Publications by authors named "Paras Minhas"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Restoring metabolism of myeloid cells reverses cognitive decline in ageing.

Nature 2021 Feb 20;590(7844):122-128. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Ageing is characterized by the development of persistent pro-inflammatory responses that contribute to atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, cancer and frailty. The ageing brain is also vulnerable to inflammation, as demonstrated by the high prevalence of age-associated cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Systemically, circulating pro-inflammatory factors can promote cognitive decline, and in the brain, microglia lose the ability to clear misfolded proteins that are associated with neurodegeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms that initiate and sustain maladaptive inflammation with ageing are not well defined. Here we show that in ageing mice myeloid cell bioenergetics are suppressed in response to increased signalling by the lipid messenger prostaglandin E (PGE), a major modulator of inflammation. In ageing macrophages and microglia, PGE signalling through its EP2 receptor promotes the sequestration of glucose into glycogen, reducing glucose flux and mitochondrial respiration. This energy-deficient state, which drives maladaptive pro-inflammatory responses, is further augmented by a dependence of aged myeloid cells on glucose as a principal fuel source. In aged mice, inhibition of myeloid EP2 signalling rejuvenates cellular bioenergetics, systemic and brain inflammatory states, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Moreover, blockade of peripheral myeloid EP2 signalling is sufficient to restore cognition in aged mice. Our study suggests that cognitive ageing is not a static or irrevocable condition but can be reversed by reprogramming myeloid glucose metabolism to restore youthful immune functions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03160-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Author Correction: Fragmented mitochondria released from microglia trigger A1 astrocytic response and propagate inflammatory neurodegeneration.

Nat Neurosci 2021 Feb;24(2):289

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00774-5DOI Listing
February 2021

The Dueling Duo: IL10 and TNF Face Off in Microglial Recovery from Endotoxin Challenge.

Immunity 2020 Nov;53(5):897-899

Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Wu-Tsai Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Program in Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms that restore microglial quiescence after acute stimulation remain largely unexplored, unlike those that drive microglial activation. In this issue of Immunity, Shemer et al. discover that the microglial IL-10 receptor counteracts the pro-inflammatory effects of TNF to allow restoration of microglial quiescence after peripheral endotoxin challenge.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Soluble TREM2 is elevated in Parkinson's disease subgroups with increased CSF tau.

Brain 2020 03;143(3):932-943

Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease and affects 1% of the population above 60 years old. Although Parkinson's disease commonly manifests with motor symptoms, a majority of patients with Parkinson's disease subsequently develop cognitive impairment, which often progresses to dementia, a major cause of morbidity and disability. Parkinson's disease is characterized by α-synuclein accumulation that frequently associates with amyloid-β and tau fibrils, the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease neuropathological changes; this co-occurrence suggests that onset of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease may be associated with appearance of pathological amyloid-β and/or tau. Recent studies have highlighted the appearance of the soluble form of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) receptor in CSF during development of Alzheimer's disease. Given the known association of microglial activation with advancing Parkinson's disease, we investigated whether CSF and/or plasma sTREM2 differed between CSF biomarker-defined Parkinson's disease participant subgroups. In this cross-sectional study, we examined 165 participants consisting of 17 cognitively normal elderly subjects, 45 patients with Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment, 86 with mild cognitive impairment, and 17 with dementia. Stratification of subjects by CSF amyloid-β and tau levels revealed that CSF sTREM2 concentrations were elevated in Parkinson's disease subgroups with a positive tau CSF biomarker signature, but not in Parkinson's disease subgroups with a positive CSF amyloid-β biomarker signature. These findings indicate that CSF sTREM2 could serve as a surrogate immune biomarker of neuronal injury in Parkinson's disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7089668PMC
March 2020

Mitochondrial dysfunction mediated through dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) propagates impairment in blood brain barrier in septic encephalopathy.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Jan 27;17(1):36. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Out of the myriad of complications associated with septic shock, septic-associated encephalopathy (SAE) carries a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) impairment, which subsequently leads to increased vascular permeability, has been associated with neuronal injury in sepsis. Thus, preventing BBB damage is an attractive therapeutic target. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important contributor of sepsis-induced multi-organ system failure. More recently, mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells has been implicated in mediating BBB failure in stroke, multiple sclerosis and in other neuroinflammatory disorders. Here, we focused on Drp1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells as a potential target to prevent BBB failure in sepsis.

