlled systolic blood pressure by Week 16 was 47.9% in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 34.3% in the valsartan group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.30-2.43]. In patients with apparent MRA-resistant hypertension, the respective proportions were 43.6% vs. 28.4% (adjusted OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.18-5.89).

Conclusion: Sacubitril-valsartan may be useful in treating apparent resistant hypertension in patients with HFpEF, even in those who continue to have an elevated blood pressure despite treatment with at least four antihypertensive drug classes, including an MRA.

Clinical Trial Registration: PARAGON-HF: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01920711.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455346PMC
September 2021

Initiation of domiciliary care and nursing home admission following first hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cancer.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(8):e0255364. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Patients with chronic diseases are at higher risk of requiring domiciliary and nursing home care, but how different chronic diseases compare in terms of risk is not known. We examined initiation of domiciliary care and nursing home admission among patients with heart failure (HF), stroke, COPD and cancer.

Methods: Patients with a first-time hospitalization for HF, stroke, COPD or cancer from 2008-2016 were identified. Patients were matched on age and sex and followed for five years.

Results: 111,144 patients, 27,786 with each disease, were identified. The median age was 69 years and two thirds of the patients were men. The 5-year risk of receiving domiciliary care was; HF 20.9%, stroke 25.2%, COPD 24.6% and cancer 19.3%. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), with HF patients used as reference, were: stroke 1.35[1.30-1.40]; COPD 1.29[1.25-1.34]; and cancer 1.19[1.14-1.23]. The five-year incidence of nursing home admission was 6.6% for stroke, and substantially lower in patients with HF(2.6%), COPD(2.6%) and cancer (1.5%). The adjusted HRs were (HF reference): stroke, 2.44 [2.23-2.68]; COPD 1.01 [0.91-1.13] and cancer 0.76 [0.67-0.86]. Living alone, older age, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, depression and dementia predicted a higher likelihood of both types of care.

Conclusions: In patients with HF, stroke, COPD or cancer 5-year risk of domiciliary care and nursing home admission, ranged from 19-25% and 1-7%, respectively. Patients with stroke had the highest rate of domiciliary care and were more than twice as likely to be admitted to a nursing home, compared to patients with the other conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255364PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336831PMC
August 2021

Extrapolating Long-term Event-Free and Overall Survival With Dapagliflozin in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Exploratory Analysis of a Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Importance: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinicians may find estimates of the projected long-term benefits of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors a helpful addition to clinical trial results when communicating the benefits of this class of drug to patients.

Objective: To estimate the projected long-term treatment effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF over the duration of a patient's lifetime.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Exploratory analysis was performed of Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF), a phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% in New York Heart Association functional classification II to IV and elevated plasma levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Mean (SD) duration of follow-up was 17.6 (5.2) months.

Interventions: Dapagliflozin, 10 mg, once daily vs placebo in addition to standard therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary composite outcome was time to first hospitalization for heart failure, urgent heart failure visit requiring intravenous therapy, or cardiovascular death. The trial results were extrapolated to estimate the projected long-term treatment effects of dapagliflozin over the duration of a patient's lifetime for the primary outcome and the secondary outcome of death from any cause.

Results: A total of 4744 patients (1109 women [23.4%]; 3635 men [76.6%]) were randomized in DAPA-HF, with a mean (SD) age of 66.3 (10.9) years. The extrapolated mean event-free survival for an individual aged 65 years from a primary composite end point event was 6.2 years for placebo and 8.3 years for dapagliflozin, representing an event-free survival time gain of 2.1 years (95% CI, 0.8-3.3 years; P = .002). When considering death from any cause, mean extrapolated life expectancy for an individual aged 65 years was 9.1 years for placebo and 10.8 years for dapagliflozin, with a gain in survival of 1.7 years (95% CI, 0.1-3.3; P = .03) with dapagliflozin. Similar results were seen when extrapolated across the age range studied. In analyses of subgroups of patients in DAPA-HF, consistent benefits were seen with dapagliflozin on both event-free and overall survival.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings indicate that dapagliflozin provides clinically meaningful gains in extrapolated event-free and overall survival. These findings may be helpful in communicating the benefits of this treatment to patients with HFrEF.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.2632DOI Listing
July 2021

Response by Lee et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Effect of Empagliflozin on Left Ventricular Volumes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, or Prediabetes, and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (SUGAR-DM-HF)".

Circulation 2021 Jul 19;144(3):e40. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (M.M.Y.L., J.J.V.M., P.S.J., M.C.P., N.S.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055067DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficacy of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction according to body mass index.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there is an 'obesity paradox', where survival is better in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) and weight loss is associated with worse outcomes. We examined the effect of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor according to baseline BMI in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).

