Publications by authors named "Paola Dessanti"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tranylcypromine-Based LSD1 Inhibitors: Structure-Activity Relationships, Antiproliferative Effects in Leukemia, and Gene Target Modulation.

ChemMedChem 2020 04 14;15(7):643-658. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Drug Chemistry and Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.

LSD1 is a lysine demethylase highly involved in initiation and development of cancer. To design highly effective covalent inhibitors, a strategy is to fill its large catalytic cleft by designing tranylcypromine (TCP) analogs decorated with long, hindered substituents. We prepared three series of TCP analogs, carrying aroyl- and arylacetylamino (1 a-h), Z-amino acylamino (2 a-o), or double-substituted benzamide (3 a-n) residues at the C4 or C3 position of the phenyl ring. Further fragments obtained by chemical manipulation applied on the TCP scaffold (compounds 4 a-i) were also prepared. When tested against LSD1, most of 1 and 3 exhibited IC values in the low nanomolar range, with 1 e and 3 a,d,f,g being also the most selective respect to monoamine oxidases. In MV4-11 AML and NB4 APL cells compounds 3 were the most potent, displaying up to sub-micromolar cell growth inhibition against both cell lines (3 a) or against NB4 cells (3 c). The most potent compounds in cellular assays were also able to induce the expression of LSD1 target genes, such as GFI-1b, ITGAM, and KCTD12, as functional read-out for LSD1 inhibition. Mouse and human intrinsic clearance data highlighted the high metabolic stability of compounds 3 a, 3 d and 3 g. Further studies will be performed on the new compounds 3 a and 3 c to assess their anticancer potential in different cancer contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201900730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125024PMC
April 2020

Novel potent inhibitors of the histone demethylase KDM1A (LSD1), orally active in a murine promyelocitic leukemia model.

Future Med Chem 2017 07 19;9(11):1161-1174. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Academic Drug Discovery, European Institute of Oncology, Ifom-IEO-Campus, via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.

Background: Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are well-recognized targets in oncology drug discovery. They function at the post-translation level controlling chromatin conformation and gene transcription. KDM1A is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase, overexpressed in several tumor types, including acute myeloid leukemia, neuroblastoma and non-small-cell lung cancer. Among the many known monoamine oxidase inhibitors screened for KDM1A inhibition, tranylcypromine emerged as a moderately active hit, which irreversibly binds to the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor.

Material & Methods: The KDM1A inhibitors 5a-w were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo. The biochemical potency was determined, modulation of target in cells was demonstrated on KDM1A-dependent genes and the anti-clonogenic activity was performed in murine acute promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) blasts. An in vivo efficacy experiment was conducted using an established murine promyelocytic leukemia model.

Results: We report a new series of tranylcypromine derivatives substituted on the cyclopropyl moiety, endowed with high potency in both biochemical and cellular assays.

Conclusion: The most interesting derivative (5a) significantly improved survival rate after oral administration in a murine model of promyelocitic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/fmc-2017-0003DOI Listing
July 2017

Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as New Reversible Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A/LSD1. Part 2: Structure-Based Drug Design and Structure-Activity Relationship.

J Med Chem 2017 03 27;60(5):1693-1715. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Academic Drug Discovery, European Institute of Oncology , Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano, Italy.

The balance of methylation levels at histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) is regulated by KDM1A (LSD1). KDM1A is overexpressed in several tumor types, thus representing an emerging target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. We have previously described ( Part 1, DOI 10.1021.acs.jmedchem.6b01018 ) the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as novel reversible inhibitors of KDM1A, whose preliminary exploration resulted in compound 2 with biochemical IC = 160 nM. We now report the structure-guided optimization of this chemical series based on multiple ligand/KDM1A-CoRest cocrystal structures, which led to several extremely potent inhibitors. In particular, compounds 46, 49, and 50 showed single-digit nanomolar IC values for in vitro inhibition of KDM1A, with high selectivity in secondary assays. In THP-1 cells, these compounds transcriptionally affected the expression of genes regulated by KDM1A such as CD14, CD11b, and CD86. Moreover, 49 and 50 showed a remarkable anticlonogenic cell growth effect on MLL-AF9 human leukemia cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01019DOI Listing
March 2017

Thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides as New Reversible Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A/LSD1. Part 1: High-Throughput Screening and Preliminary Exploration.

