Publications by authors named "Parastoo Dahi"

72 Publications

HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION IS FEASIBLE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIOR COVID-19 INFECTION.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: There are limited data on outcomes of patients with prior Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who proceeded to autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). It is unknown whether these patients are more susceptible to poor outcomes and recurrence of COVID-19.

Objective: We report a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 15 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies who experienced COVID-19 and subsequently underwent autologous (n=8) or allogeneic (n=7) HCT between 6/17/20 and 2/17/21. The reported cohort included patients with asymptomatic past infections or symptomatic COVID-19 disease.

Methods: Data were obtained from chart review. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics.

Results: Among eight patients who underwent autologous HCT, four had a diagnosis of multiple myeloma while the rest had a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Four of the eight patients did not test positive for anti-SARS- CoV-2 IgG antibody at any point during their course. The remaining four patients had detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies prior to autologous HCT but only two of these patients remained anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody-positive at their last follow-up. One patient died from progression of disease. Seven patients with prior COVID-19 underwent allogeneic HCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=3); acute myeloid leukemia (n=1); chronic myeloid leukemia in lymphoid blast crisis (n=1); myelodysplastic syndrome (n=1); and myelofibrosis (n=1). Three of the seven patients tested positive for anti-SARS- CoV-2 IgG antibodies following the initial COVID-19 diagnosis; however, only one of these patients retained anti-SARS- CoV-2 IgG antibody following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. One patient died of infections (fungal and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) occurring in the context of ongoing treatment for GVHD. None of the 15 patients developed recurrence of COVID-19 infection.

Conclusions: Based on our experience, autologous and allogeneic HCT can be safely performed in select patients with previous COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8503970PMC
October 2021

Modified EASIX predicts severe cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity after chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

Blood Adv 2021 09;5(17):3397-3406

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Patients who develop chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-related severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) exhibit hemodynamic instability and endothelial activation. The EASIX (Endothelial Activation and Stress Index) score (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH; U/L] × creatinine [mg/dL]/platelets [PLTs; 109 cells/L]) is a marker of endothelial damage that correlates with outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Elevated LDH and low PLTs have been associated with severe CRS and ICANS, as has C-reactive protein (CRP), while increased creatinine is seen only in a minority of advanced severe CRS cases. We hypothesized that EASIX and 2 new modified EASIX formulas (simplified EASIX, which excludes creatinine, and modified EASIX [m-EASIX], which replaces creatinine with CRP [mg/dL]), calculated peri-CAR T-cell infusion, would be associated with development of severe (grade ≥ 3) CRS and ICANS. We included 118 adults, 53 with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with 1928z CAR T cells (NCT01044069) and 65 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel or tisagenlecleucel. The 3 formulas showed similar predictive power for severe CRS and ICANS. However, low PLTs and high CRP values were the only variables individually correlated with these toxicities. Moreover, only m-EASIX was a significant predictor of disease response. m-EASIX could discriminate patients who subsequently developed severe CRS preceding the onset of severe symptoms (area under the curve [AUC] at lymphodepletion, 80.4%; at day -1, 73.0%; and at day +1, 75.4%). At day +3, it also had high discriminatory ability for severe ICANS (AUC, 73%). We propose m-EASIX as a clinical tool to potentially guide individualized management of patients at higher risk for severe CAR T-cell-related toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003885DOI Listing
September 2021

Reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter's transformation.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2879-2889

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may potentially cure patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Richter's transformation (CLL-RT) or CLL without RT, but the impact of novel agents on HSCT is unclear. CLL-RT patients have a grave prognosis, and their outcomes after HSCT are uncertain. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all 58 CLL patients, including 23 CLL-RT patients, who underwent reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) between September 2006 and April 2017. With a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 24-147 months), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-56%), and overall survival (OS) was 58% (95% CI, 48%-74%). The 1-year graft-versus-host disease/relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 38% (95% CI, 25%-50%). Patients with CLL-RT and CLL patients without RT had comparable outcomes. In both cohorts, treatment-sensitive response and ≤3 previous lines of therapy produced superior PFS and OS. Outcomes were agnostic to adverse cytogenetic and molecular features. Novel agents did not have a negative impact on HSCT outcomes. Total body irradiation (TBI)-containing RIC yielded inferior PFS, OS, and GRFS. CLL-RT patients older than age 55 years who had an HSCT Comorbidity Index score of ≥2 demonstrated inferior OS. This study, which is the largest series of RIC-HSCT for patients with CLL-RT, provides evidence supporting RIC-HSCT in early remission courses for patients with CLL-RT and poor-risk CLL patients. TBI-containing RIC should be considered with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341347PMC
July 2021