Methods: We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and BBB disruption in a cell culture as well as in murine model of sepsis. BBB disruption was assessed by measuring levels of key tight-junction proteins. Brain cytokines levels, oxidative stress markers, and activity of mitochondrial complexes were measured using biochemical assays. Astrocyte and microglial activation were measured using immunoblotting and qPCR. Transwell cultures of brain microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with astrocytes were used to assess the effect of LPS on expression of tight-junction proteins, mitochondrial function, and permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran. Finally, primary neuronal cultures exposed to LPS were assessed for mitochondrial dysfunction.

Results: LPS induced a strong brain inflammatory response and oxidative stress in mice which was associated with increased Drp1 activation and mitochondrial localization. Particularly, Drp1-(Fission 1) Fis1-mediated oxidative stress also led to an increase in expression of vascular permeability regulators in the septic mice. Similarly, mitochondrial defects mediated via Drp1-Fis1 interaction in primary microvascular endothelial cells were associated with increased BBB permeability and loss of tight-junctions after acute LPS injury. P110, an inhibitor of Drp1-Fis1 interaction, abrogated these defects, thus indicating a critical role for this interaction in mediating sepsis-induced brain dysfunction. Finally, LPS mediated a direct toxic effect on primary cortical neurons, which was abolished by P110 treatment.

Conclusions: LPS-induced impairment of BBB appears to be dependent on Drp1-Fis1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction with P110 may have potential therapeutic significance in septic encephalopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1689-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986002PMC
January 2020

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity and aldehydic load contribute to neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease related pathology.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 12 12;7(1):190. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency (ALDH2*2) causes facial flushing in response to alcohol consumption in approximately 560 million East Asians. Recent meta-analysis demonstrated the potential link between ALDH2*2 mutation and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Other studies have linked chronic alcohol consumption as a risk factor for AD. In the present study, we show that fibroblasts of an AD patient that also has an ALDH2*2 mutation or overexpression of ALDH2*2 in fibroblasts derived from AD patients harboring ApoE ε4 allele exhibited increased aldehydic load, oxidative stress, and increased mitochondrial dysfunction relative to healthy subjects and exposure to ethanol exacerbated these dysfunctions. In an in vivo model, daily exposure of WT mice to ethanol for 11 weeks resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and increased aldehyde levels in their brains and these pathologies were greater in ALDH2*2/*2 (homozygous) mice. Following chronic ethanol exposure, the levels of the AD-associated protein, amyloid-β, and neuroinflammation were higher in the brains of the ALDH2*2/*2 mice relative to WT. Cultured primary cortical neurons of ALDH2*2/*2 mice showed increased sensitivity to ethanol and there was a greater activation of their primary astrocytes relative to the responses of neurons or astrocytes from the WT mice. Importantly, an activator of ALDH2 and ALDH2*2, Alda-1, blunted the ethanol-induced increases in Aβ, and the neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that impairment in the metabolism of aldehydes, and specifically ethanol-derived acetaldehyde, is a contributor to AD associated pathology and highlights the likely risk of alcohol consumption in the general population and especially in East Asians that carry ALDH2*2 mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0839-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907112PMC
December 2019

Therapeutic strategies for diffuse midline glioma from high-throughput combination drug screening.

Sci Transl Med 2019 11;11(519)

Department of Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs) are universally lethal malignancies occurring chiefly during childhood and involving midline structures of the central nervous system, including thalamus, pons, and spinal cord. These molecularly related cancers are characterized by high prevalence of the histone H3K27M mutation. In search of effective therapeutic options, we examined multiple DMG cultures in sequential quantitative high-throughput screens (HTS) of 2706 approved and investigational drugs. This effort generated 19,936 single-agent dose responses that inspired a series of HTS-enabled drug combination assessments encompassing 9195 drug-drug examinations. Top combinations were validated across patient-derived cell cultures representing the major DMG genotypes. In vivo testing in patient-derived xenograft models validated the combination of the multi-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor panobinostat and the proteasome inhibitor marizomib as a promising therapeutic approach. Transcriptional and metabolomic surveys revealed substantial alterations to key metabolic processes and the cellular unfolded protein response after treatment with panobinostat and marizomib. Mitigation of drug-induced cytotoxicity and basal mitochondrial respiration with exogenous application of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or exacerbation of these phenotypes when blocking nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) production via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibition demonstrated that metabolic catastrophe drives the combination-induced cytotoxicity. This study provides a comprehensive single-agent and combinatorial drug screen for DMG and identifies concomitant HDAC and proteasome inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy that underscores underrecognized metabolic vulnerabilities in DMG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aaw0064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132630PMC
November 2019

Fragmented mitochondria released from microglia trigger A1 astrocytic response and propagate inflammatory neurodegeneration.

