Publications by authors named "Pankaj Kumar"

637 Publications

Dithiophosphonate Anchored Heterometallic (Ag(I)/Fe(II)) Molecular Catalysts for Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

Inorg Chem 2022 Aug 12. Epub 2022 Aug 12.

Department of Chemistry, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda 151401, India.

The dichalcogenide ligated molecules in catalysis to produce molecular hydrogen through electroreduction of water are rarely explored. Here, a series of heterometallic [Ag(SPFc(OR)] [where Fc = Fe(η-CH)(η-CH), R = Me, ; Et, ; Pr, ; Amyl, ] clusters were synthesized and characterized by IR, absorption spectroscopy, NMR (H, P), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The molecular structures of , , and clusters were established by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. The structural elucidation shows that each triangular face of a tetrahedral silver(I) core is capped by a ferrocenyl dithiophosphonate ligand in a trimetallic triconnective (η; μ, μ) pattern. A comparative electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction of - (R = Pr, ) was studied in order to demonstrate the potential of these clusters in water splitting activity. The experimental results reveal that catalytic performance decreases with increases in the length of the carbon chain and branching within the alkoxy (-OR) group of these clusters. Catalytic durability was found effective even after 8 h of a chronoamperometric stability test along with 1500 cycles of linear sweep voltammetry performance, and only 15 mV overpotential was increased at 5 mA/cm current density for cluster . A catalytic mechanism was proposed by applying density functional theory (DFT) on clusters and as a representative. Here, a μ coordinated S-site between Ag core and ligand was found a reaction center. The experimental results are also in good accordance with the DFT analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01281DOI Listing
August 2022

Intrinsic Folding Properties of the HLA-B27 Heavy Chain Revealed by Single Chain Trimer Versions of Peptide-Loaded Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules.

Front Immunol 2022 25;13:902135. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Peptide-loaded Major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC) class I molecules can be expressed in a single chain trimeric (SCT) format, composed of a specific peptide fused to the light chain beta-2 microglobulin (β2m) and MHC class I heavy chain (HC) by flexible linker peptides. pMHC SCTs have been used as effective molecular tools to investigate cellular immunity and represent a promising vaccine platform technology, due to their intracellular folding and assembly which is apparently independent of host cell folding pathways and chaperones. However, certain MHC class I HC molecules, such as the Human Leukocyte Antigen B27 (HLA-B27) allele, present a challenge due to their tendency to form HC aggregates. We constructed a series of single chain trimeric molecules to determine the behaviour of the HLA-B27 HC in a scenario that usually allows for efficient MHC class I molecule folding. When stably expressed, a pMHC SCT incorporating HLA-B27 HC formed chaperone-bound homodimers within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A series of HLA-B27 SCT substitution mutations revealed that the F pocket and antigen binding groove regions of the HLA-B27 HC defined the folding and dimerisation of the single chain complex, independently of the peptide sequence. Furthermore, pMHC SCTs can demonstrate variability in their association with the intracellular antigen processing machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.902135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9359109PMC
July 2022

Physical Activity in Stage III Colon Cancer: CALGB/SWOG 80702 (Alliance).

J Clin Oncol 2022 Aug 9:JCO2200171. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Dana-Farber/Partners CancerCare, Boston, MA.

Purpose: To determine the specific types, durations, and intensities of recreational physical activity associated with the greatest improvements in disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with colon cancer.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized multicenter trial of stage III colon cancer that compared 3 versus 6 months of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin with or without celecoxib. We measured recreational physical activity in the first 3 months of chemotherapy and again 6 months after completion of chemotherapy. The primary end point was DFS.

Results: During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 457 of 1,696 patients experienced disease recurrence or death. For total recreational physical activity volume, the 3-year DFS was 76.5% with < 3.0 metabolic equivalent task hours per week (MET-h/wk) and 87.1% with ≥ 18.0 MET-h/wk (risk difference [RD], 10.6%; 95% CI, 4.7 to 19.4; < .001). For light-intensity to moderate-intensity activities, the 3-year DFS was 65.7% with 0.0 h/wk and 87.1% with ≥ 1.5 h/wk (RD, 21.4%; 95% CI, 9.2 to 37.1; < .001). For vigorous-intensity activity, the 3-year DFS was 76.0% with 0.0 h/wk and 86.0% with ≥ 1.0 h/wk (RD, 10.0%; 95% CI, 4.5 to 18.9; < .001). For brisk walking, the 3-year DFS was 81.7% with < 1.0 h/wk and 88.4% with ≥ 3.0 h/wk (RD, 6.7%; 95% CI, 3.0 to 13.8; < .001). For muscle strengthening activity, the 3-year DFS was 81.8% with 0.0 h/wk and 88.8% for ≥ 0.5 h/wk (RD, 7.0%; 95% CI, 3.1 to 14.2; = .003).

