Publications by authors named "Pankaj Mahindra"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional outcome of open distal femoral fractures managed with lateral locking plates.

Int Orthop 2020 04 24;44(4):725-733. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department Of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Tagore Nagar, Ludhiana, 141001, India.

Purpose: This prospective study evaluated the functional outcome and union rates of open distal femoral fractures managed with anatomic lateral locking plates.

Methods: Thirty-four patients with open distal femur fractures with mean age of 40.8 years (range 20-65 years) were included in the study. Patients with Gustilo-Anderson grade IIIC fractures and those managed with non-locking modalities were excluded. In total, 70.6% (n = 24) of the fractures were Type IIIA and 55.9% (n = 19) were AO/OTA Type C3 fractures. In 23.5% (n = 8) patients, knee spanning external fixator was applied initially before definitive fixation. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 11.6 months (range 8-22.5 months). Functional outcome was evaluated using Sanders Score.

Results: In the primary plating group, 69.2% (n = 18) fractures united at an average of 27 weeks (range 21-40 weeks), while eight patients had non-union and required bone grafting. All eight patients with external fixator underwent lateral locked plating with bone grafting and united at an average time of 39.6 weeks (range 31-50 weeks). There were two cases each of infection and screw failure. The final mean Sanders Score was 30.1 (range19-40) with 73.5% (n = 25) patients having good to excellent functional outcomes.

Conclusions: Lateral locking plates offer excellent stability to allow fracture union in open distal femoral fractures. A proactive approach to identify and manage potential healing difficulties is advisable to promote bone healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-019-04347-5DOI Listing
April 2020

Soft tissue complications in distal tibial fractures managed with medial locking plates: A myth or reality?

J Clin Orthop Trauma 2017 Nov 3;8(Suppl 2):S90-S95. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Department of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Tagore Nagar, Ludhiana 141001, India.

Background: Distal tibial fractures are common injuries that are prone to complications and require careful management. The use of medial periarticular locking plates is an established modality in the treatment if these fractures. These plates are inserted using the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) or open technique. Our study looks at the soft tissue complications associated with the use of medial locking plates in the management of these fractures.

Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary care university hospital in an urban setting. Forty four patients with distal tibia fractures treated with periarticular locking plates during a three year period were included in the study. Both closed and open fractures were included while those with an established non-union were excluded. Patient data related to inpatient stay, outpatient visits as well as readmissions was extracted from hospital records and analysed. Spanning external fixation was done if necessary and definitive fixation was done using medial locking plates with either MIPO technique or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with biological technique. The sub cohort of patients with soft tissue complications was compared to the parent group.

Results: The study group included 44 patients (28M:16F) with 45 fractures with a median age of 42.6 years (range 18-65 years) followed up for a mean of 9.2 months (range 5-20 months). Domestic falls were the cause of injury in 61.4% (n = 27) of the fractures. The average time to union was 26.2 weeks (range 12-66 weeks). Out of these 45 fractures, soft tissue complications were seen in 22.2% of cases (n = 10) with road side accidents seen in 60% (n = 6) of cases. In four patients, there was difficulty in achieving primary wound closure and in five other cases wound dehiscence with exposure of implant was seen within 12 to 30 days of surgery. One patient required secondary suturing after readjustment for malreduction. No statistically significant difference was found in the parent cohort and the sub cohort with soft tissue complications with respect to the use of spanning external fixator, MIPO/ORIF technique or fibular fixation.

Conclusion: The incidence of soft tissue complications with the use of medial locking plates in distal tibial fractures may be more than what is currently reported in literature and further studies are required to shed more light on this subject.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2017.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5681229PMC
November 2017

Endovascular management of traumatic pseudoaneurysm: Short & long term outcomes.

J Clin Orthop Trauma 2017 Jul-Sep;8(3):276-280. Epub 2017 May 30.

Department of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana, 233-F Rishi Nagar, Ludhiana, Punjab, 141001, India.

Background: Pseudoaneurysms as result of orthopaedic injuries are a known clinical entity. But with increase in operative interventions and use of implants, its incidence is bound to increase. It is important to detect this complication at the earliest to avoid any limb or life threatening problems. Selective angiography is a minimally invasive technique to pin point the diagnosis and at the same time allow for therapeutic embolization/stenting of the pseudo aneurysm.

