Publications by authors named "Panying Rong"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Spatiotemporal Control of Articulation During Speech and Speechlike Tasks in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Feb 25:1-18. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Hearing and Speech, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City.

Purpose This study examined the articulatory control of speech and speechlike tasks in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neurologically healthy individuals with the aim to identify the most useful set of articulatory features and tasks for assessing bulbar motor involvement in ALS. Method Tongue and jaw kinematics were recorded in 12 individuals with bulbar ALS and 10 healthy controls during a speech task and two speechlike tasks (i.e., alternating motion rate [AMR], sequential motion rate [SMR]). Eight articulatory features were derived for each participant per task, including the range, maximum speed, and acceleration time of tongue and jaw movements as well as the coupling and timing between tongue and jaw movements. The effects of task (i.e., AMR, SMR, speech) and group (i.e., ALS, control) on these articulatory features were evaluated. For each feature, the task that yielded the largest difference between the ALS and control groups was identified. The diagnostic efficacy of these task-specific features was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic analysis; the relation of these task-specific features to a well-established bulbar severity index-speaking rate-was determined using Spearman's rank correlation. Results Seven task-specific articulatory features were identified, including (a) tongue and jaw acceleration time during the AMR task, (b) tongue-jaw coupling during the SMR task, and (c) range of tongue movement, maximum tongue and jaw speed, and temporal lag between tongue and jaw movements during the speech task. Among these features, tongue and jaw acceleration time and their temporal lag showed relatively high accuracy (i.e., 0.83-0.95) in differentiating individuals with ALS from healthy controls. Range of tongue movement and maximum tongue and jaw speed showed significant correlations with speaking rate. Conclusion Findings provided preliminary evidence for the utility of task-specific articulatory measurements as a novel quantitative assessment to detect and predict bulbar motor involvement in ALS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-20-00136DOI Listing
February 2021

A potential upper motor neuron measure of bulbar involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using jaw muscle coherence.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2021 Jan 31:1-12. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Neurology Associates P.C, Lincoln, NE, USA.

Objective: To identify a novel, quantitative bulbar measure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) based on jaw muscle coherence. The myoelectric activities of masseter, anterior temporalis, and anterior belly of digastric were recorded bilaterally during a speech task in 12 individuals with ALS and 10 neurologically healthy controls, using surface electromyography. Coherence and directed coherence were calculated for all muscle pairs. The muscle pairs showing significant coherence and directed coherence in the beta-band (15-35 Hz) were identified and their mean beta-band coherence were (1) correlated with the kinematic (i.e. jaw acceleration time) and functional speech (i.e. speaking rate) measures that have been previously identified to be affected by bulbar ALS, across all participants, and (2) evaluated in terms of their efficacy in differentiating individuals with ALS from healthy controls. Beta-band coherence was in general reduced in ALS relative to healthy controls, with the antagonistic and homologous muscle pairs being more affected than the agonistic pairs. Among all muscle pairs, the coherence between masseter and digastric (1) showed the strongest correlations with jaw acceleration time and speaking rate, and (2) differentiated individuals with ALS from healthy controls with the highest sensitivity (i.e. 0.92) and specificity (i.e. 0.90). Reduced beta-band coherence between masseter and digastric in ALS reflects weakened neural linkage between these muscles resulting from the disrupted cortical drive to the bulbar musculature. These findings provide preliminary evidence for jaw muscle coherence as a novel, quantitative measure of corticobulbar involvement, designed to improve bulbar assessment in ALS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2021.1874993DOI Listing
January 2021

Speech intelligibility loss due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the effect of tongue movement reduction on vowel and consonant acoustic features.