Methods And Results: Body mass index was examined using standard categories, i.e. underweight (<18.5 kg/m ); normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m ); obesity class I (30.0-34.9 kg/m ); obesity class II (35.0-39.9 kg/m ); and obesity class III (≥40 kg/m ). The primary outcome in DAPA-HF was the composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. Overall, 1348 patients (28.4%) were under/normal-weight, 1722 (36.3%) overweight, 1013 (21.4%) obesity class I and 659 (13.9%) obesity class II/III. The unadjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the primary outcome with obesity class 1, the lowest risk group, as reference was: under/normal-weight 1.41 (1.16-1.71), overweight 1.18 (0.97-1.42), obesity class II/III 1.37 (1.10-1.72). Patients with class I obesity were also at lowest risk of death. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome and other outcomes did not vary by baseline BMI, e.g. hazard ratio for primary outcome: under/normal-weight 0.74 (0.58-0.94), overweight 0.81 (0.65-1.02), obesity class I 0.68 (0.50-0.92), obesity class II/III 0.71 (0.51-1.00) (P-value for interaction = 0.79). The mean decrease in weight at 8 months with dapagliflozin was 0.9 (0.7-1.1) kg (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: We confirmed an 'obesity survival paradox' in HFrEF. We showed that dapagliflozin was beneficial across the wide range of BMI studied.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2308DOI Listing
July 2021

Derivation and Validation of a 10-Year Risk Score for Symptomatic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Cohort Study of Nearly 500 000 Individuals.

Circulation 2021 Aug 25;144(8):604-614. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W., P.S.J., R.B., C.A.C.-M., J.M.R.G., S.R.G., N.S.), University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can occur in patients who are ineligible for routine ultrasound screening. A simple AAA risk score was derived and compared with current guidelines used for ultrasound screening of AAA.

Methods: United Kingdom Biobank participants without previous AAA were split into a derivation cohort (n=401 820, 54.6% women, mean age 56.4 years, 95.5% White race) and validation cohort (n=83 816). Incident AAA was defined as first hospital inpatient diagnosis of AAA, death from AAA, or an AAA-related surgical procedure. A multivariable Cox model was developed in the derivation cohort into an AAA risk score that did not require blood biomarkers. To illustrate the sensitivity and specificity of the risk score for AAA, a theoretical threshold to refer patients for ultrasound at 0.25% 10-year risk was modeled. Discrimination of the risk score was compared with a model of US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) AAA screening guidelines.

Results: In the derivation cohort, there were 1570 (0.40%) cases of AAA over a median 11.3 years of follow-up. Components of the AAA risk score were age (stratified by smoking status), weight (stratified by smoking status), antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medication use, height, diastolic blood pressure, baseline cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In the validation cohort, over 10 years of follow-up, the C-index for the model of the USPSTF guidelines was 0.705 (95% CI, 0.678-0.733). The C-index of the risk score as a continuous variable was 0.856 (95% CI, 0.837-0.878). In the validation cohort, the USPSTF model yielded sensitivity 63.9% and specificity 71.3%. At the 0.25% 10-year risk threshold, the risk score yielded sensitivity 82.1% and specificity 70.7% while also improving the net reclassification index compared with the USPSTF model +0.176 (95% CI, 0.120-0.232). A combined model, whereby risk scoring was combined with the USPSTF model, also improved prediction compared with USPSTF alone (net reclassification index +0.101 [95% CI, 0.055-0.147]).

Conclusions: In an asymptomatic general population, a risk score based on patient age, height, weight, and medical history may improve identification of asymptomatic patients at risk for clinical events from AAA. Further development and validation of risk scores to detect asymptomatic AAA are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.053022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378547PMC
August 2021

Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Importance: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) may contribute to the pathophysiologic characteristics of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, the prevalence of CAD and CMD have not been systematically studied.

Objective: To examine the prevalence of CAD and CMD in hospitalized patients with HFpEF.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 106 consecutive patients hospitalized with HFpEF were evaluated in this prospective, multicenter, cohort study conducted between January 2, 2017, and August 1, 2018; data analysis was performed from March 4 to September 6, 2019. Participants underwent coronary angiography with guidewire-based assessment of coronary flow reserve, index of microvascular resistance, and fractional flow reserve, followed by coronary vasoreactivity testing. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed with late gadolinium enhancement and assessment of extracellular volume. Myocardial perfusion was assessed qualitatively and semiquantitatively using the myocardial-perfusion reserve index.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The prevalence of obstructive epicardial CAD, CMD, and myocardial ischemia, infarction, and fibrosis.