Conclusion: Among patients with stage III colon cancer enrolled in a trial of postoperative treatment, larger volumes of recreational physical activity, longer durations of light- to moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, or any vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity were associated with the greatest improvements in DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.22.00171DOI Listing
August 2022

Where Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Die: Insights from the CDC-WONDER Database: Location of Death in ACHD.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2022 Jul 30:101344. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) is rapidly increasing. There is limited understanding of location of death and associated disparities in these patients.

Methods: From 2005-2018, a trend-level analysis was performed using death certificate data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ONline Data for Epidemiologic Research database, with individual-level mortality data obtained from National Center for Heath Statistics. Places of death were classified as hospital, home, hospice facility, nursing home/long-term care and other.

Results: A total of 15,507 total deaths were identified in ACHD from 2005-2018 (54% Male, 84% White). ACHD patients were more likely to die in the hospital (64%) compared to general population (41%). Younger decedents (20-34) with ACHD were more likely to die in the hospital, while older decedents (≥65) were more likely to die at Hospice/Nursing facilities. Black and Hispanic patients with ACHD were more likely to die in the hospital compared to White and non-Hispanic patients.

Conclusions: A significantly large proportion of ACHD deaths are observed in younger patients and occur in inpatient facilities. End-of-life planning among socially vulnerable populations should be prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101344DOI Listing
July 2022

Chemometric approach to evaluate the chemical behavior of rainwater at high altitude in Shaune Garang catchment, Western Himalaya.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 27;12(1):12774. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, Bihar, India.

The present research has been performed to analyze the chemical behavior of rainwater of the Shaune Garang catchment (32.19° N, 78.20° E) in the Baspa basin, located at a high elevation (4221 m above mean sea level) in the Himachal Himalaya, India. During the study period, sixteen rainwater samples were collected from the Shaune Garang catchment at five different sites. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH value of rainwater ranged between 4.59 and 6.73, with an average value of 5.47 ± 0.69, indicating the alkaline nature of rainfall. The total ionic strength in the rainwater ranged from 113.4 to 263.3 µeq/l with an average value of 169.1 ± 40.4 µeq/l. The major dominant cations were Ca (43.10%) and Na (31.97%) and anions were Cl (37.68%), SO (28.71%) and NO (23.85%) in rainwater. The ionic ratios were calculated among all the ions. The fraction of (NO  +Cl) with SO was measured as 2.3, which specifies sour faces of rainwater due to HNO, HSO, and HCl. A multivariate statistical assessment of rainwater chemistry through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows the significance of four factors controlling 78.37% of the total variance, including four-component (PC1 explained 27.89%, PC2 explained 24.98%, PC3 explained 14.64%, PC4 explained 10.85%). However, the individual contribution of Factor 1(PC1) explains 27.89% of the total variance (78.37%) and displays a strong optimistic loading for Ca and Cl. Further, high loading of Ca and NO and moderate loading of SO signify the contribution of burning fossil fuel and soil dust. Anthropogenic and natural pollutants influence the composition of rainwater in the pristine Himalayas due to local and long-distance transportation. The study area receives precipitation from the West and North-West, transporting dust and fossil fuel emissions from the Thar Desert and Northwestern countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-15422-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329433PMC
July 2022

Biodistribution Analysis of an Anti-EGFR Antibody in the Rat Brain: Validation of CSF Microcirculation as a Viable Pathway to Circumvent the Blood-Brain Barrier for Drug Delivery.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Jul 12;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 12.

AbbVie Inc., 1 N Waukegan Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microcirculation refers to CSF flow through brain or spinal parenchyma. CSF enters the tissue along the perivascular spaces of the penetrating arteries where it mixes with the interstitial fluid circulating through the extracellular space. The potential of harnessing CSF microcirculation for drug delivery to deep areas of the brain remains an area of controversy. This paper sheds additional light on this debate by showing that ABT-806, an EGFR-specific humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), reaches both the cortical and the deep subcortical layers of the rat brain following intra-cisterna magna (ICM) injection. This is significant because the molecular weight of this mAb (150 kDa) is highest among proteins reported to have penetrated deeply into the brain via the CSF route. This finding further confirms the potential of CSF circulation as a drug delivery system for a large subset of molecules offering promise for the treatment of various brain diseases with poor distribution across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). ABT-806 is the parent antibody of ABT-414, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) developed to engage EGFR-overexpressing glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cells. To pave the way for future efficacy studies for the treatment of GBM with an intra-CSF administered ADC consisting of a conjugate of ABT-806 (or of one of its close analogs), we verified in vivo the binding of ABT-414 to GBM tumor cells implanted in the cisterna magna and collected toxicity data from both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. The current study supports further exploration of harnessing CSF microcirculation as an alternative to systemic delivery to achieve higher brain tissue exposure, while reducing previously reported ocular toxicity with ABT-414.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9324388PMC
July 2022

Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment of Cadmium Accumulation in Three Mushroom Species Collected from Wild Habitats of Central and Coastal Croatia.