Nat Neurosci 2019 10 23;22(10):1635-1648. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

In neurodegenerative diseases, debris of dead neurons are thought to trigger glia-mediated neuroinflammation, thus increasing neuronal death. Here we show that the expression of neurotoxic proteins associated with these diseases in microglia alone is sufficient to directly trigger death of naive neurons and to propagate neuronal death through activation of naive astrocytes to the A1 state. Injury propagation is mediated, in great part, by the release of fragmented and dysfunctional microglial mitochondria into the neuronal milieu. The amount of damaged mitochondria released from microglia relative to functional mitochondria and the consequent neuronal injury are determined by Fis1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation within the glial cells. The propagation of the inflammatory response and neuronal cell death by extracellular dysfunctional mitochondria suggests a potential new intervention for neurodegeneration-one that inhibits mitochondrial fragmentation in microglia, thus inhibiting the release of dysfunctional mitochondria into the extracellular milieu of the brain, without affecting the release of healthy neuroprotective mitochondria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0486-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6764589PMC
October 2019

Peripheral TREM1 responses to brain and intestinal immunogens amplify stroke severity.

Nat Immunol 2019 08 1;20(8):1023-1034. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Stroke is a multiphasic process in which initial cerebral ischemia is followed by secondary injury from immune responses to ischemic brain components. Here we demonstrate that peripheral CD11bCD45 myeloid cells magnify stroke injury via activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1), an amplifier of proinflammatory innate immune responses. TREM1 was induced within hours after stroke peripherally in CD11bCD45 cells trafficking to ischemic brain. TREM1 inhibition genetically or pharmacologically improved outcome via protective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Positron electron tomography imaging using radiolabeled antibody recognizing TREM1 revealed elevated TREM1 expression in spleen and, unexpectedly, in intestine. In the lamina propria, noradrenergic-dependent increases in gut permeability induced TREM1 on inflammatory Ly6CMHCII macrophages, further increasing epithelial permeability and facilitating bacterial translocation across the gut barrier. Thus, following stroke, peripheral TREM1 induction amplifies proinflammatory responses to both brain-derived and intestinal-derived immunogenic components. Critically, targeting this specific innate immune pathway reduces cerebral injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-019-0421-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778967PMC
August 2019

In Regard to Okonogi et al.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 05;104(1):222-223

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.01.085DOI Listing
May 2019

Revisiting IDO and its value as a predictive marker for anti-PD-1 resistance.

J Transl Med 2019 01 18;17(1):31. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, MSLS P250, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Botticelli et al. proposed the activity of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO) as a potential mechanism and predictive marker for primary resistance against anti-PD-1 treatment in the context of non-small cell lung cancer. However, there are a few points for the authors to address in order to strengthen their claims. First, there are many enzymes that modulate the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio, thereby calling into question their use of the ratio as a proxy for IDO activity. Second, the authors could compare IDO to other proposed markers in the literature, providing a better understanding of its predictive value.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1784-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339344PMC
January 2019

Macrophage de novo NAD synthesis specifies immune function in aging and inflammation.

Nat Immunol 2019 01 26;20(1):50-63. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Recent advances highlight a pivotal role for cellular metabolism in programming immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that cell-autonomous generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) via the kynurenine pathway (KP) regulates macrophage immune function in aging and inflammation. Isotope tracer studies revealed that macrophage NAD derives substantially from KP metabolism of tryptophan. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of de novo NAD synthesis depleted NAD, suppressed mitochondrial NAD-dependent signaling and respiration, and impaired phagocytosis and resolution of inflammation. Innate immune challenge triggered upstream KP activation but paradoxically suppressed cell-autonomous NAD synthesis by limiting the conversion of downstream quinolinate to NAD, a profile recapitulated in aging macrophages. Increasing de novo NAD generation in immune-challenged or aged macrophages restored oxidative phosphorylation and homeostatic immune responses. Thus, KP-derived NAD operates as a metabolic switch to specify macrophage effector responses. Breakdown of de novo NAD synthesis may underlie declining NAD levels and rising innate immune dysfunction in aging and age-associated diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0255-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768398PMC
January 2019

Reexamining IFN-γ Stimulation of De Novo NAD+ in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

Int J Tryptophan Res 2018 16;11:1178646918773067. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178646918773067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5958421PMC
May 2018

Passport to pathology: transforming the medical student pathology elective from a passive educational experience to an exciting, immersive clinical rotation.

Hum Pathol 2017 10 8;68:34-39. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Pathology Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2017.08.031DOI Listing
October 2017

Immersion medicine programme for secondary students.