Fractionated Infusion of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Neutrophil Recovery or Survival in Allograft Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 10 30;27(10):852.e1-852.e9. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Adult Blood and Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers a potentially curative therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies; however, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) remains a concern. Strategies to improve neutrophil recovery and immune reconstitution are needed to decrease NRM. Murine models of allogeneic HCT suggest that fractionated hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) infusion may improve engraftment through improved access of HPCs to a viable hematopoietic niche. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the impact of fractionated infusion versus unfractionated (bulk) infusion of HPCs on the time to achieve neutrophil engraftment. Secondary objectives included the effect of fractionated versus bulk infusion of HPCs on platelet engraftment, immune reconstitution, the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II-IV, NRM, and overall survival (OS). In this randomized phase 2 study, patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic HCT were randomized to receive HPC infusion as a bulk (bulk arm) or in fractions (fractionated arm): 4 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight infused on day 0, with the remaining HPCs CD34 cell-selected then infused in equally distributed aliquots on days 2, 4, and 6 post-HCT. Randomization was stratified by type of transplant, unmodified (i.e. T cell-replete graft) versus CD34 cell-selected (T cell-depleted graft). Patients whose donor failed to collect at least 7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg of recipient weight received bulk HPC infusions regardless of randomization, for safety. These patients continued the HCT process on study but were replaced until each arm reached the prespecified accrual target. Per protocol, these patients were not included in this modified intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 116 patients were enrolled. Donors of 42 patients failed to mobilize the minimum CD34 cell dose (7 × 10 cells/kg recipient weight) and were excluded from the analysis. The 74 evaluable patients included 38 randomized to the bulk arm and 36 randomized to the fractionated arm. All patients engrafted. The median time to an absolute neutrophil count of ≥0.5 × 10/L was 11 days on both arms. The day +180 median CD4 cell count was 179 cells/µL in the bulk arm and 111 cells/µL in the fractionated arm (P = .779). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD on post-transplant day +100 was 32% in the bulk arm and 17% in the fractionated arm (P = .131). Two patients in the bulk arm, but none in the fractionated arm, experienced grade III-IV GVHD. The 4-year OS was 60% in the bulk arm and 62% in the fractionated arm (P = .414), whereas the 4-year cumulative incidences of NRM and relapse were similar in the 2 arms. Fractionated infusion of HPCs in allogeneic HCT recipients did not impact neutrophil or CD4 cell recovery, NRM, relapse, or OS when compared with bulk HPC infusion. We also observed that with current mobilization techniques, it was unlikely that more than 60% of healthy donors would be able to collect >7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight for adult recipients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478895PMC
October 2021

Toxicities of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in older patients with lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 06;5(12):2608-2618

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

High-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation is an effective consolidation therapy in lymphoma; however, its use in elderly patients has been limited because of concerns for greater toxicity in this group. We investigated the toxicities of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) in 346 patients in 2 age groups: 279 patients aged 60 to 69 years and 67 patients aged ≥70 years. The majority developed severe toxicities; the most common were febrile neutropenia, gastrointestinal, infections, and cardiovascular. Older patients were at higher risk for grade ≥3 cardiovascular toxicities (hazard ratio [HR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25-5.00; P < .001) and skin toxicities (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.08-5.54, P = .032). In the older group, nonrelapse mortality at 100 days and at 2 years was 2.99% (95% CI, 0.55-9.32) and 6.2% (95% CI, 1.97-13.95), respectively, vs 1.79% (95% CI, 0.68-3.92) and 2.91% (95% CI, 1.37-5.42), respectively, in the younger group. When adjusting for the number of grade ≥3 toxicities within the first 100 days, older patients had a 1.71-fold (95% CI, 1.08-2.71) increased risk for progression or death relative to younger patients. Although BEAM followed by AHCT is effective, it is associated with significant organ toxicities, especially in patients aged ≥70 years. Interventions to mitigate toxicities while maintaining efficacy are much needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270665PMC
June 2021