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Jun 29;8(7). Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

This study deals with the biomonitoring of cadmium (Cd) heavy metal in the three selected mushroom species collected from wild habitats of central and coastal Croatia. For this, mushroom (: = 38, : = 35, and : = 34) and surface soil samples were collected from nine forest localities of Croatia and analyzed for Cd concentration using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) through the acid digestion method. The findings revealed that Cd was present in spp. and surface soil. However, the maximum mean Cd concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was recorded in (cap: 0.98; stipe: 0.72), followed by (cap: 0.96; stipe: 0.73) and (cap: 0.81; stipe: 0.63). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) value (>1) revealed that the selected spp. had the potential for Cd accumulation. Moreover, the principal component (PC) and hierarchical cluster (HC) analyses were used to derive the interactions and similarities between Cd levels spp. and sampling localities. The multivariate analysis suggested that central sampling localities had higher Cd levels as compared to coastal localities. However, the daily intake of metals (DIM < 0.426) and health risk index (HRI < 1) showed that there was no potential health risk associated with the consumption of selected spp. The findings of this study are helpful to understand the Cd accumulation behavior of wild edible spp. collected from Croatia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof8070685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317900PMC
June 2022

Authors' reply to Reed.

BMJ 2022 07 26;378:o1871. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.o1871DOI Listing
July 2022

Multiepitope-based vaccine design by exploring antigenic potential among leptospiral lipoproteins using comprehensive immunoinformatics and structure-based approaches.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Leptospirosis is a tropical and globally neglected zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes, Leptospira. Although the disease has been studied for decades, a potent or effective vaccine is not available so far. Efforts are being made to design an efficient vaccine candidate using different approaches. Immunoinformatics approaches have been proven to be promising in terms of time and cost. Here, we used immunoinformatics and structure-based approaches to evaluate antigenic B- and T-cell epitopes present on the leptospiral lipoproteins (LipL). The promiscuous overlapping epitopes (B-cell, T-cell, interferon (IFN)-γ positive, and non-allergens), which can induce humoral, cell-mediated, and innate immunity, were selected to generate a multiepitope chimeric vaccine. To enhance the vaccine immunogenicity, a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist was fused to the vaccine with a suitable linker. The chimeric vaccine structure was predicted for molecular docking studies with immune receptors. Moreover, the stability of the vaccine-immune receptor complexes was analyzed by normal mode analysis (NMA). The potency of the vaccine construct was predicted by the immune simulation tool. The study provides additional information toward constructing peptide-based chimeric vaccines  against Leptospira.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.2389DOI Listing
July 2022

Author Correction: Growth Kinetics, Metabolites Production and Expression Profiling of Picrosides Biosynthetic Pathway Genes in Friable Callus Culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-021-03638-1DOI Listing
July 2022

Comparison of percutaneous tracheostomy methods in ICU patients: Conventional anatomical landmark method versus ultrasonography method - A randomised controlled trial.

Indian J Anaesth 2022 Jun 6;66(Suppl 4):S207-S212. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

Background And Aims: Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) is a common procedure in intensive care unit (ICU) patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation. PDT has gradually replaced surgical tracheostomy because it is associated with minimal invasiveness, reduced bleeding and simplicity in technique.This study was conducted to compare ultrasound-guided PDT versus conventional tracheostomy in terms of duration of the procedure, number of passes and immediate peri-procedural complications.

Methods: A total of 72 patients with clinical indications of tracheostomy were recruited. A total of 12 patients met the exclusion criteria. The remaining were randomly assigned into two groups of 30 each: Group A (Landmark) with traditional anatomical landmark and Group B (USG) with real-time ultrasound guidance. Puncture positions were recorded with bronchoscopy. Midline deviation was captured on a bronchoscopy image using a protractor. Data on procedural safety and efficacy were also collected.

Results: Group B had significantly fewer cases of midline deviation (11.33 ± 9.51) in comparison to Group A (16.60 ± 12.31). Trials > 2 were equal to 11 in Group A and 2 in Group B. However, the duration of the procedure was higher in Group B (20.07 ± 3.25 min) as compared to Group A (15.20 ± 3.71 min). Peri-procedural and post-procedural complications were also higher in the Landmark group.

Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided PDT showed superiority over landmark PDT in terms of less number of trials, midline puncture and fewer complications. However, it took a little longer to perform USG-guided PDT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.ija_41_22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298938PMC
June 2022

Weed germinable seedbanks of rice-wheat systems in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains: Do tillage and edaphic factors explain community variation?

Weed Res 2021 Dec 23;61(6):475-485. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

CIMMYT South Asia Regional office Kathmandu Nepal.