Clin Teach 2018 10 14;15(5):370-376. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

General Medicine Disciplines, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Background: Although the proportion of ethnicities representing under-represented minorities in medicine (URM) in the general population has significantly increased, URM enrolment in medical schools within the USA has remained stagnant in recent years.

Methods: This study sought to examine the effect of an immersion in community medicine (ICM) programme on secondary school students' desire to enter the field of medicine and serve their communities. The authors asked all 69 ICM alumni to complete a 14-question survey consisting of six demographic, four programme and four career questions, rated on a Likert scale of 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree), coupled with optional free-text questions. Data were analysed using GraphPad prism and nvivo software.

Results: A total of 61 students responded, representing a response rate of 88.4 per cent, with a majority of respondents (73.7%) from URM backgrounds. An overwhelming majority of students agreed (with a Likert rating of 4 or 5) that the ICM programme increased their interest in becoming a physician (n = 56, 91.8%). Students reported shadowing patient-student-physician interactions to be the most useful (n = 60, 98.4%), and indicated that they felt that they would be more likely to lead to serving the local community as part of their future careers (n = 52, 85.3%). Of the students that were eligible to apply to medical school (n = 13), a majority (n = 11, 84.6%) have applied to medical school. URM enrolment in medical schools within the USA has remained stagnant in recent years DISCUSSION: Use of a community medicine immersion programme may help encourage secondary students from URM backgrounds to gain the confidence to pursue a career in medicine and serve their communities. Further examination of these programmes may yield novel insights into recruiting URM students to medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tct.12694DOI Listing
October 2018

Reevaluating the role of IDO1: Examining NAD+ metabolism in inflammation.

J Neuroimmunol 2017 06 27;307:31-32. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.03.016DOI Listing
June 2017

Teasing apart NAD metabolism in inflammation: commentary on Zhou et al. (2016). Br J Pharmacol 173: 2352-2368.

Br J Pharmacol 2017 02 16;174(3):281-283. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.13677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241388PMC
February 2017

Histone deacetylase 3 associates with MeCP2 to regulate FOXO and social behavior.

Nat Neurosci 2016 11 18;19(11):1497-1505. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Mutations in MECP2 cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). The RTT missense MECP2 mutation prevents MeCP2 from interacting with the NCoR/histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) complex; however, the neuronal function of HDAC3 is incompletely understood. We found that neuronal deletion of Hdac3 in mice elicited abnormal locomotor coordination, sociability and cognition. Transcriptional and chromatin profiling revealed that HDAC3 positively regulated a subset of genes and was recruited to active gene promoters via MeCP2. HDAC3-associated promoters were enriched for the FOXO transcription factors, and FOXO acetylation was elevated in Hdac3 knockout (KO) and Mecp2 KO neurons. Human RTT-patient-derived MECP2 neural progenitor cells had deficits in HDAC3 and FOXO recruitment and gene expression. Gene editing of MECP2 cells to generate isogenic controls rescued HDAC3-FOXO-mediated impairments in gene expression. Our data suggest that HDAC3 interaction with MeCP2 positively regulates a subset of neuronal genes through FOXO deacetylation, and disruption of HDAC3 contributes to cognitive and social impairment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083138PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4347DOI Listing
November 2016

Cyclooxygenase inhibition targets neurons to prevent early behavioural decline in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

Brain 2016 07 13;139(Pt 7):2063-81. Epub 2016 May 13.

1 Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Identifying preventive targets for Alzheimer's disease is a central challenge of modern medicine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in normal ageing populations. This preventive effect coincides with an extended preclinical phase that spans years to decades before onset of cognitive decline. In the brain, COX-2 is induced in neurons in response to excitatory synaptic activity and in glial cells in response to inflammation. To identify mechanisms underlying prevention of cognitive decline by anti-inflammatory drugs, we first identified an early object memory deficit in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice that preceded previously identified spatial memory deficits in this model. We modelled prevention of this memory deficit with ibuprofen, and found that ibuprofen prevented memory impairment without producing any measurable changes in amyloid-β accumulation or glial inflammation. Instead, ibuprofen modulated hippocampal gene expression in pathways involved in neuronal plasticity and increased levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. The gene most highly downregulated by ibuprofen was neuronal tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2), which encodes an enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. TDO2 expression was increased by neuronal COX-2 activity, and overexpression of hippocampal TDO2 produced behavioural deficits. Moreover, pharmacological TDO2 inhibition prevented behavioural deficits in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate broad effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition on multiple neuronal pathways that counteract the neurotoxic effects of early accumulating amyloid-β oligomers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939702PMC
July 2016

Neuropathology: bridging psychiatry and neurology in medical education.