Clin Linguist Phon 2021 Jan 11:1-22. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, MGH Institute of Health Professions , Boston, MA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to identify aspects of impaired tongue motor performance that limit the ability to produce distinct speech sounds and contribute to reduced speech intelligibility in individuals with dysarthria secondary to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We analyzed simultaneously recorded tongue kinematic and acoustic data from 22 subjects during three target words (, and ). The subjects included 11 participants with ALS and 11 healthy controls from the X-ray microbeam dysarthria database (Westbury, 1994). Novel measures were derived based on the range and speed of relative movement between two quasi-independent regions of the tongue - blade and dorsum - to characterize the global pattern of tongue dynamics. These "whole tongue" measures, along with the range and speed of single tongue regions, were compared across words, groups (ALS vs. control), and measure types (whole tongue vs. tongue blade vs. tongue dorsum). Reduced range and speed of both global and regional tongue movements were found in participants with ALS relative to healthy controls, reflecting impaired tongue motor performance in ALS. The extent of impairment, however, varied across words and measure types. Compared with the regional tongue measures, the whole tongue measures showed more consistent disease-related changes across the target words and were more robust predictors of speech intelligibility. Furthermore, these whole tongue measures were correlated with various word-specific acoustic features associated with intelligibility decline in ALS, suggesting that impaired tongue movement likely contributes to reduced phonetic distinctiveness of both vowels and consonants that underlie speech intelligibility decline in ALS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2020.1868021DOI Listing
January 2021

A novel physiologic marker of bulbar motor involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Jaw muscle synergy.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jan 29;132(1):94-103. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Objective: To identify a novel physiologic marker of bulbar motor involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) based on jaw muscle synergies.

Methods: Muscle synergies were extracted from the surface electromyographic recordings of five jaw muscles during speech in 11 individuals at the prodromal or symptomatic stages of bulbar ALS and 10 neurologically-healthy controls, using non-negative matrix factorization. The disrupted muscle synergies in ALS were identified; their efficacy in differentiating individuals with ALS from healthy controls and relation to the previously-reported kinematic and functional speech deficits were determined.

Results: An antagonist synergy (i.e., masseter × digastric) was significantly disrupted in ALS, which differentiated individuals with ALS from healthy controls with 82% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Such a disruption occurred prodromally and was associated with slowed jaw movement and reduced speaking rate across the range of severity.

Conclusions: The disruption of jaw antagonist synergy in ALS likely reflects the impact of impaired neural drive on the coordinative functioning of bulbar muscles, which may be used to assess bulbar motor involvement.

Significance: Jaw antagonist synergy shows promise as a novel physiologic marker of bulbar motor involvement in ALS, which has the potential to serve as a quantitative measurement tool for bulbar assessment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2020.09.030DOI Listing
January 2021

Automated Acoustic Analysis of Oral Diadochokinesis to Assess Bulbar Motor Involvement in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Authors:
Panying Rong

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 01 15;63(1):59-73. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences & Disorders, Dole Human Development Center, The University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Purpose The purpose of this article was to validate a novel acoustic analysis of oral diadochokinesis (DDK) in assessing bulbar motor involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Method An automated acoustic DDK analysis was developed, which filtered out the voice features and extracted the envelope of the acoustic waveform reflecting the temporal pattern of syllable repetitions during an oral DDK task (i.e., repetitions of /tɑ/ at the maximum rate on 1 breath). Cycle-to-cycle temporal variability (cTV) of envelope fluctuations and syllable repetition rate (sylRate) were derived from the envelope and validated against 2 kinematic measures, which are tongue movement jitter (movJitter) and alternating tongue movement rate (AMR) during the DDK task, in 16 individuals with bulbar ALS and 18 healthy controls. After the validation, cTV, sylRate, movJitter, and AMR, along with an established clinical speech measure, that is, speaking rate (SR), were compared in their ability to (a) differentiate individuals with ALS from healthy controls and (b) detect early-stage bulbar declines in ALS. Results cTV and sylRate were significantly correlated with movJitter and AMR, respectively, across individuals with ALS and healthy controls, confirming the validity of the acoustic DDK analysis in extracting the temporal DDK pattern. Among all the acoustic and kinematic DDK measures, cTV showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (i.e., 0.87) with 80% sensitivity and 94% specificity in differentiating individuals with ALS from healthy controls, which outperformed the SR measure. Moreover, cTV showed a large increase during the early disease stage, which preceded the decline of SR. Conclusions This study provided preliminary validation of a novel automated acoustic DDK analysis in extracting a useful measure, namely, cTV, for early detection of bulbar ALS. This analysis overcame a major barrier in the existing acoustic DDK analysis, which is continuous voicing between syllables that interferes with syllable structures. This approach has potential clinical applications as a novel bulbar assessment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2019_JSLHR-19-00178DOI Listing
January 2020