Results: Of 106 participants enrolled (53 [50%] women; mean [SD] age, 72 [9] years), 75 had coronary angiography, 62 had assessment of coronary microvascular function, 41 underwent coronary vasoreactivity testing, and 52 received cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Obstructive epicardial CAD was present in 38 of 75 participants (51%, 95% CI, 39%-62%); 19 of 38 (50%; 95% CI, 34%-66%) had no history of CAD. Endothelium-independent CMD (ie, coronary flow reserve <2.0 and/or index of microvascular resistance ≥25) was identified in 41 of 62 participants (66%; 95% CI, 53%-77%). Endothelium-dependent CMD (ie, abnormal coronary vasoreactivity) was identified in 10 of 41 participants (24%; 95% CI, 13%-40%). Overall, 45 of 53 participants (85%; 95% CI, 72%-92%) had evidence of CMD and 29 of 36 (81%; 95% CI, 64%-91%) of those without obstructive epicardial CAD had CMD. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings included myocardial-perfusion reserve index less than or equal to 1.84 (ie, impaired global myocardial perfusion) in 29 of 41 patients (71%; 95% CI, 54%-83%), visual perfusion defect in 14 of 46 patients (30%; 95% CI, 19%-46%), ischemic late gadolinium enhancement (ie, myocardial infarction) in 14 of 52 patients (27%; 95% CI, 16%-41%), and extracellular volume greater than 30% (ie, diffuse myocardial fibrosis) in 20 of 48 patients (42%; 95% CI, 28%-56%). Patients with obstructive CAD had more adverse events during follow-up (28 [74%]) than those without obstructive CAD (17 [46%]).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, 91% of patients with HFpEF had evidence of epicardial CAD, CMD, or both. Of those without obstructive CAD, 81% had CMD. Obstructive epicardial CAD and CMD appear to be common and often unrecognized in hospitalized patients with HFpEF and may be therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.1825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223134PMC
June 2021

Heart Failure Hospitalization in Adults Receiving Hemodialysis and the Effect of Intravenous Iron Therapy.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jul 9;9(7):518-527. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Renal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: This study sought to examine the effect of intravenous iron on heart failure events in hemodialysis patients.

Background: Heart failure is a common and deadly complication in patients receiving hemodialysis and is difficult to diagnose and treat.

Methods: The study analyzed heart failure events in the PIVOTAL (Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients) trial, which compared intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen with a low-dose regimen administered reactively. Heart failure hospitalization was an adjudicated outcome, a component of the primary composite outcome, and a prespecified secondary endpoint in the trial.

Results: Overall, 2,141 participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years. A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94; P = 0.023). There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group, giving a rate ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40-0.87; P = 0.0084). Most patients presented with pulmonary edema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event.

Conclusions: Compared with a lower-dose regimen, high-dose intravenous iron decreased the occurrence of first and recurrent heart failure events in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with large relative and absolute risk reductions. (UK Multicentre Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial Of IV Iron Therapy In Incident Haemodialysis Patients; 2013-002267-25).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.04.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and external validation of prognostic models to predict sudden and pump-failure death in patients with HFrEF from PARADIGM-HF and ATMOSPHERE.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Aug 8;110(8):1334-1349. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

Background: Sudden death (SD) and pump failure death (PFD) are the two leading causes of death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Objective: Identifying patients at higher risk for mode-specific death would allow better targeting of individual patients for relevant device and other therapies.

Methods: We developed models in 7156 patients with HFrEF from the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, using Fine-Gray regressions counting other deaths as competing risks. The derived models were externally validated in the Aliskiren Trial to Minimize Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure (ATMOSPHERE) trial.

Results: NYHA class and NT-proBNP were independent predictors for both modes of death. The SD model additionally included male sex, Asian or Black race, prior CABG or PCI, cancer history, MI history, treatment with LCZ696 vs. enalapril, QRS duration and ECG left ventricular hypertrophy. While LVEF, ischemic etiology, systolic blood pressure, HF duration, ECG bundle branch block, and serum albumin, chloride and creatinine were included in the PFD model. Model discrimination was good for SD and excellent for PFD with Harrell's C of 0.67 and 0.78 after correction for optimism, respectively. The observed and predicted incidences were similar in each quartile of risk scores at 3 years in each model. The performance of both models remained robust in ATMOSPHERE.

Conclusion: We developed and validated models which separately predict SD and PFD in patients with HFrEF. These models may help clinicians and patients consider therapies targeted at these modes of death.