Zero tillage (ZT) is widely promoted throughout India's Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) because of its potential to increase wheat productivity and resilience to abiotic stresses. Weeds remain a major barrier to ZT adoption, yet it remains unclear how ZT will influence weed communities in the Eastern-IGP. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the composition of the germinable weed seedbank sampled just prior to the wheat phase of rice-wheat farms in Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh, and examine whether adoption of ZT wheat has shifted weed community composition compared to conventional tillage (CT). Additionally, we examined whether edaphic properties and topography (upland vs. lowland) explain variation in germinable weed seedbank communities. In December 2014, we evaluated the germinable seedbank from 72 fields differing in their historic (>=3 year) tillage practices (ZT vs. CT) in three regions: Samastipur-Vaishali-Muzaffarpur (SVM), Ara-Buxar and Maharajgunj-Kushinagar. Weed community composition and species richness varied by region and topography. ZT adoption was associated with lower relative density of in the germinable seedbank and lower emergence of seedlings within farmers' fields. In upland topographies of the SVM region, ZT adoption was also associated with greater relative abundance of in the weed seedbank. However, differences between tillage systems in individual species were not large enough to result in detection of differences at the whole-community level. Variation in edaphic properties, most notably soil texture and pH, explained 51% of the variation in the weed seedbank community. Our work suggests several frequent but poorly understood species (e.g. and ) in Eastern IGP for which future research should quantify their effects on crop yields. Finally, future work surveying weed species abundance at harvest could further determine the dominant problematic species in these regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wre.12505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9290468PMC
December 2021

Assessment of the psoas muscle changes following the oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) approach: A prospective observational study.

J Orthop 2022 Sep-Oct;33:60-65. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Orthopedics, AIIMS Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751019, India.

Background: Traditional open posterior fusion techniques involve stripping of the posterior paraspinal muscles with protracted retraction, which can lead to ischemia and denervation. This may result in poor clinical outcomes despite a well-performed surgery. Oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) is a minimally invasive modified retroperitoneal anterior approach in the corridor between the psoas major (PM) and great vessels. The purpose of this research was to study changes in psoas properties and clinical outcomes in terms of the loss of hip flexion in patients undergoing OLIF surgery.

Methods: Patients with lumbar pathologies who underwent instrumented OLIF at our center were included. These patients were examined clinically at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. The Oswestry disability index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back pain and leg pain were noted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively (minimum 6 months) to compare the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the PM.

Results: In total, 17 patients (male: female = 8:9) with a mean age of 46.06 ± 10.49 years were included. The operation time was 154.94 ± 32.33 min, estimated blood loss was 190 ± 56 mL, and mean CSAs of the right and left psoas were, respectively, 9.94 ± 3.19 and 10.65 ± 3.74 cm preoperatively and 10.00 ± 3.06 and 8.53 ± 2.81 cm at follow-up. Qualitative measurements revealed that muscle atrophy on the left side (approach side) was 19.12% ± 3.14% and fatty degeneration had occurred in 13 of 17 (76.5%) patients. Postoperatively, all patients had significant improvement in the VAS (back and leg) and ODI scores. Furthermore, 3 of 17 (17.6%) patients had mild hip weakness (4/5) on the left side immediately postoperatively, but it resolved in 6 months. Moreover, 2 of 17 (11.8%) patients complained of paraesthesia.

Conclusion: OLIF does cause injury to the PM but it is clinically insignificant according to MRI scans and clinical evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2022.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9294652PMC
July 2022

Integrated remote sensing and field-based approach to assess the temporal evolution and future projection of meanders: A case study on River Manu in North-Eastern India.

PLoS One 2022 20;17(7):e0271190. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan.

A common phenomenon associated with alluvial rivers is their meander evolution, eventually forming cutoffs. Point bar deposits and ox-bow lakes are the products of lateral bend migration and meander cutoff. The present study focuses on identifying the meanders of River Manu and their cutoffs. Moreover, this study compares the temporal evolution and predicts the progress of selected meanders of River Manu. In the present research, the Survey of India topographical map, satellite imagery, and geographic information system (GIS) technique were used to examine the evolution of the Manu River meander. Subsequently, a field visit was done to the selected cutoffs and meanders of River Manu to ascertain the present status and collect data. It has been observed that many cutoffs have undergone temporal changes, and their sizes have decreased. Some have become dried or converted to agricultural fields. The width of River Manu has decreased in all the selected bends from 1932 to 2017. The sinuosity index has changed from 2.04 (1932) to 1.90 (2017), and the length of the river has decreased by 7 km in 85 years (1932-2017). The decrease in length is evident from lowering the number of meanders. Uniformity coefficient and coefficient of curvature of the bank soil samples were calculated, indicating that the soil is poorly graded and falls under the cohesionless category. Based on cross-section analysis, sediment discharge, grain-size analysis of the bank material, channel planform change, and radius of curvature, it can be stated that almost all the selected bends have the probability of future cutoff. The highest probabilities were observed in bend 3 (Jalai) and bend 4 (Chhontail). This work is aimed to provide planners with decisions regarding the construction of roads and bridges in areas that show the huge dynamicity of river meandering.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0271190PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9299336PMC
July 2022

Fruit ripening specific expression of β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex) gene in tomato is transcriptionally regulated by ethylene response factor SlERF.E4.