Relapse after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome and the Importance of Second Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 24;27(9):771.e1-771.e10. Epub 2021 May 24.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; Cellular Therapeutics Center, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) generally have poor overall survival (OS). Interventions that result in improved OS after relapse are not well established. The efficacy of second cellular therapy and specific indications are matters of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate factors associated with postrelapse survival and the efficacy of a second course of cellular therapy. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with AML and MDS who underwent a first allo-HCT between 2010 and 2017 at our center but subsequently relapsed. One hundred and four patients with AML and 44 patients with MDS were included (total n = 148). Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood stem cell grafts were either unmodified or T cell-depleted (TCD) by CD34 selection ex vivo. Forty-five patients (30.4%) received a second cellular therapy after relapse, either a second allo-HCT (n = 28; 18.9%) or donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) (n = 17; 11.5%). The median age at transplantation was 60 years (range, 24 to 78 years). The median time to relapse (TTR) after transplantation was 6.5 months (range, 1 to 60.9 months), and the ensuing median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8 to 8.9 months). In univariable analysis, longer TTR, relapse type (measurable residual disease versus morphologic), relapse occurring in the most recent years, and receipt of cellular therapy after relapse were associated with better outcomes, whereas adverse cytogenetics and/or abnormality of TP53, as well as NPM1 mutation in patients with AML, were associated with adverse outcomes. Relapse type, year of relapse, and a variable resulting from the combination of TTR and receipt of second cellular therapy remained significantly associated with postrelapse survival in multivariable analysis. In a separate multivariable model, adjusted only for TTR, relapse type, and receipt of second cellular therapy, an adverse effect of NPM1 mutation on survival was confirmed. We could not show an effect of post-transplantation maintenance on survival after relapse. In both univariable and multivariable analysis, we found a positive association for second cellular therapy with survival after relapse in patients who relapsed early (<6 months) after allo-HCT and a similar trend in patients who relapsed late (>12 months) after transplantation. Two-year OS after a second cellular therapy was 44.9% (95% CI, 28.5% to 61.4%), and it was significantly better in patients with <5% BM blasts before cell infusion. We could not show different effects on survival after second cellular therapy for DLI versus second allo-HCT in univariable analysis. Survival after relapse is improving over time, but this remains a challenging event, especially for patients who relapse early after transplantation. We found that a second cellular therapy could offer a benefit even in these cases. Nonetheless, more research is needed to clarify the most appropriate treatment choices after relapse. These are probably driven by underlying genetic and immunologic conditions, which should be the focus of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Oral Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib for Switch-Maintenance Prophylaxis of Recurrent or Late Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Day 100 in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Medicine, Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication in the first year after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recipients of reduced-intensity (RI) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based GVHD prophylaxis frequently develop GVHD in the context of immunosuppression taper. Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor with a wide safety profile that has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and anti-tumor activity. We hypothesized that switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis using ixazomib would facilitate CNI taper without increased GVHD frequency and severity while maintaining graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect and an acceptable safety profile. We conducted an open-label, prospective, single-center pilot study in patients with hematologic malignancies who received an RI or NMA conditioning and CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis that were within day 100 to 150 after HCT (n = 18). Patients were treated with ixazomib once weekly on a 28-day cycle (3 weeks on, 1 week off). Treatment was safe; most adverse events were grade 1 or 2, with cytopenia and elevation in transaminases the most common. Five patients were removed from the study because of toxicity or side effects. Only 5 of 18 patients developed GVHD during the study, and its severity was driven by acute manifestations while chronic involvement was mild. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic GVHD at 1-year after HCT was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13-55). No patients died during the study, and only 1 had malignant relapse. An additional patient relapsed after completion of the study but within 1 year after HCT. The probability of progression-free survival and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (composite endpoint) at 1 year were 89% (95% CI, 75-100) and 78% (95% CI, 61-100), respectively. Immune reconstitution analysis showed a rapid and sustained recovery in T-cell subpopulations and B cell reconstitution, and vaccine response in a subset of patients demonstrated continuing or de novo positive protective antibody titers. This study demonstrated low incidence of recurrent and late acute and chronic GVHD within 1 year after HCT possible associated with switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis using ixazomib. This approach allowed for CNI taper while preserving GVT effect, without aggravating GVHD. Our findings support further development of this approach and provide a proof-of-concept for switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Ocular Outcomes after Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Using Adoptive Immunotherapy with Cytomegalovirus-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes.

Ophthalmol Retina 2021 Sep 20;5(9):838-849. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Purpose: To describe ocular outcomes in eyes with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis treated with adoptive immunotherapy using systemic administration of CMV-specific cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CMV-specific CTLs).

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Participants: Patients with active CMV retinitis evaluated at a tertiary care academic center.

Methods: Treatment of CMV retinitis with standard-of-care therapy (systemic or intravitreal antivirals) or CMV-specific CTLs (with or without concurrent standard-of-care therapies).

Main Outcome Measures: The electronic medical record was reviewed to determine baseline characteristics, treatment course, and ocular outcomes, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), treatments administered (CMV-specific CTLs, systemic antivirals, intravitreal antivirals), resolution of CMV retinitis, any occurrence of immune recovery uveitis, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, or a combination thereof.

Results: Seven patients (3 of whom had bilateral disease [n = 10 eyes]) were treated with CMV-specific CTLs, whereas 20 patients (6 of whom had bilateral disease [n = 26 eyes]) received standard-of-care treatment. Indications for CMV-specific CTL therapy included persistent or progressive CMV retinitis (71.4% of patients); CMV UL54 or UL97 antiviral resistance mutations (42.9%); side effects or toxicity from antiviral agents (57.1%); patient intolerance to longstanding, frequent antiviral therapy for persistent retinitis (28.6%); or a combination thereof. Two patients (28.6%; 4 eyes [40%]) received CMV-specific CTL therapy without concurrent systemic or intravitreal antiviral therapy for active CMV retinitis, whereas 5 patients (71.4%; 6 eyes [60%]) continued to receive concurrent antiviral therapies. Resolution of CMV retinitis was achieved in 9 eyes (90%) treated with CMV-specific CTLs, with BCVA stabilizing (4 eyes [40%]) or improving (4 eyes [40%]) in 80% of eyes over an average follow-up of 33.4 months. Rates of immune recovery uveitis, new-onset cystoid macular edema, and retinal detachment were 0%, 10% (1 eye), and 20% (2 eyes), respectively. These outcomes compared favorably with a nonrandomized cohort of eyes treated with standard-of-care therapy alone, despite potentially worse baseline characteristics.