Methods: A retrospective review of inpatients from January 2007 to January 2013 requiring transarterial embolization/stenting for pseudoaneurysm in the limbs. All patients had evidence of pseudoaneurysm as proved by radiological findings. Angiographic intervention in a cath lab was performed, following which patients were monitored for morbidity and mortality benefits on short and long term follow up.

Results: Out of the total 13 patients; 7 adults and 1 child underwent embolisation with polyvinyl alcohol particle/soft metal coil, whereas the remaining 5 adults underwent revascularisation with covered stent. The mean age of patients in our case series was 41.92 ± 18.89 years. The mean follow up period of the group was 14.61 ± 12.21 months. All but one patients showed significant clinical improvement with endovascular management with no procedure related mortality.

Conclusion: Endovascular management is the modality of choice in comparison to other procedures for traumatic pseudoaneurysms in both paediatric and adult patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2017.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605740PMC
May 2017

Outcome of anatomic locking plate in extraarticular distal humeral shaft fractures.

Indian J Orthop 2017 Jan-Feb;51(1):86-92

Department of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background: Extraarticular fractures of distal humerus are challenging injuries to treat because of complex anatomy and fracture patterns. Functional bracing may not provide adequate stability in these injuries and operative treatment with intramedullary nails or conventional plates also has the limitation of inadequate fixation in the short distal fragment. The 3.5 mm precontoured single column locking plate (extraarticular distal humerus plate [EADHP]) has been introduced to overcome this problem. We evaluated the clinical and functional outcomes of treating these fractures with the EADHP.

Materials And Methods: 26 patients with extraarticular fractures of distal humerus presenting within 3 weeks of injury between January 2012 and June 2015, were included in this prospective study. Open IIIB and IIIC fractures, nonunions, or those with a history of previous infection in the arm were excluded. Operative fixation was done using the EADHP in all the cases. The time for union, range of motion at shoulder and elbow and secondary procedures were recorded in followup. The shoulder and elbow function was assessed using the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scale and Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) respectively.

Results: There were 21 males and 5 females with mean age of 37.3 years (range 18-72 years). Twenty two (84.6%) cases had complex fracture patterns (AO/OTA Type 12-B and C). The mean time to fracture union was 22.4 weeks (range 16-28 weeks). The mean followup time was 11.6 months, (range 4-24 months). Four patients (15.4%) had failure of cortical screws in the proximal fracture fragment, of which two required revision fixation with bone grafting. Another nonunion was seen following a surgical site infection, which healed after wound lavage and bone grafting. The MEPS (average: 96.1; range 80-100) was excellent in 81% cases ( = 21) and good in 19% cases ( = 5). UCLA score (average: 33.5; range 25-35) was good/excellent in 88.5% cases ( = 23) and fair in 11.5% cases ( = 3).

Conclusion: EADHP is a reliable option in treating extraarticular distal humeral fractures as it provides stable fixation with an early return to function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5413.197554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5296854PMC
February 2017

Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Corticosteroid, and Placebo.

Orthopedics 2016 Mar-Apr;39(2):e285-9. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. It is a disabling disease in its chronic form. It is a degenerative tissue condition of the plantar fascia rather than an inflammation. Various treatment options are available, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, orthosis, and physiotherapy. This study compared the effects of local platelet-rich plasma, corticosteroid, and placebo injections in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. In this double-blind study, patients were divided randomly into 3 groups. Local injections of platelet-rich plasma, corticosteroid, or normal saline were given. Patients were assessed with the visual analog scale for pain and with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle and Hindfoot score before injection, at 3 weeks, and at 3-month follow-up. Mean visual analog scale score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups decreased from 7.44 and 7.72 preinjection to 2.52 and 3.64 at final follow-up, respectively. Mean AOFAS score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups improved from 51.56 and 55.72 preinjection to 88.24 and 81.32 at final follow-up, respectively. There was a significant improvement in visual analog scale score and AOFAS score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups at 3 weeks and at 3-month follow-up. There was no significant improvement in visual analog scale score or AOFAS score in the placebo group at any stage of the study. The authors concluded that local injection of platelet-rich plasma or corticosteroid is an effective treatment option for chronic plantar fasciitis. Platelet-rich plasma injection is as effective as or more effective than corticosteroid injection in treating chronic plantar fasciitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20160222-01DOI Listing
November 2016

Early Results of a Geriatric Hip Fracture Program in India for Femoral Neck Fracture.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2015 Mar;6(1):42-6

