Publications by authors named "Paolo Doretto"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

Minerva Med 2021 Apr 16;112(2):175-187. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Unit of Clinical of Experimental Onco-Hematology, IRCCS Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO), Aviano, Pordenone, Italy.

Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 170 million people worldwide. HCV is responsible for both hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations. Chronic infection has been shown to develop in about 70% of cases, and it can progress to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Ten percent of HCV patients may develop extra-hepatic manifestations, including mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) varies, ranging from mild-moderate clinical symptoms (purpura on the legs, asthenia and arthralgias) and chronic hepatitis to severe symptoms (ulcers on the legs, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, low-grade NHL to life threatening complications (rapid progressive glomerulonephritis, gastrointestinal vasculitis, acute hyper-viscosity).

Evidence Acquisition: CV is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Some studies have shown kidney involvement, cirrhosis, central nervous system involvement, and heart involvement as unfavorable prognostic factors. Many studies have demonstrated that, after antiviral therapy, CV can disappear along with HCV. After the introduction of the new direct antiviral agents (DAAs), the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been abandoned.

Evidence Synthesis: Several studies on new DAAs have reported remarkable 90% to 100% HCV eradication rates, regardless of genotype. Treatment with DAAs has comparable efficacy on viral eradication in CV patients but definite clinical improvements of vasculitis can be observed only in half the patients.

Conclusions: In patients with mild to moderate CV disease, DAAs therapy should be used as first line approach. In patients with severe vasculitis, DAAs therapy and a second-line treatment with RTX with or without aphaeresis are a required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07120-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Interleukin-2 chronotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results of a phase I-II study.

Cytokine 2020 04 20;128:154984. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Pathology, AAS5 Pordenonese, Via Montereale 24, I-33170 Pordenone, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was the cornerstone treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) until the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but it still has therapeutic value. As a single bolus of IL-2 causes toxicity, there is interest in administration regimens with better tolerability and efficacy. Chronotherapy is the administration of therapy according to the circadian rhythm's influence on the immune and hormonal systems. This phase I-II trial evaluated the safety of IL-2 chronotherapy in metastatic RCC patients and determined the maximum tolerated dose. The secondary objective was to identify prognostic factors for survival.

Methods: Three chronomodulation schedules (5:00-13:00, 13:00-21:00, and 21:00-5:00) were tested. Each schedule was an 8-h IL-2 infusion, with a Gaussian distribution of drug concentration peaking at 4 h. To identify the maximum tolerated dose, the dose for different patients was escalated from 2 MIU/m (level I) to 18.6 MIU/m (level VI).

Results: Thirty patients were enrolled and completed treatment. Two patients were treated at 5:00-13:00, 15 at 13:00-21:00, and 13 at 21:00-5:00. Nine cases of grade 3 toxicity occurred in 7 patients at the highest dose (18.6 MIU/m); no grade 4 toxicity occurred. The maximum tolerated dose was 14.0 MUI/m. Patients were followed for a median of 16 months (range, 2-107). One patient was lost to follow-up, 3 patients were alive at last contact, and 26 patients died. Six patients achieved long-term survival (≥48 months). There was one complete response, four partial responses, 11 cases of stable disease and 14 of progressive disease. The response rate was 16% (5/30) and disease-control rate was 53% (16/30). Median progression-free survival was 4.5 months, and median overall survival was 14.5 months. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed significant associations between overall survival and ECOG performance score (0 vs. 1-2), MSKCC score (0-2 vs. ≥ 3), IMDC risk score (0-2 vs. ≥ 3), IL-2 dose level (IV-VI vs. I-III), and prolactin (increase vs. no increase), and but not for chronotherapy schedule.

Conclusion: IL-2 chronotherapy appears to be safe, moderately toxic and active in metastatic RCC. It may represent a new modality of IL-2 administration for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2019.154984DOI Listing
April 2020

Cyclophosphamide with or without fluorouracil followed by subcutaneous or intravenous interleukin-2 use in solid tumors: A feasibility off-label experience.