Conclusions: CMV-specific CTL therapy may represent a novel monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, or both, for CMV retinitis, especially in eyes that are resistant, refractory, or intolerant of standard-of-care antiviral therapies. More generally, adoptive cell transfer and adoptive immunotherapy may have a role in refractory CMV retinitis. Larger prospective, randomized trials are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2021.04.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Breaking the Age Barrier: Physicians' Perceptions of Candidacy for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Older Adults.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07 6;27(7):617.e1-617.e7. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

City of Hope, Duarte, California.

Despite continuing increases in the use of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in older adults, no standardized geriatric assessment (GA) has been established to risk stratify for transplantation-related morbidity. We conducted a survey of transplant physicians to determine perceptions of the impact of older age (≥60 years) on alloHCT candidacy, and utilization of tools to gauge candidacy. This 23-item online cross-sectional survey was distributed to HCT physicians caring for adults in the United States between May and July 2019. Of the 770 invited HCT physicians, 175 (22.7%) completed the survey. The majority of respondents were age 41 to 60 years and male and practiced in a higher-volume teaching hospital. When considering regimen intensity, 29 physicians (17%) stated they would consider a myeloablative regimen for patients age ≥70 years, and 141 (82%) would consider reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning for patients age ≥70 years. Almost all (90%) endorsed the need for a specialized assessment of pre-HCT vulnerabilities to guide candidacy decisions for older adults. Most physicians reported that their centers rarely (33%) or never (46%) use a dedicated geriatrician/geriatric-oncologist to assess alloHCT candidates age ≥60 years. Common barriers to performing a GA included uncertainty about which tools to use, lack of knowledge and training, and lack of appropriate clinical support staff. Many alloHCT physicians will consider alloHCT in patients up to age 75 years and not uncommonly in patients older than that. However, the application of tools and domains to assess candidacy in older adults varies widely. Incorporation of a standardized pretransplantation health assessment tool for risk stratification is a significant unmet need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254775PMC
July 2021

The International Prognostic Index Is Associated with Outcomes in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 03 18;27(3):233-240. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Intensive Care Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; New York, New York. Electronic address:

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown excellent activity against relapsed and refractory (R/R) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). CAR T cell therapy is associated with early toxicities, including cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. The incidence and severity of these toxicities has been associated in part with baseline disease and patient characteristics, which also may impact overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). However, there are limited data on patient selection and how to better predict toxicities or outcomes. Indexes used in patients with DLBCL, such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI and age-adjusted IPI [aaIPI]) and in transplantation recipients, such as the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI), have not been evaluated in this setting. Here we evaluated 4 indices- IPI, aaIPI, HCT-CI, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)-and their associations with early CAR T cell related-toxicities and outcomes. We demonstrated an association between high-risk IPI or aaIPI and inferior PFS in patients with R/R DLBCL treated with CAR T cell therapy. We also found an association between aaIPI and IPI with OS and neurotoxicity, respectively. CCI was not associated with toxicities or outcomes, and owing to the small sample size, we could not draw a conclusion regarding associations with the HCT-CI. Both the IPI and aaIPI are widely used tools that can now provide better information to guide selection of patients who would best benefit from CD19 CAR T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010220PMC
March 2021

Outcomes of adult T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma with allogeneic stem cell transplantation: single-institution experience.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 09 29;62(9):2177-2183. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Adult BMT Service, Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Few publications exist concerning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT) outcomes in non-Japanese patients with HTLV-1-associated ATLL. We detail the patient and disease characteristics, transplant approach, and clinical outcomes in 17 patients with ATLL at our institution who underwent alloHCT. We report favorable outcomes, with 8/17 in ongoing remission, 2/17 with prolonged (>6 years) disease-free survival, and a low incidence of transplant-related mortality (2/17). These results validate the feasibility and efficacy of alloHCT in non-Japanese patients with ATLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1897806DOI Listing
September 2021

Cellular Therapy During COVID-19: Lessons Learned and Preparing for Subsequent Waves.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 14;27(5):438.e1-438.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

An evidence-based triage plan for cellular therapy distribution is critical in the face of emerging constraints on healthcare resources. We evaluated the impact of treatment delays related to COVID-19 on patients scheduled to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy at our center. Data were collected in real time between March 19 and May 11, 2020, for patients who were delayed to cellular therapy. We evaluated the proportion of delayed patients who ultimately received cellular therapy, reasons for not proceeding to cellular therapy, and changes in disease and health status during delay. A total of 85 patients were delayed, including 42 patients planned for autologous HCT, 36 patients planned for allogeneic HCT, and 7 patients planned for CAR-T therapy. Fifty-six of these patients (66%) since received planned therapy. Five patients died during the delay. The most common reason for not proceeding to autologous HCT was good disease control in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (75%). The most common reason for not proceeding to allogeneic HCT was progression of disease (42%). All patients with acute leukemia who progressed had measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of delay, whereas no patient without MRD at the time of delay progressed. Six patients (86%) ultimately received CAR-T therapy, including 3 patients who progressed during the delay. For patients with high-risk disease such as acute leukemia, and particularly those with MRD at the time of planned HCT, treatment delay can result in devastating outcomes and should be avoided if at all possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952254PMC
May 2021

Fecal microbiota diversity disruption and clinical outcomes after auto-HCT: a multicenter observational study.