Plant Sci 2022 Jul 14;323:111380. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India. Electronic address:

N-glycans and N-glycan processing enzymes are key players in regulating the ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits, a model for fleshy fruit ripening. β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex) is a N-glycan processing enzyme involved in fruit ripening. The suppression of β-Hex results in enhanced fruit shelf life and firmness in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Previously, we have shown that ripening specific expression of β-Hex is regulated by RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING 1 (SlASR1) and ethylene. However, the precise mechanism of ethylene-mediated regulation of β-Hex remains elusive. To gain insights into this, we have performed 5' deletion mapping of tomato β-Hex promoter and a shorter promoter fragment (pD-200, 200 bp upstream to translational start site) is identified, which was found critical for spatio-temporal transcriptional regulation of β-Hex. Further, site specific mutagenesis in RIN and ASR1 binding sites in pD-200 provides key insights into ripening specific promoter activity. Furthermore, induction of GUS activity by ethylene, yeast one hybrid assay and EMSA identify Ethylene Response Factor SlERF.E4 as a positive regulator of β-Hex. Taken together, our study suggest that SlERF.E4 together with RIN and SlASR1 transcriptionally regulates β-Hex and all these three proteins are essential for fruit ripening specific expression of β-Hex in tomato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2022.111380DOI Listing
July 2022

Characterization of novel nuclease and protease activities among Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2022 09 9;727:109349. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address:

Bacterial immunoglobulin-like (BIg) domain containing proteins play a variety of biological functions. Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are well-known virulence factors located on the surface of the pathogenic Leptospira that act during adhesion, invasion, and immune evasion. The Lig proteins have many roles and have been designated as multifaceted proteins. However, the hydrolyzing function of Lig proteins is not yet investigated in detail. Here, we report novel in-vitro nuclease and protease activities in the Ig-like domain of LigA protein. All Ig-like domains were able to cleave DNA in the presence of a divalent ion, but not RNA. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed Mg binding residues in the Ig-like domain of LigA7. The basis of novel nuclease activity may be associated with protein adopting different conformation in the presence of divalent ions and substrate as investigated by change of intrinsic fluorescence. The docking of a stretch of double-strand DNA shows the binding on the positive surface of the protein. In addition, the protein is also observed to cleave a general protease substrate, β-casein, in our experimental condition. Our results proposed that the novel functions may be associated with neutrophil extracellular Trap (NET) evasion. Overall this study enhances the basic knowledge of non-nuclease proteins involved in the DNA cleavage activity and makes the foundation to explore its in-vivo activity in pathogenic Leptospira and other pathogens as well. Moreover, this information may be utilized to develop preventive strategies to interfere with Leptospira immune evasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2022.109349DOI Listing
September 2022

Genome-wide identification and in silico analysis of NPF, NRT2, CLC and SLAC1/SLAH nitrate transporters in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum).

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 3;12(1):11227. Epub 2022 Jul 3.

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Nitrogen transport is one of the most important processes in plants mediated by specialized transmembrane proteins. Plants have two main systems for nitrogen uptake from soil and its transport within the system-a low-affinity transport system and a high-affinity transport system. Nitrate transporters are of special interest in cereal crops because large amount of money is spent on N fertilizers every year to enhance the crop productivity. Till date four gene families of nitrate transporter proteins; NPF (nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family), NRT2 (nitrate transporter 2 family), the CLC (chloride channel family), and the SLAC/SLAH (slow anion channel-associated homologues) have been reported in plants. In our study, in silico mining of nitrate transporter genes along with their detailed structure, phylogenetic and expression analysis was carried out. A total of 412 nitrate transporter genes were identified in hexaploid wheat genome using HMMER based homology searches in IWGSC Refseq v2.0. Out of those twenty genes were root specific, 11 leaf/shoot specific and 17 genes were grain/spike specific. The identification of nitrate transporter genes in the close proximity to the previously identified 67 marker-traits associations associated with the nitrogen use efficiency related traits in nested synthetic hexaploid wheat introgression library indicated the robustness of the reported transporter genes. The detailed crosstalk between the genome and proteome and the validation of identified putative candidate genes through expression and gene editing studies may lay down the foundation to improve nitrogen use efficiency of cereal crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-15202-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9250930PMC
July 2022

A Prospective Review on Selectable Marker-Free Genome Engineered Rice: Past, Present and Future Scientific Realm.