Assessing Oromotor Capacity in ALS: The Effect of a Fixed-Target Task on Lip Biomechanics.

Front Neurol 2019 5;10:1288. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Speech and Feeding Disorders Lab, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, United States.

Alternating motion rate (AMR) is a standard measure often included in neurological examinations to assess orofacial neuromuscular integrity. AMR is typically derived from recordings of patients producing repetitions of a single syllable as fast and clear as possible on one breath. Because the task places high demands on oromotor performance, particularly articulatory speed, AMRs are widely considered to be tests of maximum performance and, therefore, likely to reveal underlying neurologic deficits. Despite decades of widespread use, biomechanical studies have shown that speakers often circumvent the presumed speed challenge of the standard AMR task. Specifically, speakers are likely to manipulate their displacements (movement amplitude) instead of speed because this strategy requires less motor effort. The current study examined the effectiveness of a novel fixed-target paradigm for minimizing the truncation of articulatory excursions and maximizing motor effort. We compared the standard AMR task to that of a fixed-target AMR task and focused specifically on the tasks' potential to detect decrements in lip motor performance in persons with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our participants were 14 healthy controls and 17 individuals with ALS. For the standard AMR task, participants were instructed to produce the syllable /bα/ as quickly and accurately as possible on one breath. For the fixed-target AMR task, participants were given the same instructions, but were also required to strike a physical target placed under the jaw during the opening phase of each syllable. Lip kinematic data were obtained using 3D electromagnetic articulography. 16 kinematic features were extracted using an algorithmic approach. Findings revealed that compared to the standard task, the fixed-target AMR task placed increased motor demands on the oromotor system by eliciting larger excursions, faster speeds, and greater spatiotemporal variability. In addition, participants with ALS exhibited limited ability to adapt to the higher articulatory demands of the fixed-target task. Between the two AMR tasks, the maximum speed during the fixed-target task showed a moderate association with the ALSFRS-R bulbar subscore. Employment of both standard and fixed-target AMR tasks is, however, needed for comprehensive assessment of oromotor function and for elucidating profiles of task adaptation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6906194PMC
December 2019

A speech measure for early stratification of fast and slow progressors of bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: lip movement jitter.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2020 02 7;21(1-2):34-41. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, USA, and.

: To assess the utility of novel measures derived from a rapid syllable repetition task (i.e. oral dysdiadochokinesis [DDK]) in early stratification of fast and slow progressive bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and prediction of bulbar disease progression rate. : Fifty-four individuals with ALS were tracked longitudinally on their oral DDK and global bulbar/speech performance (i.e. bulbar subscore on the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised [ALSFRS-R]; articulation rate during passage reading) for a four-month average duration. Based on the bulbar deterioration rate over the tracked period, the participants were stratified as 14 fast bulbar progressors and 40 slow bulbar progressors using a posteriori classification approach. To determine if oral DDK performance predicts the differential bulbar disease progression trajectories in these individuals during the early stages of the tracked period (prior to significant bulbar/speech signs), twenty-two measures of lip motor performance in an oral DDK task were derived to (1) differentiate fast and slow bulbar progressors using the Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis and (2) predict bulbar disease progression rates across all individuals using linear regressions. : Movement jitter, a measure of temporal variability of alternating lip movement during DDK, showed 80% sensitivity and 95% specificity in differentiating fast and slow bulbar progressors early in the disease, and outperformed the ALSFRS-R bulbar subscore and articulation rate. Movement jitter also predicted bulbar disease progression rates across participants. : Findings provided preliminary validation of the clinical value of movement jitter during oral DDK in patient stratification and bulbar disease prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2019.1681454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060806PMC
February 2020

Predicting Speech Intelligibility Based on Spatial Tongue-Jaw Coupling in Persons With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The Impact of Tongue Weakness and Jaw Adaptation.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 08 29;62(8S):3085-3103. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, MGH Institute of Health Progressions, Boston, MA.