J Med Chem 2017 03 27;60(5):1673-1692. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Academic Drug Discovery, European Institute of Oncology , Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano, Italy.

Lysine specific demethylase 1 KDM1A (LSD1) regulates histone methylation and it is increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. We report on a high-throughput screening campaign performed on KDM1A/CoREST, using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) technology, to identify reversible inhibitors. The screening led to 115 hits for which we determined biochemical IC, thus identifying four chemical series. After data analysis, we have prioritized the chemical series of N-phenyl-4H-thieno[3, 2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamide for which we obtained X-ray structures of the most potent hit (compound 19, IC = 2.9 μM) in complex with the enzyme. Initial expansion of this chemical class, both modifying core structure and decorating benzamide moiety, was directed toward the definition of the moieties responsible for the interaction with the enzyme. Preliminary optimization led to compound 90, which inhibited the enzyme with a submicromolar IC (0.162 μM), capable of inhibiting the target in cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01018DOI Listing
March 2017

Discovery of a Novel Inhibitor of Histone Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1A (KDM1A/LSD1) as Orally Active Antitumor Agent.

J Med Chem 2016 Feb 7;59(4):1501-17. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Academic Drug Discovery, European Institute of Oncology , Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.

We report the stereoselective synthesis and biological activity of a novel series of tranylcypromine (TCPA) derivatives (14a-k, 15, 16), potent inhibitors of KDM1A. The new compounds strongly inhibit the clonogenic potential of acute leukemia cell lines. In particular three molecules (14d, 14e, and 14g) showing selectivity versus MAO A and remarkably inhibiting colony formation in THP-1 human leukemia cells, were assessed in mouse for their preliminary pharmacokinetic. 14d and 14e were further tested in vivo in a murine acute promyelocytic leukemia model, resulting 14d the most effective. Its two enantiomers were synthesized: the (1S,2R) enantiomer 15 showed higher activity than its (1R,2S) analogue 16, in both biochemical and cellular assays. Compound 15 exhibited in vivo efficacy after oral administration, determining a 62% increased survival in mouse leukemia model with evidence of KDM1A inhibition. The biological profile of compound 15 supports its further investigation as a cancer therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01209DOI Listing
February 2016

Pure enantiomers of benzoylamino-tranylcypromine: LSD1 inhibition, gene modulation in human leukemia cells and effects on clonogenic potential of murine promyelocytic blasts.

Eur J Med Chem 2015 Apr 3;94:163-74. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

Department of Drug Chemistry and Technologies, Sapienza University of Roma, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy; Pasteur Institute - Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza University of Roma, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy. Electronic address:

The pure enantiomers of the N-(2-, 3-, and 4-(2-aminocyclopropyl)phenyl)benzamides hydrochlorides 11a-j were prepared and tested against LSD1 and MAO enzymes. The evaluation of the regioisomers 11a-j highlighted a net increase of the anti-LSD1 potency by shifting the benzamide moiety from ortho to meta and mainly to para position of tranylcypromine phenyl ring, independently from their trans or cis stereochemistry. In particular, the para-substituted 11a,b (trans) and 11g,h (cis) compounds displayed LSD1 and MAO-A inhibition at low nanomolar levels, while were less potent against MAO-B. The meta analogs 11c,d (trans) and 11i,j (cis) were in general less potent, but more efficient against MAO-A than against LSD1. In cellular assays, all the para and meta enantiomers were able to inhibit LSD1 by inducing Gfi-1b and ITGAM gene expression, with 11b,c and 11g-i giving the highest effects. Moreover, 11b and 11g,h strongly inhibited the clonogenic potential of murine promyelocytic blasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.02.060DOI Listing
April 2015

Pure Diastereomers of a Tranylcypromine-Based LSD1 Inhibitor: Enzyme Selectivity and In-Cell Studies.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2015 Feb 8;6(2):173-7. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Department of Drug Chemistry and Technologies, Sapienza University of Roma , P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy ; Pasteur Institute-Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza University of Roma , P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy.