Blood 2021 03;137(11):1527-1537

Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

We previously described clinically relevant reductions in fecal microbiota diversity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recipients of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HCT (auto-HCT) incur similar antibiotic exposures and nutritional alterations. To characterize the fecal microbiota in the auto-HCT population, we analyzed 1161 fecal samples collected from 534 adult recipients of auto-HCT for lymphoma, myeloma, and amyloidosis in an observational study conducted at 2 transplantation centers in the United States. By using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing, we assessed fecal microbiota composition and diversity, as measured by the inverse Simpson index. At both centers, the diversity of early pretransplant fecal microbiota was lower in patients than in healthy controls and decreased further during the course of transplantation. Loss of diversity and domination by specific bacterial taxa occurred during auto-HCT in patterns similar to those with allo-HCT. Above-median fecal intestinal diversity in the periengraftment period was associated with decreased risk of death or progression (progression-free survival hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.82; P = .008), adjusting for disease and disease status. This suggests that further investigation into the health of the intestinal microbiota in auto-HCT patients and posttransplant outcomes should be undertaken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976512PMC
March 2021

Adoptive therapy with CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes depends on baseline CD4+ immunity to mediate durable responses.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(2):496-503

Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Adoptive cell therapy using cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CMV-CTLs) has demonstrated efficacy posttransplant. Despite the predicted limited engraftment of CMV-CTLs derived from third-party donors, partially matched third-party donor-derived CMV-CTLs have demonstrated similar response rates to those derived from primary hematopoietic cell transplantation donors. Little is known about the mechanisms through which adoptive cellular therapies mediate durable responses. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients receiving CMV-CTLs for treatment of CMV viremia and/or disease after allogeneic transplant between September of 2009 and January of 2018. We evaluated whether response to adoptively transferred CMV-CTLs correlated with immune reconstitution (IR), using validated CD4+ IR milestones of 50 × 106/L and 200 × 106/L. In this analysis, a cohort of 104 patients received CMV-CTLs derived from a primary transplant donor (n = 25), a third-party donor (n = 76), or both (n = 3). Response to therapy did not increase the likelihood of achieving CD4+ IR milestones at 1 (P = .53 and P > .99) or 2 months (P = .12 and P = .33). The origin of CMV-CTLs did not impact subsequent CD4+ IR. CMV-CTLs appeared to interact with host immunity in mediating responses. Recipients with a baseline CD4 >50 × 106/L had higher response to therapy (P = .02), improved overall survival (P < .001), and protection from CMV-related death (P = .002). Baseline endogenous immunity appears to improve CMV-related and overall survival in this cohort and can be an important marker at the initiation of therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839363PMC
January 2021

High progression-free survival after intermediate intensity double unit cord blood transplantation in adults.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6064-6076

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cord blood transplantation (CBT) after high intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning has limitations. We investigated cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil-based intermediate intensity (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, total body irradiation 400 cGy) unmanipulated double-unit CBT (dCBT) with prioritization of unit quality and CD34+ cell dose in graft selection. Ninety adults (median age, 47 years [range, 21-63]; median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index, 2 [range, 0-8]; 61 [68%] acute leukemia) received double-unit grafts (median CD34+ cell dose, 1.3 × 105/kg per unit [range, 0.2-8.3]; median donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match, 5/8 [range 3-7/8]). The cumulative incidences of sustained CB engraftment, day 180 grade III-IV acute, and 3-year chronic graft-versus-host disease were 99%, 24%, and 7%, respectively. Three-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse incidences were 15% and 9%, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) is 82%, and progression-free survival (PFS) is 76%. Younger age and higher engrafting unit CD34+ cell dose both improved TRM and OS, although neither impacted PFS. Engrafting unit-recipient HLA match was not associated with any outcome with a 3-year PFS of 79% in 39 patients engrafting with 3-4/8 HLA-matched units. In 52 remission acute leukemia patients, there was no association between minimal residual disease (MRD) and 3-year PFS: MRD negative of 88% vs MRD positive of 77% (P = .375). Intermediate intensity dCBT is associated with high PFS. Use of highly HLA mismatched and unmanipulated grafts permits wide application of this therapy, and the low relapse rates support robust graft-versus-leukemia effects even in patients with MRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724901PMC
December 2020

Getting blood out of a stone: Identification and management of patients with poor hematopoietic cell mobilization.