Trial Registration Number: PARADIGM-HF: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01035255, ATMOSPHERE: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00853658.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01888-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318968PMC
August 2021

Effect of Neprilysin Inhibition on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients With Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Late After Myocardial Infarction.

Circulation 2021 Jul 13;144(3):199-209. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre (K.F.D., R.T.C., K.J.M.B., R.L.G., T.H., A.M.J., M.M.Y.L., G.R., P.W., P.S.J., M.C.P., J.J.V.M.), University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Background: Patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction are at a high risk of developing heart failure. The addition of neprilysin inhibition to renin angiotensin system inhibition may result in greater attenuation of adverse LV remodeling as a result of increased levels of substrates for neprilysin with vasodilatory, antihypertrophic, antifibrotic, and sympatholytic effects.

Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg twice daily with valsartan 160 mg twice daily in patients ≥3 months after myocardial infarction with a LV ejection fraction ≤40% who were taking a renin angiotensin system inhibitor (equivalent dose of ramipril ≥2.5 mg twice daily) and a β-blocker unless contraindicated or intolerant. Patients in New York Heart Association class ≥II or with signs and symptoms of heart failure were excluded. The primary outcome was change from baseline to 52 weeks in LV end-systolic volume index measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcomes included other magnetic resonance imaging measurements of LV remodeling, change in NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, and a patient global assessment of change questionnaire.

Results: From July 2018 to June 2019, we randomized 93 patients with the following characteristics: mean age, 60.7±10.4 years; median time from myocardial infarction, 3.6 years (interquartile range, 1.2-7.2); mean LV ejection fraction, 36.8%±7.1%; and median NT-proBNP, 230 pg/mL (interquartile range, 124-404). Sacubitril/valsartan, compared with valsartan, did not significantly reduce LV end-systolic volume index; adjusted between-group difference, -1.9 mL/m (95% CI, -4.9 to 1.0); =0.19. There were no significant between-group differences in NT-proBNP, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, LV end-diastolic volume index, left atrial volume index, LV ejection fraction, LV mass index, or patient global assessment of change.

Conclusions: In patients with asymptomatic LV systolic dysfunction late after myocardial infarction, treatment with sacubitril/valsartan did not have a significant reverse remodeling effect compared with valsartan. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03552575.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284373PMC
July 2021

Incidence and Outcomes of Pneumonia in Patients With Heart Failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr;77(16):1961-1973

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence of pneumonia and subsequent outcomes has not been compared in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the rate and impact of pneumonia in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) and PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ARB Global Outcomes in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction) trials.

Methods: The authors analyzed the incidence of investigator-reported pneumonia and the rates of HF hospitalization, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death before and after the occurrence of pneumonia, and estimated risk after the first occurrence of pneumonia in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (the latter including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide).

Results: In PARADIGM-HF, 528 patients (6.3%) developed pneumonia after randomization, giving an incidence rate of 29 (95% CI: 27 to 32) per 1,000 patient-years. In PARAGON-HF, 510 patients (10.6%) developed pneumonia, giving an incidence rate of 39 (95% CI: 36 to 42) per 1,000 patient-years. The subsequent risk of all trial outcomes was elevated after the occurrence of pneumonia. In PARADIGM-HF, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the risk of death from any cause was 4.34 (95% CI: 3.73 to 5.05). The corresponding adjusted HR in PARAGON-HF was 3.76 (95% CI: 3.09 to 4.58).

Conclusions: The incidence of pneumonia was high in patients with HF, especially HFpEF, at around 3 times the expected rate. A first episode of pneumonia was associated with 4-fold higher mortality. (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure [PARADIGM-HF], NCT01035255; Prospective Comparison of ARNI [Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor] With ARB [Angiotensin Receptor Blocker] Global Outcomes in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF], NCT01920711).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Global Differences in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: The PARAGON-HF Trial.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Apr 19;14(4):e007901. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

National Heart Centre Singapore (J.T., C.S.P.L.).

Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a global public health problem with important regional differences. We investigated these differences in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in HFpEF), the largest and most inclusive global HFpEF trial.

Methods: We studied differences in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment effects of sacubitril/valsartan in 4796 patients with HFpEF from the PARAGON-HF trial, grouped according to geographic region.

Results: Regional differences in patient characteristics and comorbidities were observed: patients from Western Europe were oldest (mean 75±7 years) with the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (36%); Central/Eastern European patients were youngest (mean 71±8 years) with the highest prevalence of coronary artery disease (50%); North American patients had the highest prevalence of obesity (65%) and diabetes (49%); Latin American patients were younger (73±9 years) and had a high prevalence of obesity (53%); and Asia-Pacific patients had a high prevalence of diabetes (44%), despite a low prevalence of obesity (26%). Rates of the primary composite end point of total hospitalizations for HF and death from cardiovascular causes were lower in patients from Central Europe (9 per 100 patient-years) and highest in patients from North America (28 per 100 patient-years), which was primarily driven by a greater number of total hospitalizations for HF. The effect of treatment with sacubitril-valsartan was not modified by region (interaction >0.05).