Purpose Motor neuron diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have a devastating effect on speech muscle function that often results in severe communication deficits. Over the course of bulbar disease, tongue and jaw movements are modified, but their impact on speech is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disease-related changes in tongue-jaw movement coupling on speech intelligibility in persons at different stages of bulbar ALS. Method Parallel factor analysis was used to quantify the pattern of spatial coupling between 4 semi-independent regions of the tongue and the jaw in various vowels and consonants in 10 individuals with ALS and 10 healthy individuals, respectively, from the X-Ray Microbeam database (Westbury, 1994). The relation of spatial tongue-jaw coupling to speech intelligibility was examined in individuals at the early and late stages of bulbar ALS and healthy individuals. Results Tongue movement, independent of the jaw, decreased early and progressively, which negatively impacted speech intelligibility. Jaw contribution to tongue movement was increased during the early stages of bulbar ALS compared to that of the healthy subjects, which was followed by a decrease during the late stages of bulbar ALS. The early-stage increase of jaw contribution significantly improved speech intelligibility and is thus most likely to be an adaptive strategy to mitigate the negative impact of tongue movement reductions on speech intelligibility. This adaptive strategy became unavailable during the late stages of bulbar ALS, which might accelerate intelligibility decline. Conclusions The loss of functional tongue-jaw coupling may be the critical physiological factor leading to the eventual loss of functional speech in ALS. Monitoring changes in tongue-jaw coupling may improve the prediction about the timing of speech loss and guide clinical management of dysarthria in ALS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-CSMC7-18-0116DOI Listing
August 2019

The Effect of Tongue-Jaw Coupling on Phonetic Distinctiveness of Vowels in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Authors:
Panying Rong

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 09 21;62(9):3248-3264. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences & Disorders, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the relation of tongue-jaw coupling to phonetic distinctiveness of vowels in persons at different stages (i.e., early, middle, late) of bulbar motor involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls. Method The pattern of spatial tongue-jaw coupling was derived from 11 individuals with ALS and 11 healthy controls using the parallel factor analysis. Two articulatory components, which correspond to tongue displacement independent of the jaw (iTongue) and jaw contribution to tongue displacement (cJaw), were extracted from the composite tongue-jaw displacement. These articulatory components were correlated with F1 (i.e., height) and F2-F1 (i.e., advancement) of 4 vowels (/i/, /u/, /æ/, and /ɔ/) across all participants in each group. In addition, a comprehensive index of functional tongue-jaw coupling was derived as the ratio of cJaw/(iTongue + cJaw), and an acoustic index of vowel distortion (VowelDis) was derived to quantify the overall disease-related changes in phonetic distinctiveness of vowels. Based on these indices, disease-related changes in tongue-jaw coupling and phonetic distinctiveness of vowels were examined in individuals at the early, middle, and late stages of the disease. Results For healthy controls, both iTongue and cJaw contributed to F2-F1, while only cJaw contributed to F1. For individuals with ALS, both iTongue and cJaw contributed to F1, whereas only cJaw contributed to F2-F1. Disease-related changes in tongue-jaw coupling included (a) an overall decrease of the percent contribution of the tongue to the composite tongue-jaw displacement accompanied by an increase of percent contribution of the jaw and (b) several changes in the direction of tongue and jaw displacements occurred at different stages of the disease. These disease-related changes in tongue-jaw coupling had various impacts on phonetic distinctiveness of vowels, resulting in (a) a backward shift of front vowels and reduced front-back vowel contrasts, which occurred early and throughout the disease stages; (b) raising of all vowels during the middle stage of the disease; and (c) reduced high-low vowel contrasts during the late stage of the disease. Overall, phonetic distinctiveness of vowels deteriorated progressively throughout the disease course. Conclusions Different from healthy controls who established optimal functional coupling between the tongue and the jaw during vowel productions, individuals at the early-to-middle stages of bulbar ALS showed various adaptive changes in tongue-jaw coupling in response to the disease-related biomechanical and muscular changes in the articulators (particularly in the tongue). These adaptive changes in tongue-jaw coupling were found to be partially effective in mitigating the negative effect of articulatory involvement on phonetic distinctiveness of vowels. As the disease progressed to the late stage, such adaptations appeared to be no longer evident, resulting in a substantial overall reduction of vowel contrasts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2019_JSLHR-S-19-0058DOI Listing
September 2019