Blood Rev 2021 05 31;47:100771. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Medicine, Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has become a primary treatment for many cancers. Nowadays, the primary source of hematopoietic cells is by leukapheresis collection of these cells from peripheral blood, after a forced egress of hematopoietic cells from marrow into blood circulation, a process known as "mobilization". In this process, mobilizing agents disrupt binding interactions between hematopoietic cells and marrow microenvironment to facilitate collection. As the first essential step of HCT, poor mobilization, i.e. failure to obtain a desired or required number of hematopoietic cell, is one of the major factors affecting engraftment or even precluding transplantation. This review summarizes the available mobilization regimens using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and plerixafor, as well as the current understanding of the factors that are associated with poor mobilization. Strategies to mobilize patients or healthy donors who failed previous mobilization are discussed. Multiple novel agents are under investigation and some of them have shown the potential to enhance the mobilization response to G-CSF and/or plerixafor. Further investigation of the risk factors including genetic factors will offer an opportunity to better understand the molecular mechanism of mobilization and help develop new therapeutic strategies for successful mobilizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2020.100771DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcomes in patients with DLBCL treated with commercial CAR T cells compared with alternate therapies.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4669-4678

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

The prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poor. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been approved for R/R DLBCL after 2 prior lines of therapy based on data from single-arm phase 2 trials, with complete responses (CRs) in 40% to 60% of patients. However, a direct comparison with other treatments is not available and, moreover, its true efficacy in real-world patients is unknown. In this single center, retrospective, observational study of 215 patients, we compared outcomes in patients treated with CAR T-cell therapy (n = 69) with a historical population treated with alternate therapies (n = 146). Patients treated with CAR T cell vs alternate therapies demonstrated a CR rate of 52% vs 22% (P < .001), median progression-free survival (PFS) of 5.2 vs 2.3 months (P = .01), and median overall survival (OS) of 19.3 vs 6.5 months (P = .006), and this advantage appeared to persist irrespective of the number of lines of prior therapy. After adjusting for unfavorable pretreatment disease characteristics, superior overall response rate in the CAR T cohort remained significant; however, differences in PFS and OS between cohorts did not. In addition, patients who responded to alternate therapies demonstrated prolonged remissions comparable to those who responded to CAR T therapy. We contend that in select clinical scenarios alternate therapies may be as efficacious as CAR T therapy; thus, additional study is warranted, ideally with randomized prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556134PMC
October 2020

Favorable outcomes of COVID-19 in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6656-6667

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

BACKGROUNDUnderstanding outcomes and immunologic characteristics of cellular therapy recipients with SARS-CoV-2 is critical to performing these potentially life-saving therapies in the COVID-19 era. In this study of recipients of allogeneic (Allo) and autologous (Auto) hematopoietic cell transplant and CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we aimed to identify clinical variables associated with COVID-19 severity and assess lymphocyte populations.METHODSWe retrospectively investigated patients diagnosed between March 15, 2020, and May 7, 2020. In a subset of patients, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, quantitative real-time PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status were available.RESULTSWe identified 77 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were recipients of cellular therapy (Allo, 35; Auto, 37; CAR T, 5; median time from cellular therapy, 782 days; IQR, 354-1611 days). Overall survival at 30 days was 78%. Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of nonrebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25 of 77) included number of comorbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04). Worsening graft-versus-host disease was not identified among Allo recipients. Immune profiling revealed reductions and rapid recovery in lymphocyte populations across lymphocyte subsets. Antibody responses were seen in a subset of patients.CONCLUSIONIn this series of Allo, Auto, and CAR T recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 without active malignancy and provide preliminary insights into the lymphocyte populations that are key for the antiviral response and immune reconstitution.FUNDINGNIH grant P01 CA23766 and NIH/National Cancer Institute grant P30 CA008748.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI141777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685738PMC
December 2020

Modified SMILE (mSMILE) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for extranodal NK-T lymphoma nasal type in a single-center population.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 26;61(14):3331-3341. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Medicine, Lymphoma Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

A modification of the SMILE regimen with dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, etoposide (mSMILE) followed by Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) at lower than usual dose, has been adopted as standard of care for extranodal NK-/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) at our institution. mSMILE is a short course, intensive regimen incorporating pegylated asparaginase. Here, we describe clinical details, outcome and safety of patients receiving mSMILE. Among 28 patients with ENKL treated, response post-mSMILE was 93% (CR 68%), response post IMRT was 95% (CR 87.5%). Among early-stage patients/low PINK-E ( = 13), overall survival (OS) was 100% at the median follow-up of 31 months; progression-free survival (PFS) was 92%. Advanced-stage and intermediate/high PINK-E patients fared similarly (OS 43%, PFS 33.3% at the median follow-up). Thirty-two percent of the patients experienced G3-4 non-hematologic toxicity, all experienced hematologic toxicity. Most localized-stage patients achieved long-term disease control. Despite high response rates, most of the advanced stage patients relapsed quickly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1811864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831954PMC
December 2020