Conclusions: Among patients with HFpEF recruited worldwide in PARAGON-HF, there were important regional differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes, which may have implications for the design of future clinical trials. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007901DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr;77(14):1717-1727

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Data on long-term cardiovascular outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are sparse.

Objectives: This study sought to examine the long-term risk and prognosis associated with cardiovascular outcomes, including heart failure (HF), in patients with SLE.

Methods: Using Danish administrative registries, risks of outcomes were compared between SLE patients (diagnosed 1996 to 2018, no history of cardiovascular disease) and age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched control subjects from the background population (matched 1:4). Furthermore, mortality following HF diagnosis was compared between SLE patients developing HF and age- and sex-matched non-SLE control subjects with HF (matched 1:4).

Results: A total of 3,411 SLE patients (median age: 44.6 years [25th to 75th percentile: 31.9 to 57.0 years]; 14.1% men) were matched with 13,644 control subjects. The median follow-up was 8.5 years (25th to 75th percentile: 4.0 to 14.4 years). Absolute 10-year risks of outcomes were: HF, 3.71% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.02% to 4.51%) for SLE patients, 1.94% (95% CI: 1.68% to 2.24%) for control subjects; atrial fibrillation, 4.35% (95% CI: 3.61% to 5.18%) for SLE patients, 2.82% (95% CI: 2.50% to 3.16%) for control subjects; ischemic stroke, 3.75% (95% CI: 3.06% to 4.54%) for SLE patients, 1.92% (95% CI: 1.66% to 2.20%) for control subjects; myocardial infarction, 2.17% (95% CI: 1.66% to 2.80%) for SLE patients, 1.49% (95% CI: 1.26% to 1.75%) for control subjects; venous thromboembolism, 6.03% (95% CI: 5.17% to 6.98%) for SLE patients, 1.68% (95% CI: 1.44% to 1.95%) for control subjects; and the composite of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation/ventricular arrhythmias/cardiac arrest, 0.89% (95% CI: 0.58% to 1.31%) for SLE patients, 0.30% (95% CI: 0.20% to 0.43%) for control subjects. SLE with subsequent HF was associated with higher mortality compared with HF without SLE (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.08).

Conclusions: SLE patients had a higher associated risk of HF and other cardiovascular outcomes compared with matched control subjects. Among patients developing HF, a history of SLE was associated with higher mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.02.029DOI Listing
April 2021

Dapagliflozin and Recurrent Heart Failure Hospitalizations in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Analysis of DAPA-HF.

Circulation 2021 May 9;143(20):1962-1972. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (P.S.J., K.F.D., M.C.P., J.J.V.M.).

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction will experience multiple hospitalizations for heart failure during the course of their disease. We assessed the efficacy of dapagliflozin on reducing the rate of total (ie, first and repeat) hospitalizations for heart failure in the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure).

Methods: The total number of HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular deaths was examined by using the proportional-rates approach of Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying and a joint frailty model for each of recurrent HF hospitalizations and time to cardiovascular death. Variables associated with the risk of recurrent hospitalizations were explored in a multivariable Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying model.

Results: Of 2371 participants randomly assigned to placebo, 318 experienced 469 hospitalizations for HF; of 2373 assigned to dapagliflozin, 230 patients experienced 340 admissions. In a multivariable model, factors associated with a higher risk of recurrent HF hospitalizations included higher heart rate, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and New York Heart Association class. In the Lei-Wei-Yang-Ying model, the rate ratio for the effect of dapagliflozin on recurrent HF hospitalizations or cardiovascular death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.88), =0.0002. In the joint frailty model, the rate ratio for total HF hospitalizations was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.61-0.82), <0.0001, whereas, for cardiovascular death, the hazard ratio was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.98), =0.0282.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of total (first and repeat) HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death. Time-to-first event analysis underestimated the benefit of dapagliflozin in HF and reduced ejection fraction. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126492PMC
May 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in Men and Women With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Prespecified Analysis of the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Jun;6(6):678-689

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: Women may respond differently to certain treatments for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) than men.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin compared with placebo in men and women with HFrEF enrolled in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Prespecified subgroup analysis of a phase 3 randomized clinical trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class II through IV with an ejection fraction of 40% or less and elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were eligible. Data were analyzed between June 2020 and January 2021.

Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to guideline-recommended therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF (HF hospitalization or urgent HF visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death.

Results: A total of 4744 patients were randomized in DAPA-HF, of whom 1109 were women (23.4%). Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF events or cardiovascular death to a similar extent in both men and women (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.63-0.85] and 0.79 [95% CI, 0.59-1.06], respectively; P for interaction = .67). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome and all-cause mortality. Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin increased the proportion of patients with a meaningful improvement in symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score of ≥5 points; men, 59% vs 50%; women, 57% vs 54%; P for interaction = .14) and decreased the proportion with worsening symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score decrease of ≥5 points; men, 25% vs 34%; women, 27% vs 31%; P for interaction = .15), irrespective of sex. Results were consistent for the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire clinical summary score and overall summary score. Study drug discontinuation and serious adverse events were not more frequent in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group in either men or women.

Conclusions And Relevance: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death and improved symptoms, physical function, and health-related quality of life similarly in men and women with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In addition, dapagliflozin was safe and well-tolerated irrespective of sex.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.0379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014207PMC
June 2021

Risk stratification in patients presenting with acute heart failure.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Apr;10(2):113-115

BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuab005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136340PMC
April 2021

Effect of dapagliflozin on anaemia in DAPA-HF.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 22;23(4):617-628. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aim: Anaemia is common in heart failure and associated with worse outcomes. We examined the effect of dapagliflozin on correction of anaemia in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction in DAPA-HF. We also analysed the effect of dapagliflozin on outcomes, according to anaemia status at baseline.

Methods And Results: Anaemia was defined at baseline as a haematocrit <39% in men and <36% in women. Resolution of anaemia was defined as two consecutive haematocrit measurements above these thresholds at any time during follow-up. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening HF (hospitalization or urgent visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death. Of the 4744 patients randomized in DAPA-HF, 4691 had a haematocrit available at baseline, of which 1032 were anaemic (22.0%). The rate of the primary outcome was higher in patients with anaemia (16.1 per 100 person-years) compared with those without (12.9 per 100 person-years). Anaemia was corrected in 62.2% of patients in the dapagliflozin group, compared with 41.1% of patients in the placebo group. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in anaemic compared with non-anaemic patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.88 vs. HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.89; interaction P = 0.44]. Similar findings were observed for cardiovascular death, HF hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. Patients with resolution of anaemia had better outcomes than those in which anaemia persisted.

Conclusion: Patients with anaemia had worse outcomes in DAPA-HF. Dapagliflozin corrected anaemia more often than placebo and improved outcomes, irrespective of anaemia status at baseline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2132DOI Listing
April 2021

Time to Clinical Benefit of Dapagliflozin and Significance of Prior Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 May;6(5):499-507

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Dapagliflozin has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure (HF) in patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, clinical inertia often underlies deferred initiation of effective therapies.

Objective: To examine timing of onset of clinical benefit with dapagliflozin and magnitude as a function of proximity to prior HF hospitalization.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is a secondary analysis of a completed multinational trial. The Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic HFrEF (n = 4744). From February 2017 to August 2018, the study enrolled patients in New York Heart Association classes II through IV and with left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less; the median (range) follow-up time was 18.2 (0-27.8) months. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for the primary efficacy outcome with dapagliflozin vs placebo by time following randomization. Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were assessed according to the timing of the most recent HF hospitalization prior to trial enrollment.

Exposures: None.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Composite of cardiovascular death or worsening HF.

Results: A total of 4744 patients were included (1109 women [23.4%]; mean [SD] age, 66.3 [10.9] years). The reduction in the primary outcome with dapagliflozin was rapidly apparent, with a sustained statistically significant benefit by 28 days after randomization (HR at 28 days, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28-0.94]; P = .03). A total of 2251 patients (47.4%) had been previously hospitalized for HF, and 1301 (27.4%) had been hospitalized within 12 months prior to enrollment. Among patients treated with placebo, there was a stepwise gradient of risk for the primary outcome according to timing of most recent HF hospitalization, with 2-year Kaplan-Meier rates of 21.1%, 25.3%, and 33.8% (adjusted P = .003) for patients with a prior HF hospitalization never, more than 12 months ago, and 12 or fewer months ago, respectively. Across these subgroups, dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of the primary outcome by 16% (HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.69-1.01]), 27% (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.54-0.99]), and 36% (HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.51-0.80]), respectively (P = .07 for trend). Accordingly, patients with a more recent HF hospitalization tended to experience greater absolute risk reductions with dapagliflozin at 2 years: 2.1% (95% CI, -1.9% to 6.1%), 4.1% (95% CI, -3.6% to 11.7%), and 9.9% (95% CI, 3.3%-16.5%), respectively (P = .05 for trend).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, treatment with dapagliflozin was associated with rapid reduction in the risk of cardiovascular death or worsening HF, with a sustained statistically significant benefit emerging very early after randomization. Patients with a more recent HF hospitalization were at particularly high risk and experienced greater relative and absolute risk reductions with dapagliflozin.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.7585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890451PMC
May 2021

Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin according to aetiology in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from the DAPA-HF trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 10;23(4):601-613. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims: We examined the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, according to aetiology in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) enrolled in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).