Detecting Bulbar Motor Involvement in ALS: Comparing speech and chewing tasks.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2019 12 29;21(6):564-571. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Hurvitz Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

: To compare two different tasks and kinematic measures in terms of their ability to detect Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and differences in ALS severity in order to establish potential candidate markers of bulbar decline.: We tracked jaw kinematics during speech and chewing to determine which is more affected by bulbar motor deterioration, based on measures of maximum speed and articulatory working space. Data were collected from 31 individuals diagnosed with ALS and 17 neurologically intact controls.: (1) Both sentence and chewing tasks were effective in distinguishing between the groups of individuals with ALS and controls, (2) jaw maximum speed for both chewing and speech was a more sensitive marker for bulbar dysfunction than articulatory working space, (3) the sentence task distinguished between ALS subgroups stratified by severity and (4) distinct jaw kinematic differences existed between chewing and sentence tasks. More specifically, movement speed for speech decreased with severity while movement speed for chewing increased with disease severity.: The findings from the current investigation suggest that measures of jaw movement speed during chewing and sentence tasks are affected by bulbar deterioration, and jaw speed during a sentence task may serve as a candidate marker of bulbar disease onset and severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17549507.2018.1557254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6663649PMC
December 2019

Automatic extraction of abnormal lip movement features from the alternating motion rate task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2018 11 25;20(6):610-623. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

c Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders , MGH Institute of Health Professions , Boston , MA , USA , and.

With the long-term goal to develop a clinically feasible tool for assessing articulatory involvement in ALS, we designed an algorithmic approach to automatically extract lip movement features during an alternating motion rate (AMR) task and assessed their efficacy for detecting and monitoring articulatory involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Twenty three spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal AMR features were extracted from 161 samples of lip movements (139 from participants with ALS; 22 from neurologically-intact participants). The diagnostic value of these features was assessed based on their (1) sensitivity for detecting early bulbar motor involvement, and (2) associations with accepted clinical measures of bulbar disease progression. Among all AMR features, two temporal features were the most affected - temporal variability and syllable frequency, which (1) showed large changes during early disease stages and (2) predicted the progression of bulbar motor involvement and speech intelligibility decline. Spatial features were in general, less sensitive to early bulbar motor involvement. The findings provided preliminary support for the algorithmic approach to quantifying articulatory features predictive of bulbar motor and speech decline in ALS. The differential disease effects on spatial and temporal AMR features might shed light on the mechanism of articulatory involvement during ALS progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17549507.2018.1485739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449219PMC
November 2018

Automatic identification of hypernasality in normal and cleft lip and palate patients with acoustic analysis of speech.

J Acoust Soc Am 2017 02;141(2):929

Department of Speech and Hearing Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 901 South Sixth Street, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA.