Lancet Psychiatry 2016 Feb;3(2):98-100

Center for Advanced Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00517-9DOI Listing
February 2016

Modulation of mitochondrial complex I activity averts cognitive decline in multiple animal models of familial Alzheimer's Disease.

EBioMedicine 2015 Apr;2(4):294-305

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905, USA ; Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Development of therapeutic strategies to prevent Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is of great importance. We show that mild inhibition of mitochondrial complex I with small molecule CP2 reduces levels of amyloid beta and phospho-Tau and averts cognitive decline in three animal models of familial AD. Low-mass molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical studies confirmed that CP2 competes with flavin mononucleotide for binding to the redox center of complex I leading to elevated AMP/ATP ratio and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in neurons and mouse brain without inducing oxidative damage or inflammation. Furthermore, modulation of complex I activity augmented mitochondrial bioenergetics increasing coupling efficiency of respiratory chain and neuronal resistance to stress. Concomitant reduction of glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity and restoration of axonal trafficking resulted in elevated levels of neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins in adult AD mice. Our results suggest metabolic reprogramming induced by modulation of mitochondrial complex I activity represents promising therapeutic strategy for AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465115PMC
April 2015

The effects of passive and active learning on student preference and performance in an undergraduate basic science course.

Anat Sci Educ 2012 Jul-Aug;5(4):200-7. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Active learning is based on self-directed and autonomous teaching methods, whereas passive learning is grounded in instructor taught lectures. An animal physiology course was studied over a two-year period (Year 1, n = 42 students; Year 2, n = 30 students) to determine the effects of student-led seminar (andragogical) and lecture (pedagogical) teaching methods on students' retention of information and performance. For each year of the study, the course was divided into two time periods. The first half was dedicated to instructor-led lectures, followed by a control survey in which the students rated the efficiency of pedagogical learning on a five-point Likert scale from one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree). During the second period, students engaged in andragogical learning via peer-led seminars. An experimental survey was then administered to students using the same scale as above to determine students' preferred teaching method. Raw examination scores and survey results from both halves of the course were statistically analyzed by ANOVA with Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test. By the end of the study, student preference for peer-led seminars increased [mean ± SD: (2.47 ± 0.94)/(4.03 ± 1.36), P < 0.04], and examination scores significantly increased [mean ± SD: (73.91% ± 13.18)/(85.77 ± 5.22), P < 0.001]. A majority of students (68.8%) preferred a method that contained peer-led seminars and instructor-led lectures. These results may indicate that integration of active and passive learning into undergraduate courses may have greater benefit in terms of student preference and performance than either method alone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ase.1274DOI Listing
November 2012

Risk factors for positive admission surveillance cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a neurocritical care unit.

Crit Care Med 2011 Oct;39(10):2322-9

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Department of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Hospitals are under increasing pressure to perform active surveillance cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. This study aimed to identify patients at low and high risk for positive admission surveillance cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in a neurocritical care unit using readily ascertainable historical factors.

Design: Before/after study with nested case/control study.

Setting: Neurocritical care unit of an academic hospital.

Patients: During the intervention period (July 2007 to June 2008), after implementation of an admission surveillance culture screening program for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, 2,059 patients were admitted to the neurocritical care unit for a total of 5,957 patient days.

Interventions: Cases had positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus admission surveillance cultures within 48 hrs of hospital admission. Controls had negative cultures.

Measurements And Main Results: Admission surveillance cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in 35 of 823 (4.3%) and 19 of 766 (2.5%) patients, respectively. Factors significantly associated with both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization were intravenous antibiotics and hospitalization in the past year, immunocompromised health status, intravenous drug use, long-term hemodialysis, and known prior carrier status. Transfer from an outside hospital and residence in a long-term care facility in the past year were associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify variables that best predicted positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus surveillance cultures. A classification and regression tree model with six of these variables yielded an overall cross-validated predictive accuracy of 87.12% to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. For vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, a four-variable classification and regression tree model (intravenous antibiotics, hospitalization and long-term patient care in the past year, and not being "admitted same day of procedure") optimized the predictive accuracy (94.91%). There were no cases of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization in patients admitted same day of procedure.

Conclusions: Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in neurocritical care patients can be predicted with a high predictive accuracy using decision trees that include four to six readily attainable risk factors. In our setting, in the absence of these risk factors and in patients admitted from home for neurosurgical procedures, routine admission surveillance cultures to the intensive care unit may not be cost-effective.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182227222DOI Listing
October 2011