Methods And Results: Aetiology was investigator-reported and categorized as ischaemic or non-ischaemic. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. A total of 4744 patients were randomized in DAPA-HF, of whom 2674 (56.4%) patients had an ischaemic aetiology. Participants with an ischaemic aetiology had a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.63], but lower risk of HF hospitalization (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98) than non-ischaemic patients. Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or cardiovascular death to a similar extent in both patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic aetiology (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.92, and HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.87, respectively; P for interaction = 0.55). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome and all-cause mortality. Dapagliflozin, as compared with placebo, increased the proportion of patients with an improvement of Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score (KCCQ-TSS) of ≥5 points (P for interaction = 0.32) and decreased the proportion with a deterioration in KCCQ-TSS of ≥5 points (P for interaction = 0.76), irrespective of aetiology. Study drug discontinuation and serious adverse events were similar according to treatment groups, irrespective of aetiology.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF and death, and improved symptoms, similarly in patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic aetiology. In addition, dapagliflozin was safe and well-tolerated, irrespective of aetiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2124DOI Listing
April 2021

Dapagliflozin in HFrEF Patients Treated With Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: An Analysis of DAPA-HF.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Apr 3;9(4):254-264. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients taking or not taking an mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) at baseline in the DAPA-HF (Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Heart Failure) trial.

Background: MRAs and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors each have diuretic activity, lower blood pressure, and reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Therefore, it is important to investigate the safety, as well as efficacy, of their combination.

Methods: A total of 4,744 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were randomized to placebo or dapagliflozin 10 mg daily. The efficacy of dapagliflozin on the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death or episode of worsening heart failure) and its components was examined according to MRA use, as were predefined safety outcomes.

Results: A total of 3,370 patients (71%) were treated with an MRA and they were younger (65 vs. 69 years of age), less often from North America (9% vs. 26%), had worse New York Heart Association functional class (35% vs. 25% in class III/IV), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (30.7% vs. 31.9%) and systolic blood pressure (120.3 vs. 125.5 mm Hg), but higher estimated GFR (67.1 vs. 62.6 ml/min/1.73 m), than patients not taking an MRA. The benefit of dapagliflozin compared with placebo was similar in patients taking or not taking an MRA: hazard ratio: 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.87) versus 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57 to 0.95), respectively, for the primary endpoint (p value for interaction = 0.97); similar findings were observed for secondary endpoints. In both MRA subgroups, safety outcomes were similar in patients randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo.

Conclusions: Dapagliflozin was similarly efficacious and safe in patients with HFrEF taking or not taking an MRA, supporting the use of both drugs together. (Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on the Incidence of Worsening Heart Failure or Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure [DAPA-HF]; NCT03036124).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2020.11.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Insights From PARADIGM-HF.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 02 30;10(4):e019238. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Division of Cardiology University of British Columbia Vancouver Canada.

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbidity in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, associated with undertreatment and worse outcomes. New treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may be particularly important in patients with concomitant COPD. Methods and Results We examined outcomes in 8399 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, according to COPD status, in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial. Cox regression models were used to compare COPD versus non-COPD subgroups and the effects of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril. Patients with COPD (n=1080, 12.9%) were older than patients without COPD (mean 67 versus 63 years; <0.001), with similar left ventricular ejection fraction (29.9% versus 29.4%), but higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; median, 1741 pg/mL versus 1591 pg/mL; P=0.01), worse functional class (New York Heart Association III/IV 37% versus 23%; <0.001) and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-Clinical Summary Score (73 versus 81; <0.001), and more congestion and comorbidity. Medical therapy was similar in patients with and without COPD except for beta-blockade (87% versus 94%; <0.001) and diuretics (85% versus 80%; <0.001). After multivariable adjustment, COPD was associated with higher risks of heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.13-1.54), and the composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.34), but not cardiovascular death (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.94-1.30), or all-cause mortality (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.99-1.31). COPD was also associated with higher risk of all cardiovascular hospitalization (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.31) and noncardiovascular hospitalization (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.29-1.64). The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril was consistent in patients with and without COPD for all end points. Conclusions In PARADIGM-HF, COPD was associated with lower use of beta-blockers and worse health status and was an independent predictor of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular hospitalization. Sacubitril/valsartan was beneficial in this high-risk subgroup. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01035255.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955331PMC
February 2021

Effects of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of DAPA-HF.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 18;23(4):632-643. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important comorbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), associated with worse outcomes and often suboptimal treatment because of under-prescription of beta-blockers. Consequently, additional effective therapies are especially relevant in patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes related to COPD in a post hoc analysis of the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial.