Department of Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Geriatric hip fractures are a challenging clinical problem throughout the world. Hip fracture services have been shown to shorten time to surgery, decrease the cost of admissions, and improve the outcomes. We instituted a geriatric hip fracture program for comanagement of these injuries by orthopedic and internal medicine teams at our hospital in India. From January 2010 till December 2011, 119 patients with a femoral neck fracture were treated with cemented modular hemiarthroplasty under this program using a cost-effective Indian implant. The cohort included 63 males and 56 females with a mean age of 70.7 years (range 55-98 years). Hypertension (n = 42) and diabetes mellitus (n = 29) were the most common comorbidities. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 37 months with an average of 24 months. The surgery was performed within 24 hours of admission in 60.5% (n = 72) patients. The use of antiplatelet drugs was the most common reason for delay of surgery. The mean length of hospital stay was 10.4 days (range 3-24 days) with 77% (n = 92) of patients discharged within 1 week of admission. On follow-up, good to excellent Harris hip scores were seen in 88% of patients with 76% of patients returning to the preinjury ambulatory status. The mortality rate was 6% at 6 months follow-up and 10.9% at 2 years. Our study shows that a hip fracture program can be instituted in India. The program helped us in achieving the goal of early surgery, mobilization, and discharge from hospital with decreased mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2151458514567314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4318811PMC
March 2015

Early reimplantation for open total talar extrusion.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2014 Dec;22(3):304-8

Department of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Purpose: To review outcome of early reimplantation for open total talar extrusion in 7 patients.

Methods: Medical records of 5 men and 2 women aged 19 to 53 years who underwent reimplantation for open total talar extrusion within 6 hours after road traffic accident (n= 6) or industrial injury (n=1) were reviewed. The talus was first irrigated with 9 to 10 litres of saline solution, followed by 10% povidone iodine. It was then reduced after thorough debridement and fixed with tension band wiring or external fixation. Ankle mobilisation exercises were started at week 6 and full weight bearing at week 14. Outcome was assessed using the American Foot And Ankle Society score.

Results: After a mean follow-up of 31.9 (range, 24-46) months, the mean American Foot and Ankle Society score was 81, and the mean dorsiflexion-plantar flexion arc was 36.9º (range, 25º-45º). All patients were able to walk with a balanced, unaided gait with mild-to-moderate pain (n=3) or pain-free (n=4). No patient developed deep infection or instability. Three patients developed avascular necrosis of the talus; restriction of motion was moderate at the ankle joint and severe at the subtalar joint. None of these 3 patients opted for revision surgery, as the pain was tolerable and did not limit their daily activities, but their condition was expected to deteriorate with time.

Conclusion: Early reimplantation is recommended for open total talar extrusion, as it restores (to some extent) hind foot mechanics, heel height, and bone stock for activities of daily living and future reconstructive options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/230949901402200307DOI Listing
December 2014

Open posterior dislocation of hip in a 6-year-old boy: a rare case report.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2015 Jul;24(4):296-8

aDepartment of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana Departments of bOrthopaedics cPediatrics, GGS Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

Open hip dislocation in pediatric patients is a rare injury. Open posterior dislocation because of soft tissue damage is unstable after reduction. There is no treatment protocol in the literature for this injury in pediatric patients. We treated a 6-year-old boy presented with open posterior hip dislocation. Thorough debridement was performed and antibiotics were administered to prevent infection, and fixation of reduction with Kirschner-wires (K-wires) was performed. Nonthreaded K-wires were used under an image intensifier to minimize the risk of physeal injury. A hip spica cast was used to prevent the breakage of K-wires into the joint because of movements at the hip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000128DOI Listing
July 2015

Dorsally comminuted fractures of the distal end of the radius: osteosynthesis with volar fixed angle locking plates.

ISRN Orthop 2013 8;2013:131757. Epub 2013 May 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Punjab, Ludhiana 141001, India.