The pure four diastereomers (11a-d) of trans-benzyl (1-((4-(2-aminocyclopropyl)phenyl)amino)-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)carbamate hydrochloride 11, previously described by us as LSD1 inhibitor, were obtained by enantiospecific synthesis/chiral HPLC separation method. Tested in LSD1 and MAO assays, 11b (S,1S,2R) and 11d (R,1S,2R) were the most potent isomers against LSD1 and were less active against MAO-A and practically inactive against MAO-B. In cells, all the four diastereomers induced Gfi-1b and ITGAM gene expression in NB4 cells, accordingly with their LSD1 inhibition, and 11b and 11d inhibited the colony forming potential in murine promyelocytic blasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml500424zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4329595PMC
February 2015

Further insights into the SAR of α-substituted cyclopropylamine derivatives as inhibitors of histone demethylase KDM1A.

Eur J Med Chem 2015 Mar 7;92:377-86. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Dipartimento Farmaceutico, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, Parma 43124, Italy. Electronic address:

Epigenetics alterations including histone methylation and acetylation, and DNA methylation, are thought to play important roles in the onset and progression of cancer in numerous tumour cell lines. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 or KDM1A) is highly expressed in different cancer types and inhibiting KDM1A activity seems to have high therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. In the recent years, several inhibitors of KDM1A have been prepared and disclosed. The majority of these derivatives were designed based on the structure of tranylcypromine, as the cyclopropane core is responsible for the covalent interaction between the inhibitor and the catalytic domain of KDM proteins. In this study, we have further extended the SAR regarding compounds 1a-e, which were recently found to inhibit KDM1A with good activity. The decoration of the phenyl ring at the β-position of the cyclopropane ring with small functional groups, mostly halogenated, and in particular at the meta position, led to a significant improvement of the inhibitory activity against KDM1A, as exemplified by compound 44a, which has a potency in the low nanomolar range (31 nM).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.12.032DOI Listing
March 2015

Synthesis, biological activity and mechanistic insights of 1-substituted cyclopropylamine derivatives: a novel class of irreversible inhibitors of histone demethylase KDM1A.

Eur J Med Chem 2014 Oct 27;86:352-63. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Drug Discovery Unit, European Institute of Oncology, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.

Histone demethylase KDM1A (also known as LSD1) has become an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer as well as other disorders such as viral infections. We report on the synthesis of compounds derived from the expansion of tranylcypromine as a chemical scaffold for the design of novel demethylase inhibitors. These compounds, which are substituted on the cyclopropyl core moiety, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit KDM1A in vitro as well as to function in cells by modulating the expression of Gfi-1b, a well recognized KDM1A target gene. The molecules were all found to covalently inhibit KDM1A and to become increasingly selective against human monoamine oxidases MAO A and MAO B through the introduction of bulkier substituents on the cyclopropylamine ring. Structural and biochemical analysis of selected trans isomers showed that the two stereoisomers are endowed with similar inhibitory activities against KDM1A, but form different covalent adducts with the FAD co-enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.08.068DOI Listing
October 2014

Structural basis of the substrate specificity of Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase.

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2012 Mar 14;68(Pt 3):239-48. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301, USA.

Purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine (2'-deoxy)nucleosides, generating the corresponding free base and (2'-deoxy)-ribose 1-phosphate. Two classes of PNPs have been identified: homotrimers specific for 6-oxopurines and homohexamers that accept both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines. Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase (AdoP) is a hexameric PNP; however, it is highly specific for 6-aminopurines. To investigate the structural basis for the unique substrate specificity of AdoP, the active-site mutant D204N was prepared and kinetically characterized and the structures of the wild-type protein and the D204N mutant complexed with adenosine and sulfate or with inosine and sulfate were determined at high resolution (1.2-1.4 Å). AdoP interacts directly with the preferred substrate through a hydrogen-bond donation from the catalytically important residue Asp204 to N7 of the purine base. Comparison with Escherichia coli PNP revealed a more optimal orientation of Asp204 towards N7 of adenosine and a more closed active site. When inosine is bound, two water molecules are interposed between Asp204 and the N7 and O6 atoms of the nucleoside, thus allowing the enzyme to find alternative but less efficient ways to stabilize the transition state. The mutation of Asp204 to asparagine led to a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency for adenosine without affecting the efficiency of inosine cleavage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S090744491200073XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282621PMC
March 2012