Infection during the first year in patients treated with CD19 CAR T cells for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Blood Cancer J 2020 08 5;10(8):79. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is an effective treatment for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In addition to cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity (ICANS), B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia are common toxicities predisposing these patients to infections. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL treated with FDA-approved CD19 CAR T cells and report the incidence, risk factors, and management of infections during the first year after treatment. A total of 101 infectious events were observed, including 25 mild, 51 moderate, 23 severe, 1 life-threatening, and 1 fatal infection. Bacteria were the most common causative pathogens. The cumulative incidence of overall, bacterial, severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infection at 1 year were 63.3%, 57.2%, 29.6%, 44.7%, and 4%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the use of systemic corticosteroids for the management of CRS or ICANS was associated with an increased risk of infections and prolonged admission. Impaired performance status and history of infections within 30 days before CAR T cell therapy was a risk factor for severe bacterial infection. In conclusion, infections were common within the first 60 days after CAR T cell therapy, however, they were not associated with an increased risk of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00346-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405315PMC
August 2020

Prognostic Factors for Postrelapse Survival after ex Vivo CD34-Selected (T Cell-Depleted) Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 23;26(11):2040-2046. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Medicine, Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for multiple myeloma (MM), with its underlying graft-versus-tumor capacity, is a potentially curative approach for high-risk patients. Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure, but predictors for postrelapse survival are not well characterized. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate predictors for postrelapse overall survival (OS) in 60 MM patients who progressed after myeloablative T cell-depleted alloHCT. The median patient age was 56 years, and 82% had high-risk cytogenetics. Patients received a median of 4 lines of therapy pre-HCT, and 88% achieved at least a partial response (PR) before alloHCT. Of the 38% who received preemptive post-HCT therapy, 13 received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) and 10 received other interventions. Relapse was defined as very early (<6 months; 28%), early (6 to 24 months; 50%), or late (>24 months; 22%). At relapse, 27% presented with extramedullary disease (EMD). The median postrelapse overall survival (OS) by time to relapse was 4 months for the very early relapse group, 17 months for the early relapse group, and 72 months for the late relapse group (P = .002). Older age, relapse with EMD,
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609585PMC
November 2020

DLBCL patients treated with CD19 CAR T cells experience a high burden of organ toxicities but low nonrelapse mortality.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(13):3024-3033

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome are the most notable toxicities of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. In addition, CAR T-cell-mediated toxicities can involve any organ system, with varied impacts on outcomes, depending on patient factors and involved organs. We performed detailed analysis of organ-specific toxicities and their association with outcomes in 60 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with CD19 CAR T cells by assessing all toxicities in organ-based groups during the first year posttreatment. We observed 539 grade ≥2 and 289 grade ≥3 toxicities. Common grade ≥3 toxicities included hematological, metabolic, infectious, and neurological complications, with corresponding 1-year cumulative incidence of 57.7%, 54.8%, 35.4%, and 18.3%, respectively. Patients with impaired performance status had a higher risk of grade ≥3 metabolic complications, whereas elevated lactate dehydrogenase was associated with higher risks of grade ≥3 neurological and pulmonary toxicities. CRS was associated with higher incidence of grade ≥3 metabolic, pulmonary, and neurologic complications. The 1-year nonrelapse mortality and overall survival were 1.7% and 69%, respectively. Only grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicities were associated with an increased mortality risk. In summary, toxicity burdens after CD19 CAR T-cell therapy were high and varied by organ systems. Most toxicities were manageable and were rarely associated with mortality. Our study emphasizes the importance of toxicity assessment, which could serve as a benchmark for further research to reduce symptom burdens and improve tolerability in patients treated with CAR T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362382PMC
July 2020

Engraftment kinetics after transplantation of double unit cord blood grafts combined with haplo-identical CD34+ cells without antithymocyte globulin.

Leukemia 2021 03 18;35(3):850-862. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Double unit cord blood (dCB) transplantation (dCBT) is associated with high engraftment rates but delayed myeloid recovery. We investigated adding haplo-identical CD34+ cells to dCB grafts to facilitate early haplo-identical donor-derived neutrophil recovery (optimal bridging) prior to CB engraftment. Seventy-eight adults underwent myeloablation with cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil immunoprophylaxis (no antithymocyte globulin, ATG). CB units (median CD34+ dose 1.1 × 10/kg/unit) had a median 5/8 unit-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-match. Haplo-identical grafts had a median CD34+ dose of 5.2 × 10/kg. Of 77 evaluable patients, 75 had sustained CB engraftment that was mediated by a dominant unit and heralded by dominant unit-derived T cells. Optimal haplo-identical donor-derived myeloid bridging was observed in 34/77 (44%) patients (median recovery 12 days). Other engrafting patients had transient bridging with second nadir preceding CB engraftment (20/77 (26%), median first recovery 12 and second 26.5 days) or no bridge (21/77 (27%), median recovery 25 days). The 2 (3%) remaining patients had graft failure. Higher haplo-CD34+ dose and better dominant unit-haplo-CD34+ HLA-match significantly improved the likelihood of optimal bridging. Optimally bridged patients were discharged earlier (median 28 versus 36 days). ATG-free haplo-dCBT can speed neutrophil recovery but successful bridging is not guaranteed due to rapid haplo-identical graft rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0922-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746597PMC
March 2021