Hypernasality is seen in cleft lip and palate patients who had undergone repair surgery as a consequence of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Hypernasality has been studied by evaluation of perturbation, noise measures, and cepstral analysis of speech. In this study, feature extraction and analysis were performed during running speech using six different sentences. Jitter, shimmer, Mel frequency cepstral coefficients, bionic wavelet transform entropy, and bionic wavelet transform energy were calculated. Support vector machines were employed for classification of data to normal or hypernasal. Finally, results of the automatic classification were compared with true labels to find accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Accuracy was higher when Mel frequency cepstral coefficients were combined with bionic wavelet transform energy feature. In the best case, accuracy of 85% with sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 85% was obtained. Results prove that acoustic analysis is a reliable method to find hypernasality in cleft lip and palate patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4976056DOI Listing
February 2017

Modeling of oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation to compensate for the acoustic effects of nasalization.

J Acoust Soc Am 2016 09;140(3):2145

Department of Linguistics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

Hypernasality is one of the most detrimental speech disturbances that lead to declines of speech intelligibility. Velopharyngeal inadequacy, which is associated with anatomic defects such as cleft palate or neuromuscular disorders that affect velopharygneal function, is the primary cause of hypernasality. A simulation study by Rong and Kuehn [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55(5), 1438-1448 (2012)] demonstrated that properly adjusted oropharyngeal articulation can reduce nasality for vowels synthesized with an articulatory model [Mermelstein, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53(4), 1070-1082 (1973)]. In this study, a speaker-adaptive articulatory model was developed to simulate speaker-customized oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation to compensate for the acoustic effects of nasalization on /a/, /i/, and /u/. The results demonstrated that (1) the oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation effectively counteracted the effects of nasalization on the second lowest formant frequency (F2) and partially compensated for the effects of nasalization on vowel space (e.g., shifting and constriction of vowel space) and (2) the articulatory adaptation strategies generated by the speaker-adaptive model might be more efficacious for counteracting the acoustic effects of nasalization compared to the adaptation strategies generated by the standard articulatory model in Rong and Kuehn. The findings of this study indicated the potential of using oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation as a means to correct maladaptive articulatory behaviors and to reduce nasality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4963065DOI Listing
September 2016

Speech Movement Measures as Markers of Bulbar Disease in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2016 10;59(5):887-899

University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on tongue and jaw control, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The data were examined in the context of their utility as a diagnostic marker of bulbar disease.

Method: Tongue and jaw movements were recorded cross-sectionally (n = 33 individuals with ALS, 13 controls) and longitudinally (n = 10 individuals with ALS) using a three-dimensional electromagnetic articulography system during the production of the sentence Buy Bobby a puppy. The movements were examined for evidence of changes in size, speed, and duration and with respect to disease severity and time in the study.

Results: Maximum speed of tongue movements and movement durations were significantly different only at an advanced stage of bulbar ALS compared with the healthy control group. The longitudinal analysis revealed a reduction in tongue movement size and speed with time at early stages of disease, which was not seen cross-sectionally. As speaking rate declined, tongue movements decreased in maximum speed, whereas jaw movements increased in maximum speed.

Conclusions: Longitudinal analyses of sentence-level kinematic data show their sensitivity to early bulbar impairment. A change in articulatory kinematics can serve as a useful diagnostic marker for bulbar ALS and to track bulbar disease progression in a clinical setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-15-0238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5345561PMC
October 2016

Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Based on the Deterioration of Individual Speech Subsystems.

PLoS One 2016 5;11(5):e0154971. Epub 2016 May 5.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Purpose: To determine the mechanisms of speech intelligibility impairment due to neurologic impairments, intelligibility decline was modeled as a function of co-occurring changes in the articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems.

Method: Sixty-six individuals diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were studied longitudinally. The disease-related changes in articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems were quantified using multiple instrumental measures, which were subjected to a principal component analysis and mixed effects models to derive a set of speech subsystem predictors. A stepwise approach was used to select the best set of subsystem predictors to model the overall decline in intelligibility.

Results: Intelligibility was modeled as a function of five predictors that corresponded to velocities of lip and jaw movements (articulatory), number of syllable repetitions in the alternating motion rate task (articulatory), nasal airflow (resonatory), maximum fundamental frequency (phonatory), and speech pauses (respiratory). The model accounted for 95.6% of the variance in intelligibility, among which the articulatory predictors showed the most substantial independent contribution (57.7%).