Front Genet 2022 9;13:882836. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

As a staple food crop, rice has gained mainstream attention in genome engineering for its genetic improvement. Genome engineering technologies such as transgenic and genome editing have enabled the significant improvement of target traits in relation to various biotic and abiotic aspects as well as nutrition, for which genetic diversity is lacking. In comparison to conventional breeding, genome engineering techniques are more precise and less time-consuming. However, one of the major issues with biotech rice commercialization is the utilization of selectable marker genes (SMGs) in the vector construct, which when incorporated into the genome are considered to pose risks to human health, the environment, and biodiversity, and thus become a matter of regulation. Various conventional strategies (co-transformation, transposon, recombinase systems, and MAT-vector) have been used in rice to avoid or remove the SMG from the developed events. However, the major limitations of these methods are; time-consuming, leftover cryptic sequences in the genome, and there is variable frequency. In contrast to these methods, CRISPR/Cas9-based marker excision, marker-free targeted gene insertion, programmed self-elimination, and RNP-based delivery enable us to generate marker-free engineered rice plants precisely and in less time. Although the CRISPR/Cas9-based SMG-free approaches are in their early stages, further research and their utilization in rice could help to break the regulatory barrier in its commercialization. In the current review, we have discussed the limitations of traditional methods followed by advanced techniques. We have also proposed a hypothesis, "DNA-free marker-less transformation" to overcome the regulatory barriers posed by SMGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.882836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9219106PMC
June 2022

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Bottle-to-Bottle Recycling for the Beverage Industry: A Review.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jun 11;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Disposal of plastic waste has become a widely discussed issue, due to the potential environmental impact of improper waste disposal. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging accounted for 44.7% of single-serve beverage packaging in the US in 2021, and 12% of global solid waste. A strategic solution is needed to manage plastic packaging solid waste. Major beverage manufacturers have pledged to reduce their environmental footprint by taking steps towards a sustainable future. The PET bottle has several properties that make it an environmentally friendly choice. The PET bottle has good barrier properties as its single-layer, mono-material composition allows it to be more easily recycled. Compared to glass, the PET bottle is lightweight and has a lower carbon footprint in production and transportation. With modern advancements to decontamination processes in the recycling of post-consumer recycled PET (rPET or PCR), it has become a safe material for reuse as beverage packaging. It has been 30 years since the FDA first began certifying PCR PET production processes as compliant for production of food contact PCR PET, for application within the United States. This article provides an overview of PET bottle-to-bottle recycling and guidance for beverage manufacturers looking to advance goals for sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14122366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9231234PMC
June 2022

Phloem connectivity and transport are not involved in mature plant resistance (MPR) to Potato Virus Y in different potato cultivars, and MPR does not protect tubers from recombinant strains of the virus.

J Plant Physiol 2022 Aug 21;275:153729. Epub 2022 May 21.

The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, Scotland, UK. Electronic address:

The aims of this study were: i) to investigate mature plant resistance (MPR) against four strains of Potato virus Y (PVY, PVY, PVY and PVY) in potato cultivars that differ in maturity (e.g. early or maincrop) at different developmental stages, and ii) to determine whether phloem translocation of photoassimilates at different stages including the source-sink transition influences MPR. The data showed that MPR was functional by the flowering stage in all cultivars, and that the host-pathogen interaction is highly complex, with all three variables (potato cultivar, virus strain and developmental stage of infection) having a significant effect on the outcome. However, virus strain was the most important factor, and MPR was less effective in protecting tubers from recombinant virus strains (PVY and PVY). Development of MPR was unrelated to foliar phloem connectivity, which was observed at all developmental stages, but a switch from symplastic to apoplastic phloem unloading early in tuber development may be involved in the prevention of tuber infections with PVY. Recombinant virus strains were more infectious than parental strains and PVY has a more effective silencing suppressor than PVY, another factor that may contribute to the efficiency of MPR. The resistance conferred by MPR against PVY or PVY may be associated with or enhanced by the presence of the corresponding strain-specific HR resistance gene in the cultivar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2022.153729DOI Listing
August 2022

Computer-Aided Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Study of Breast Imaging Modalities and Mammogram Repositories.

Curr Med Imaging 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India.

The accurate assessment or diagnosis of breast cancer depends on image acquisition and image analysis and interpretation. The accurate assessment or diagnosis of breast cancer depends on image acquisition and image analysis and interpretation. The expert radiologist makes image interpretation, and this process has been greatly benefited by computer technology. For image acquisition, various imaging modalities have been developed and used over the years. This research examines several imaging modalities and their associated benefits and drawbacks. Commonly used parameters such as sensitivity and specificity are also offered to evaluate the usefulness of different imaging modalities. The main focus of the research is on mammograms. Despite the availability of breast cancer datasets of imaging modalities such as MRI, ultrasounds, and thermograms, mammogram datasets are used mainly by the domain researcher. They are considered an international gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. We discussed and analyzed widely used and publicly available mammogram repositories. We further discussed some common key constraints related to mammogram datasets to develop the deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems for breast cancer. The ideas for their improvements have also been presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405618666220621123156DOI Listing
June 2022

Comparative transcriptome and tissue-specific expression analysis of genes reveal tissue-cultured plants as an alternative source for phenylethanoids and phenylpropanoids in Rhodiola imbricata (Edgew.).