Background. Dorsally comminuted distal radius fractures are unstable fractures and represent a treatment challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcome of dorsally comminuted fractures of the distal radius fixed with a volar locking plate. Patients and Methods. Thirty-three consecutive patients with dorsally comminuted fractures of the distal end of the radius were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with AO 2.4 mm (n = 19)/3.5 mm (n = 14) volar locking distal radius plate (Synthes, Switzerland, marketed by Synthes India Pvt. Ltd.). There were 7 type A3, 8 type C2, and 18 type C3 fractures. The patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Subjective assessment was done as per Disabilities Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Functional evaluation was done by measuring grip strength and range of motion around the wrist; the radiological determinants were radial angle, radial length, volar angle, and ulnar variance. The final assessment was done as per Demerit point system of Saito. Results. There were 23 males and 10 females with an average age of 44.12 ± 18.63 years (18-61 years). Clinicoradiological consolidation of the fracture was observed in all cases at a mean of 9.6 weeks (range 7-12 weeks). The average final extension was 58.15° ± 7.83°, flexion was 54.62° ± 11.23°, supination was 84.23° ± 6.02°, and pronation was 80.92° ± 5.54°. Demerit point system of Saito yielded excellent results in 79% (n = 26), good in 18% (n = 6), and fair in 3% (n = 1) patients. Three patients had loss of reduction but none of the patients had tendon irritation or ruptures, implant failure, or nonunion at the end of an one-year followup. Conclusion. Volar locking plate fixation for dorsally comminuted distal radius fractures results in good to excellent functional outcomes despite a high incidence of loss of reduction and fracture collapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/131757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4045357PMC
June 2014

Outcome in patients with an infected nonunion of the long bones treated with a reinforced antibiotic bone cement rod.

J Orthop Trauma 2012 Mar;26(3):184-8

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab (India).

Objectives: This study looks at the treatment of 16 cases of infection in long bone fractures that had an adverse effect on healing. The goal was to find a method that may be effective in getting these most difficult injuries to heal. The use of reinforced antibiotic-impregnated bone cement rods was studied to see if this could be an effective form of treatment. The use of such devices makes sense because they provide stability that the fractures need for healing while also providing a high concentration of antibiotics locally. The concept was to reduce the amount of metal used for stability while still giving the fracture the correct milieu for healing.

Design: This was a retrospective analysis of 16 patients with infected nonunions of long bones. A protocol for the use of intravenous and per oral antibiotics was developed based on the type of bacteria found from cultures of the infected sites. All cases included operative débridement and stabilization with a reinforced antibiotic-impregnated bone cement rod.

Patients: The patient population was selected from all those who presented to the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, India.

Main Outcome: Success was considered when the nonunion healed and the limb became functional.

Results: The infected nonunions were treated successfully in 14 of 16 cases. This represents an alternative to external fixation alone as a means of stabilizing nonunions while providing a high concentration of antibiotic locally for combating this most difficult problem.

Conclusions: The use of reinforced antibiotic-impregnated bone cement rods with appropriate surgical débridement and antibiotics may be an effective way of treating infected nonunions of long bones.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See page 128 for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0b013e318225f77cDOI Listing
March 2012

A technique for removal of broken cannulated drill bit: Bassi's method.

J Orthop Trauma 2008 Jan;22(1):56-8

Department of Orthopaedics, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India.

Broken drill bits constitute the largest proportion of broken orthopedic instruments. We report a new technique which allows atraumatic removal of cannulated drill bits. The technique is simple and does not require any special instrumentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0b013e318156c288DOI Listing
January 2008

[A modified flap technique as an alternate procedure for open Achilles tendon repair (the Bassi Method)].

Oper Orthop Traumatol 2006 Jun;18(2):171-81

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, 914/5A Tagore Nagar, Civil Lines, Ludhiana (Punjab), Pin-141001, India.

Objective: Repair of acute and remote ruptures of the tendo Achillis by a modified open technique to reduce wound healing complications and the incidence of reruptures.

Indications: Acute and remote ruptures of the tendo Achillis in diabetic patients and those with any underlying local or systemic conditions that may delay skin healing or predispose to wound dehiscence. This technique is also helpful in instances of a large dehiscence of the ruptured tendon stumps.

Contraindications: Medically unfit patients. Noncompliant patients. Local skin infection. Severe neuropathy.

Surgical Technique: Two longitudinal skin incisions made proximal and distal to the site of rupture leaving a bridge of skin over the site of tendon tear. One lateral and one medial strip are fashioned from the proximal stump. The strips are passed under the skin bridge and sutured to the distal stump with the foot in plantar flexion.

Postoperative Management: Below-knee cast for 6 weeks.

Results: Report of eleven patients (seven men, four women). No re-rupture or local wound complications. All but one patient returned to their prerupture activity level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00064-006-1169-zDOI Listing
June 2006
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