Conclusion: Articulatory impairments characterized by reduced velocities of lip and jaw movements and resonatory impairments characterized by increased nasal airflow served as the subsystem predictors of the longitudinal decline of speech intelligibility in ALS. Declines in maximum performance tasks such as the alternating motion rate preceded declines in intelligibility, thus serving as early predictors of bulbar dysfunction. Following the rapid decline in speech intelligibility, a precipitous decline in maximum performance tasks subsequently occurred.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154971PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4858181PMC
July 2017

An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2016 Feb;59(1):15-26

Purpose: The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements.

Method: The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of words, and a set of short phrases during the recording. We used a machine-learning classifier (support-vector machine) to classify the speech stimuli on the basis of articulatory movements. We then compared classification accuracies of the flesh-point combinations to determine an optimal set of sensors.

Results: When data from the 4 sensors (T1: the vicinity between the tongue tip and tongue blade; T4: the tongue-body back; UL: the upper lip; and LL: the lower lip) were combined, phoneme and word classifications were most accurate and were comparable with the full set (including T2: the tongue-body front; and T3: the tongue-body front).

Conclusion: We identified a 4-sensor set--that is, T1, T4, UL, LL--that yielded a classification accuracy (91%-95%) equivalent to that using all 6 sensors. These findings provide an empirical basis for selecting sensors and their locations for scientific and emerging clinical applications that incorporate articulatory movements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2015_JSLHR-S-14-0112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867928PMC
February 2016

Predicting Early Bulbar Decline in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Speech Subsystem Approach.

Behav Neurol 2015 2;2015:183027. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, MGH Institute of Health Professions, 36 First Avenue, Boston, MA 02129, USA.

Purpose: To develop a predictive model of speech loss in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) based on measures of respiratory, phonatory, articulatory, and resonatory functions that were selected using a data-mining approach.

Method: Physiologic speech subsystem (respiratory, phonatory, articulatory, and resonatory) functions were evaluated longitudinally in 66 individuals with ALS using multiple instrumentation approaches including acoustic, aerodynamic, nasometeric, and kinematic. The instrumental measures of the subsystem functions were subjected to a principal component analysis and linear mixed effects models to derive a set of comprehensive predictors of bulbar dysfunction. These subsystem predictors were subjected to a Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the time until speech loss.

Results: For a majority of participants, speech subsystem decline was detectible prior to declines in speech intelligibility and speaking rate. Among all subsystems, the articulatory and phonatory predictors were most responsive to early bulbar deterioration; and the resonatory and respiratory predictors were as responsive to bulbar decline as was speaking rate.

Conclusions: The articulatory and phonatory predictors are sensitive indicators of early bulbar decline due to ALS, which has implications for predicting disease onset and progression and clinical management of ALS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/183027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4468279PMC
March 2016

Relationship between kinematics, F2 slope and speech intelligibility in dysarthria due to cerebral palsy.

Clin Linguist Phon 2012 Sep;26(9):806-22

Department of Speech and Hearing Science, University of Illinois, Champaign, 61820, USA.

A multimodal approach combining acoustics, intelligibility ratings, articulography and surface electromyography was used to examine the characteristics of dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP). CV syllables were studied by obtaining the slope of F2 transition during the diphthong, tongue-jaw kinematics during the release of the onset consonant, and the related submental muscle activities and relating these measures to speech intelligibility. The results show that larger reductions of F2 slope are correlated with lower intelligibility in CP-related dysarthria. Among the three speakers with CP, the speaker with the lowest F2 slope and intelligibility showed smallest tongue release movement and largest jaw opening movement. The other two speakers with CP were comparable in the amplitude and velocity of tongue movements, but one speaker had abnormally prolonged jaw movement. The tongue-jaw coordination pattern found in the speakers with CP could be either compensatory or subject to an incompletely developed oromotor control system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699206.2012.706686DOI Listing
September 2012

The effect of articulatory adjustment on reducing hypernasality.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2012 Oct 12;55(5):1438-48. Epub 2012 Mar 12.