Methods And Results: We examined whether the effects of dapagliflozin in DAPA-HF were modified by COPD status. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening HF or cardiovascular death. Overall, 585 (12.3%) of the 4744 patients randomized had a history of COPD. Patients with COPD were more likely to be older men with a history of smoking, worse renal function, and higher baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and less likely to be treated with a beta-blocker or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. The incidence of the primary outcome was higher in patients with COPD than in those without [18.9 (95% confidence interval 16.0-22.2) vs. 13.0 (12.1-14.0) per 100 person-years; hazard ratio (HR) for COPD vs. no COPD 1.44 (1.21-1.72); P < 0.001]. The effect of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, on the primary outcome, was consistent in patients with [HR 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.93)] and without COPD [0.76 (0.65-0.87); interaction P-value 0.47].

Conclusions: In DAPA-HF, one in eight patients with HFrEF had concomitant COPD. Participants with COPD had a higher risk of the primary outcome. The benefit of dapagliflozin on all pre-specified outcomes was consistent in patients with and without COPD.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03036124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247863PMC
April 2021

Dapagliflozin and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Exploratory Analysis From DAPA-HF.

Diabetes Care 2021 02 18;44(2):586-594. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K.

Objective: The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular mortality and worsening heart failure in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial. This report explores the effect of dapagliflozin on incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the cohort without diabetes enrolled in the trial.

Research Design And Methods: The subgroup of 2,605 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), no prior history of diabetes, and an HbA of <6.5% at baseline was randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo. In this exploratory analysis, surveillance for new-onset diabetes was accomplished through periodic HbA testing as part of the study protocol and comparison between the treatment groups assessed through a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: At baseline, the mean HbA was 5.8%. At 8 months, there were minimal changes, with a placebo-adjusted change in the dapagliflozin group of -0.04%. Over a median follow-up of 18 months, diabetes developed in 93 of 1,307 patients (7.1%) in the placebo group and 64 of 1,298 (4.9%) in the dapagliflozin group. Dapagliflozin led to a 32% reduction in diabetes incidence (hazard ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.94; = 0.019). More than 95% of the participants who developed T2D had prediabetes at baseline (HbA 5.7-6.4%). Participants who developed diabetes in DAPA-HF had a higher subsequent mortality than those who did not.

Conclusions: In this exploratory analysis among patients with HFrEF, treatment with dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of new diabetes. This potential benefit needs confirmation in trials of longer duration and in people without heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1675DOI Listing
February 2021

Renin-angiotensin system blockers, risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes fromCoViD-19: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2020 Dec 18. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow.

Aims: This meta-analysis provides summary odds ratio (OR) estimates for associations between treatment with (vs. without) renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19) severity (including case-fatality) in patients with hypertension, and in all patients (irrespective of hypertension).

Methods And Results: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, medRxiv and SSRN were searched (May 02, 2020 to August 12, 2020) for non-randomised observational CoViD-19 studies. Event/patient numbers were extracted, comparing ACE inhibitor/ARB treatment (and each separately), to treatment with neither drug, for the outcomes: (a) Likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection; (b) CoViD-19 severity (including hospitalisation, Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU), ventilation); (c) Case-fatality. Risk of bias was assessed (ROBINS-I). Random-effects meta-analysis estimates were pooled. Eighty six studies including 459,755 patients (103,317 with hypertension), were analysed. In patients with hypertension, ACE inhibitor or ARB treatment was not associated with a greater likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 60,141 patients (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14), hospitalisation in 5,925 patients (OR 0.90, 0.62-1.31), ITU in 7,218 patients (OR 1.06, 0.73-1.56), ventilation (or ITU/ventilation/death) in 13,163 patients (OR 0.91, 0.72-1.15) or case-fatality in 18,735 patients with 2,893 deaths (OR 0.75, 0.61-0.92).

Conclusion: ACE inhibitors and ARBs appear safe in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection and should not be discontinued. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020186996.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799280PMC
December 2020
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