Stem Cell Mobilization and Autograft Minimal Residual Disease Negativity with Novel Induction Regimens in Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 08 19;26(8):1394-1401. Epub 2020 May 19.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the standard of care for transplantation-eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRD) is the most common triplet regimen for newly diagnosed MM in the United States. Carfilzomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRD) has shown promising efficacy and may supplant VRD. We compared stem cell yields and autograft minimal residual disease (MRD)-negativity after VRD and KRD induction. Deeper responses (ie, very good partial response or better) were more common with KRD. Precollection bone marrow (BM) cellularity, interval from the end of induction therapy to start of stem cell collection, and method of stem cell mobilization were similar for the 2 cohorts. Days to complete collection was greater with KRD (2.2 days, versus 1.81 days with VRD), which more often required ≥3 days of apheresis. Precollection viable CD34 cell content was greater with VRD, as was collection yield (11.11 × 10, versus 9.19 × 10 with KRD). Collection failure (defined as <2 × 10 CD34 cells/kg) was more frequent with KRD (5.4% versus .7% with VRD). The difference in stem cell yield between VRD and KRD is associated with the degree of lenalidomide exposure. Age ≥70 years predicted poorer collection for both cohorts. Stem cell autograft purity/MRD-negativity was higher with KRD (81.4%, versus 57.1% with VRD). For both cohorts, MRD-negativity was attained in a larger fraction of autografts than in precollection BM. For patients proceeding to ASCT, the time to neutrophil/platelet engraftment was comparable in the 2 study arms. In summary, our data demonstrate that KRD induces deeper clinical responses and greater autograft purity than VRD without compromising stem cell yield or post-transplantation engraftment kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371503PMC
August 2020

Impact of type of reduced-intensity conditioning regimen on the outcomes of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2020 08 21;190(4):573-582. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, CIBMTR® (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative option for select relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients; however, there are sparse data to support superiority of any particular conditioning regimen. We analyzed 492 adult patients undergoing human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling or unrelated donor allo-HCT for HL between 2008 and 2016, utilizing RIC with either fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu), fludarabine/melphalan (Flu/Mel140) or fludarabine/cyclophosphamide (Flu/Cy). Multivariable regression analysis was performed using a significance level of <0·01. There were no significant differences between regimens in risk for non-relapse mortality (NRM) (P = 0·54), relapse/progression (P = 0·02) or progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0·14). Flu/Cy conditioning was associated with decreased risk of mortality in the first 11 months after allo-HCT (HR = 0·28; 95% CI = 0·10-0·73; P = 0·009), but beyond 11 months post allo-HCT it was associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality, (HR = 2·46; 95% CI = 0·1.32-4·61; P = 0·005). Four-year adjusted overall survival (OS) was similar across regimens at 62% for Flu/Bu, 59% for Flu/Mel140 and 55% for Flu/Cy (P = 0·64), respectively. These data confirm the choice of RIC for allo-HCT in HL does not influence risk of relapse, NRM or PFS. Although no OS benefit was seen between Flu/Bu and Flu/Mel 140; Flu/Cy was associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality beyond 11 months from allo-HCT (possibly due to late NRM events).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575614PMC
August 2020

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 14;26(7):1239-1246. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Hematopoietic Cellular Therapy Program, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the delivery of cellular therapeutics, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. This impact has extended beyond patient care to include logistics, administration, and distribution of increasingly limited health care resources. Based on the collective experience of the CAR T-cell Consortium investigators, we review and address several questions and concerns regarding cellular therapy administration in the setting of COVID-19 and make general recommendations to address these issues. Specifically, we address (1) necessary resources for safe administration of cell therapies; (2) determinants of cell therapy utilization; (3) selection among patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; (4) supportive measures during cell therapy administration; (5) use and prioritization of tocilizumab; and (6) collaborative care with referring physicians. These recommendations were carefully formulated with the understanding that resource allocation is of the utmost importance, and that the decision to proceed with CAR T cell therapy will require extensive discussion of potential risks and benefits. Although these recommendations are fluid, at this time it is our opinion that the COVID-19 pandemic should not serve as reason to defer CAR T cell therapy for patients truly in need of a potentially curative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194685PMC
July 2020

The geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia impacts allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes in older lymphoma patients.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 08 31;61(8):1833-1841. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Older patients with advanced hematologic malignancies are increasingly considered for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) yet their survival outcomes remain suboptimal. We and others have previously shown that pre-HCT multi-morbidity and functional limitation and post-HCT geriatric syndromes significantly impact outcomes. Sarcopenia, an accelerated loss of muscle mass and function, has been increasingly recognized in older cancer patients. We identified 146 lymphoma patients 50 years or older who were allografted from 2008 to 2018 at our institution and found that before allo-HCT, 80 (55%) patients were sarcopenic. Pre-HCT sarcopenia was significantly associated with overall survival, progression-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality independent of multi-morbidity and functional limitation. In 6-month landmark analysis, post-HCT sarcopenia remained significantly associated with survival. Our findings illustrate the high prevalence and profound impact of sarcopenia on survival. While requiring prospective confirmation, preemptive, longitudinal, and multidisciplinary interventions for sarcopenia are warranted to improve HCT outcomes for older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1742909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429343PMC
August 2020
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