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, USA.

Purpose: With the goal of using articulatory adjustments to reduce hypernasality, this study utilized an articulatory synthesis model (Childers, 2000) to simulate the adjustment of articulatory configurations with an open velopharynx to achieve the same acoustic goal as normal speech simulated with a closed velopharynx.

Method: To examine the effect of articulatory adjustment on perceived nasality, this study used an articulatory synthesis model (Childers, 2000) to synthesize 18 oral /i/ vowels, 18 nasal /i/ vowels, and 18 nasal /i/ vowels with computer-generated articulatory adjustments; these vowels were then presented to 7 listeners for perceptual ratings of nasality following the direct magnitude estimation method.

Results: Comparisons of nasality ratings of nasal vowels showed a significant reduction of perceived nasality after articulatory adjustment. Moreover, the acoustic features associated with nasal resonances were attenuated and the oral formant structures changed by nasalization were restored after articulatory adjustment, which confirmed findings in Rong and Kuehn (2010).

Conclusion: Appropriate articulatory adjustments are able to reduce the nasality of synthetic nasal /i/ vowels by compensating for the acoustic deviations caused by excessive velopharyngeal opening. Such compensatory interarticulator coordination may have an application in using articulatory adjustments to reduce hypernasality in clinical speech therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0142)DOI Listing
October 2012

Managing the distinctiveness of phonemic nasal vowels: articulatory evidence from Hindi.

J Acoust Soc Am 2012 Jan;131(1):455-65

Department of Linguistics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 4080 Foreign Languages Building, 707 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

There is increasing evidence that fine articulatory adjustments are made by speakers to reinforce and sometimes counteract the acoustic consequences of nasality. However, it is difficult to attribute the acoustic changes in nasal vowel spectra to either oral cavity configuration or to velopharyngeal opening (VPO). This paper takes the position that it is possible to disambiguate the effects of VPO and oropharyngeal configuration on the acoustic output of the vocal tract by studying the position and movement of the tongue and lips during the production of oral and nasal vowels. This paper uses simultaneously collected articulatory, acoustic, and nasal airflow data during the production of all oral and phonemically nasal vowels in Hindi (four speakers) to understand the consequences of the movements of oral articulators on the spectra of nasal vowels. For Hindi nasal vowels, the tongue body is generally lowered for back vowels, fronted for low vowels, and raised for front vowels (with respect to their oral congeners). These movements are generally supported by accompanying changes in the vowel spectra. In Hindi, the lowering of back nasal vowels may have originally served to enhance the acoustic salience of nasality, but has since engendered a nasal vowel chain shift.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3665998DOI Listing
January 2012

The effect of oral articulation on the acoustic characteristics of nasalized vowels.

J Acoust Soc Am 2010 Apr;127(4):2543-53

Department of Speech and Hearing Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA.

To study the acoustic characteristics of nasalized vowels, the effects of velopharyngeal opening and oral articulation are considered. Based on vocal tract area functions for one American English speaker, spectral evolutions for the nasalization of three English vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ were studied by simulating transfer functions for vowels with only velar movement, and for different nasal consonant-vowel utterances, which include both velar and oral movements. Simulations indicate extra nasal spectral poles and zeros and oral formant shifts as a result of the velopharyngeal opening and oral movements, respectively. In this sense, if oral articulation is coordinated with velar movement in such a way that nasal acoustic features are prominently attenuated, corresponding compensatory articulation can be developed to reduce hypernasality. This may be realized by (1) adjusting the articulatory placement for isolated nasalized vowels or by (2) changing the relative timing of coarticulatory movements for dynamic speech. The results demonstrate the effect of oral articulation on the acoustics of nasalized vowels. This effect allows oral articulation to compensate for velopharyngeal dysfunction, which may involve a constellation of speech production disorders resulting from anomalous velopharyngeal closure and which is usually accompanied by hypernasality and nasal emission of air.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3294486DOI Listing
April 2010