Cytokine 2019 01 27;113:50-60. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

CRO Pordenone-S. Vito Oncology, Pordenone, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Immune tolerance seems to correlate with disease progression and T regulatory cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells play a relevant role in immunosuppression. Cyclophosphamide (Cyt) and Fluorouracil (FU) seem to reduce these cell populations.

Methods And Objective: Establishing safety, feasibility, activity and impact on the immune system (neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L], platelet/L [Plt/L], monocyte [M] and lymphocyte subpopulation (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, HLADR/CD3, Tregs, cells count), CD8/Treg and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Treatment: 1) Cyt 300 mg/sqm ± FU 500 mg/sqm day (d) 1 and interleukin 2 (IL-2) 18 MUI/sqm intravenous (I.V.) d 4-6, 18-20 or 2) Cyt 300 mg/sqm + FU 500 mg/sqm day d 1, IL-2 4.5 MUI subcutaneous (S.C.) d 3-6, 17-20. The cycle was repeated every four weeks for 2 cycles. Stable or responding patients (pts) continued therapy for 3 cycles.

Results: From February 2014 to December 2016, 13/14 pre-treated pts (mean 3 lines) with solid tumors were enrolled. Male/Female: 1/1. The median age and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) was 68 years and 1 respectively. Mean 2 cycles of therapy were administered. G3-4 toxicities presented as diarrhea and bleeding anemia in 2 pts and proteinuria and erhytroderma in 1pt, respectively. Regarding the hematological profile, a more reduction in Plt, less decrease of Plt/Ly, and less increase of Treg with I.V. than S.C. IL-2 administration was observed. However a transient decrease of Treg on day 7 of first cycle in the I.V. IL-2 was reported.

Response: PR 3 (23%), SD 3 (23%), PD 7 (54%). The response duration was 2+ and 3 months in 2 HCC and 18+ months in the pancreatic cancer (PC). Pathological CR was reported in one HCC treated with I.V. IL-2. The median progression-free-survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1 and 7 months.

Conclusion: Cyt-FU-IL-2 can be considered safe, feasible and moderately active in heavily pre-treated pts. Plt, Plt/Ly, CD8/Treg and a transient Tregs reduction were observed without significative difference on survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2018.06.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Automated analysis for differentiating leukocytes in body fluids using the software "biological liquid application" on ADVIA2120/2120i hematology analyzer.

J Clin Lab Anal 2018 Oct 25;32(8):e22578. Epub 2018 May 25.

Clinical Pathology, A.A.S.n.5 "Friuli Occidentale", Pordenone, Italy.

Introduction: We evaluated the "Biological liquid application ADVIA2120" software for differentiating the percentage of polymorphonucleated (%PMN) and mononucleated cells (%MN) in ascitic, pleural, and peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid.

Methods: Biological fluid test results of 193 specimens obtained by automated methods (87 with and 106 without dedicated software) were compared with May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stained blood smears. Limit of detection (LoD) and quantitation (LoQ), repeatability, and inaccuracy were assessed.

Results: Good agreement between the automated methods with dedicated software and the manual method for %PMN and %MN was obtained for leukocyte differentiation in ascitic and pleural fluids, while correlation with the manual method for PD fluid was poor, both with and without the dedicated software.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that the automated differentiation of leukocytes with dedicated software on the ADVIA2120 analyzer for body fluids is a good alternative to the microscopic reference method for peritoneal and pleural specimens, but not for PD fluids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.22578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6817033PMC
October 2018

A standardized flow cytometry network study for the assessment of circulating endothelial cell physiological ranges.

Sci Rep 2018 04 11;8(1):5823. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Experimental Pharmacology Unit, Department of Research, Istituto Nazionale Tumori- IRCCS G. Pascale, Napoli, Italy.

Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) represent a restricted peripheral blood (PB) cell subpopulation with high potential diagnostic value in many endothelium-involving diseases. However, whereas the interest in CEC studies has grown, the standardization level of their detection has not. Here, we undertook the task to align CEC phenotypes and counts, by standardizing a novel flow cytometry approach, within a network of six laboratories. CEC were identified as alive/nucleated/CD45negative/CD34bright/CD146positive events and enumerated in 269 healthy PB samples. Standardization was demonstrated by the achievement of low inter-laboratory Coefficients of Variation (CV), calculated on the basis of Median Fluorescence Intensity values of the most stable antigens that allowed CEC identification and count (CV of CD34bright on CEC ~ 30%; CV of CD45 on Lymphocytes ~ 20%). By aggregating data acquired from all sites, CEC numbers in the healthy population were captured (median = 9.31 CEC/mL; median = 11.55 CEC/mL). CEC count biological variability and method specificity were finally assessed. Results, obtained on a large population of donors, demonstrate that the established procedure might be adopted as standardized method for CEC analysis in clinical and in research settings, providing a CEC physiological baseline range, useful as starting point for their clinical monitoring in endothelial dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24234-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895616PMC
April 2018

Endothelial progenitor cells, defined by the simultaneous surface expression of VEGFR2 and CD133, are not detectable in healthy peripheral and cord blood.

Cytometry A 2016 Mar 25;89(3):259-70. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Department of Medicine and Aging Science, School of Medicine and Health Science, University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, 66013, Italy.

Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) and their progenitors (EPC) are restricted subpopulations of peripheral blood (PB), cord blood (CB), and bone marrow (BM) cells, involved in the endothelial homeostasis maintenance. Both CEC and EPC are thought to represent potential biomarkers in several clinical conditions involving endothelial turnover/remodeling. Although different flow cytometry methods for CEC and EPC characterization have been published so far, none of them have reached consistent conclusions, therefore consensus guidelines with respect to CEC and EPC identification and quantification need to be established. Here, we have carried out an in depth investigation of CEC and EPC phenotypes in healthy PB, CB and BM samples, by optimizing a reliable polychromatic flow cytometry (PFC) panel. Results showed that the brightness of CD34 expression on healthy PB and CB circulating cells represents a key benchmark for the identification of CEC (CD45neg/CD34bright/CD146pos) respect to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment (CD45dim/CD34pos/CD146neg). This approach, combined with a dual-platform counting technique, allowed a sharp CEC enumeration in healthy PB (n = 38), and resulting in consistent CEC counts with previously reported data (median = 11.7 cells/ml). In parallel, by using rigorous PFC conditions, CD34pos/CD45dim/CD133pos/VEGFR2pos EPC were not found in any healthy PB or CB sample, since VEGFR2 expression was never detectable on the surface of CD34pos/CD45dim/CD133pos cells. Notably, the putative EPC phenotype was observed in all analyzed BM samples (n = 12), and the expression of CD146 and VEGFR2, on BM cells, was not restricted to the CD34bright compartment, but also appeared on the HSC surface. Altogether, our findings suggest that the previously reported EPC antigen profile, defined by the simultaneous expression of VEGFR2 and CD133 on the surface of CD45dim/CD34pos cells, should be carefully re-evaluated and further studies should be conducted to redefine EPC features in order to translate CEC and EPC characterization into clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.22730DOI Listing
March 2016

Is vitamin D a player or not in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases?

Autoimmun Rev 2015 May 12;14(5):363-9. Epub 2014 Oct 12.

Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, S. Maria degli Angeli Hospital, Pordenone, Italy. Electronic address:

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D is a steroid hormone derived from vitamin D, playing an important role in maintaining an adequate serum level of calcium and phosphorus. It is now clear that vitamin D exerts an endocrine action on the cells of the immune system, generating anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. The mechanisms underlying the role of vitamin D in autoimmunity are not completely understood. Lower vitamin D levels have been found in several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune thyroid diseases (i.e. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease) and autoimmune gastritis. Several genetic studies have demonstrated an association between thyroid autoimmunity susceptibility and gene polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor, vitamin D binding protein, 1-alpha-hydroxylase and 25-hydroxylase. Of note, some papers do not confirm this connection. With regard to the role of vitamin D in autoimmune thyroid diseases, available data remain controversial. Only few reports have analyzed the supposed association between autoimmune thyroid diseases and vitamin D concentration with inconclusive results. In our experience, low serum levels of vitamin D do not correlate either with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or with Graves' disease. The inability to achieve an unambiguous conclusion is in part due to the limitations in study design. In fact, most of the studies are cross-sectional surveys with a small number of subjects. In addition, the heterogeneity of the study population, seasonal variation of blood sampling, inter-method analytical variability of vitamin D assays and different definitions of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency contribute to contradicting results. Therefore, further randomized, controlled, prospective trials are needed in order to demonstrate the causality of vitD in AITD and consequently the role of vitamin D supplementation in prevention or improvement of AITD, providing also information on the best formulation, dose and timing of supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2014.10.008DOI Listing
May 2015

Which tools may help physicians in female fertility prediction after autologous bone marrow transplantation for lymphoma? A pilot study.

J Chemother 2014 Oct 21;26(5):293-9. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Objective(s): The report of our experience on fertility preservation and the validation of some tools useful to predict fertility in young females who underwent haematopoietic cell transplantation for their lymphoma.

Study Design: A retrospective study involving 17 consecutive women of child-bearing age affected by lymphoma and submitted to haematopoietic cell transplantation in our centre.

Results: We described a high rate of parenthood in our patient series: 5 out of 17 (29%) patients became pregnant and 1 out of 5 had two pregnancies. It is suggestive that only patients who received gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues co-treatment conceaved. Antral follicles number or ovarian volume, ascertained through transvaginal ultrasound before starting treatment, more than anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) value, are tools that may help physicians to better predict fertility in young females of child-bearing age affected by lymphoma who desire to get pregnant after cancer cares.

Conclusion(s): The high rate of maternity we recorded may lead to comfort the young women who hope to become pregnant after cancer cares because pregnancy is possible in a certain percentage of cases even after highly toxic treatments to the ovaries. A higher ovarian volume or a higher number of antral follicles, before treatment start, ensures a greater chance of successful pregnancies. AMH value in lymphoma survivors is not sufficient to guide physicians in fertility predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1973947813Y.0000000162DOI Listing
October 2014

Circulating PTH, Vitamin D and IGF-I levels in relation to bone mineral density in elderly women.

In Vivo 2013 May-Jun;27(3):415-8

Department of Surgical, Oncological and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, School of Medicine, Via Giustiniani 2, Padova, Italy.

Age and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) represent major risk factors for vertebral fracture risk, especially in pos-tmenopausal women, and measurement of BMD is currently considered of value in estimating bone mineralization. BMD correlates with demographics and anthropometric parameters, as well as with several markers of bone metabolism and calcium-regulating hormones, such as leptin, osteoprotegerin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and sex steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PTH, 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D], IGF-I and BMD in a selected group of elderly women. Thirty-one post-menopausal women over the age of 65, who were not estrogen, vitamin D or bisphosphonate users and did not have a history of fracture, bone disease or malignancy, were prospectively enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent lumbar spine dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum calcium, creatinine, PTH, 25(OH)D and IGF-I measurements. As expected, a weakly-inverse correlation between age and 25(OH)D (R=-0.50, p=0.020), and between BMD and PTH (R=-0.48, p=0.027) was found. There was a strong relationship between IGF-I and BMD (R=0.64, p=0.0016), and between age and IGF-I (R=-0.70, p<0.001), while IGF-I did not correlate with 25(OH)D (R=-0.16, p=0.48) or BMI (R=-0.089, p=0.70). In conclusion, in this selected group of elderly women, we found a strong relationship of increased bone resorption, expressed as BMD, to calcium-regulating hormones PTH and IGF-I, while 25(OH)D and BMI seem to be independent of bone mineralization status.
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October 2013
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