Gene 2022 Aug 14;836:146672. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India. Electronic address:

Rhodiola imbricata (Crassulaceae) is a traditional trans-Himalayan endangered medicinal herb with immense therapeutic applications. Over the years, over-exploitation, un-managed harvesting, and lack of captive cultivation procedures persuaded threat to its wild habitat. Plant tissue culture and RNA-Seq-based molecular bioprospection of key regulatory genes aid the understanding of molecular dynamics involved in specialized metabolites (phenylethanoids and phenylpropanoids) biosynthesis and its sustainable production. Hence, comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed using leaf and root tissues from the wild and tissue-cultured plants, revealing tissue-specific production of salidroside and rosavin. The transcriptome profiling resulted in 345 million high-quality reads yielding 92,380 unique transcripts with an N of 1260 bp. Tissue-specific gene expression analysis revealed that both phenylethanoids and phenylpropanoids biosynthesis are predominantly associated with the shikimate pathway. In addition to RNA-Seq data, the downstream biosynthesis pathways genes viz., phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase (DAHPS), 3-dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS), shikimate kinase (SK), chorismate mutase (CM), arogenate dehydrogenase (TYRAAT), aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (TDC), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4-CL), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) showed higher expression pattern in wild plant tissues compared to tissue-cultured plants. The transcript fold expression determined by RT-qPCR results followed similar patterns as those observed in RNA-seq and targeted metabolite profiling data. Salidroside and rosavin content in wild plants exhibited 2.40 fold and 1.77 fold increase accumulation compared to the tissue-cultured plant. The present investigation explained the tissue and condition-specific significant differences between the expression of proposed biosynthetic pathway genes and salidroside and rosavin content. Additionally, NAC, bHLH, and ARF were the most abundant transcription factor families found in the transcriptomic analysis of R. imbricata. The generated transcriptome dataset provides a valuable gene(s)/transcription factors hub that can be used for the sustainable production of salidroside and rosavin in R. imbricata under tissue culture conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146672DOI Listing
August 2022

Design and In Vitro Evaluation of Novel Cationic Lipids for siRNA Delivery in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 6;2022:9231641. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong 4381, Bangladesh.

Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in Western nations, with a terrible prognosis. Many studies show that siRNA plays a role in the development of tumors by acting as a tumor suppressor and apoptosis inhibitor or both. siRNAs may be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. Antisurvivin siRNA was chosen as a therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment because it directly targets survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, that causes cell death. However, siRNA-based treatment has significant limitations, including a lack of tissue selectivity, a lack of effective delivery mechanisms, low cellular absorption, and the possibility of systemic toxicity. To address some of these issues, we provide a siRNA delivery method based on cationic lipids. In the recent past, cationic liposomes have displayed that they offer a remarkable perspective in proficient siRNA delivery. The presence of a positive charge plays a vital role in firm extracellular siRNA binding along with active intracellular siRNA separation and low biological adversities. Consequently, the methods for developing innovative cationic lipids through rendering and utilization of appropriate positive charges would certainly be helpful for benign and effective siRNA delivery. In the current study, an effort was made to synthesize a 3,4-dimethoxyaniline lipid (DMA) to improve the effectiveness and protection of successful siRNA delivery. DMA cationic lipid successfully delivered survivin siRNA that reduced the survivin mRNA expression, indicating the possibility of utilizing siRNA therapeutics for breast cancer. It is expected that this innovative quaternary amine-based liposome can open up new avenues in the process of developing an easy and extensively used platform for siRNA delivery. Cationic lipoplexes, a potential carrier system for siRNA-based therapies in the treatment of breast cancer, were proven by our data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9231641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192290PMC
June 2022

Exploring the interaction of guanidine ligands Amiloride, Rimeporide and Cariporide with DNA for understanding their role as inhibitors of Na/H exchangers (NHEs): A spectroscopic and molecular docking investigation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 5;213:834-844. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Nano-bioconjugate Chemistry Lab, Cluster Innovation Centre, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India. Electronic address:

The inhibition of Na/H Exchangers (NHEs) has shown efficacy in the pathology of several diseases like tumors, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders. The role of guanidine ligands such as amiloride, cariporide, and rimeporide as NHE inhibitors is very well documented but their interaction studies with genomic DNA are still unexplored. In this study, a combination of various biophysical and molecular docking studies was employed to investigate their binding aspects.UV-Visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) studies indicated that guanidine ligands bind to the grooves of Calf Thymus DNA (ctDNA). Fluorescence titration studies depict that amiloride binds to ctDNA with a binding constant in the order of 10 M and free energy change (ΔG) of -14.05 KJ mol. Competitive fluorescence studies indicated the minor groove binding property of amiloride, whereas major groove binding mode was deduced for rimeporide and cariporide. Molecular docking studies were also found to be in accordance with the experimental results, revealing the information about the binding energy of the guanidine ligand-ctDNA complex. The docked structures depicted binding energy of -6.4 kcal mol for amiloride and - 6.6 kcal mol for rimeporide and cariporide. Such physicochemical studies of DNA-ligand interactions may facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms of NHE inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.009DOI Listing
July 2022

Political environment and mortality rates in the United States, 2001-19: population based cross sectional analysis.

BMJ 2022 06 7;377:e069308. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To assess recent trends in age adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) in the United States based on county level presidential voting patterns.

Design: Cross sectional study.

Setting: USA, 2001-19.

Participants: 99.8% of the US population.

Main Outcome Measures: AAMR per 100 000 population and average annual percentage change (APC).

Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER database was linked to county level data on US presidential elections. County political environment was classified as either Democratic or Republican for the four years that followed a November presidential election. Additional sensitivity analyses analyzed AAMR trends for counties that voted only for one party throughout the study, and county level gubernatorial election results and state level AAMR trends. Joinpoint analysis was used to assess for an inflection point in APC trends.

Results: The study period covered five presidential elections from 2000 to 2019. From 2001 to 2019, the AAMR per 100 000 population decreased by 22% in Democratic counties, from 850.3 to 664.0 (average APC -1.4%, 95% confidence interval -1.5% to -1.2%), but by only 11% in Republican counties, from 867.0 to 771.1 (average APC -0.7%, -0.9% to -0.5%). The gap in AAMR between Democratic and Republican counties therefore widened from 16.7 (95% confidence interval 16.6 to 16.8) to 107.1 (106.5 to 107.7). Statistically significant inflection points in APC occurred for Democratic counties between periods 2001-09 (APC -2.1%, -2.3% to -1.9%) and 2009-19 (APC -0.8%, -1.0% to -0.6%). For Republican counties between 2001 and 2008 the APC was -1.4% (-1.8% to -1.0%), slowing to near zero between 2008 and 2019 (APC -0.2%, -0.4% to 0.0%). Male and female residents of Democratic counties experienced both lower AAMR and twice the relative decrease in AAMR than did those in Republican counties. Black Americans experienced largely similar improvement in AAMR in both Democratic and Republican counties. However, the AAMR gap between white residents in Democratic versus Republican counties increased fourfold, from 24.7 (95% confidence interval 24.6 to 24.8) to 101.3 (101.0 to 101.6). Rural Republican counties experienced the highest AAMR and the least improvement. All trends were similar when comparing counties that did not switch political environment throughout the period and when gubernatorial election results were used. The greatest contributors to the widening AAMR gap between Republican and Democratic counties were heart disease (difference in AAMRs 27.6), cancer (17.3), and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases (8.3), followed by unintentional injuries (3.3) and suicide (3.0).

Conclusion: The mortality gap in Republican voting counties compared with Democratic voting counties has grown over time, especially for white populations, and that gap began to widen after 2008.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-069308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9171631PMC
June 2022

tRForest: a novel random forest-based algorithm for tRNA-derived fragment target prediction.

NAR Genom Bioinform 2022 Jun 30;4(2):lqac037. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22901, USA.

tRNA fragments (tRFs) are small RNAs comparable to the size and function of miRNAs. tRFs are generally Dicer independent, are found associated with Ago, and can repress expression of genes post-transcriptionally. Given that this expands the repertoire of small RNAs capable of post-transcriptional gene expression, it is important to predict tRF targets with confidence. Some attempts have been made to predict tRF targets, but are limited in the scope of tRF classes used in prediction or limited in feature selection. We hypothesized that established miRNA target prediction features applied to tRFs through a random forest machine learning algorithm will immensely improve tRF target prediction. Using this approach, we show significant improvements in tRF target prediction for all classes of tRFs and validate our predictions in two independent cell lines. Finally, Gene Ontology analysis suggests that among the tRFs conserved between mice and humans, the predicted targets are enriched significantly in neuronal function, and we show this specifically for tRF-3009a. These improvements to tRF target prediction further our understanding of tRF function broadly across species and provide avenues for testing novel roles for tRFs in biology. We have created a publicly available website for the targets of tRFs predicted by tRForest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nargab/lqac037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9155213PMC
June 2022

Accessing Complex Tetrahydrofurobenzo-Pyran/Furan Scaffolds Lewis-Acid Catalyzed Bicyclization of Cyclopropane Carbaldehydes with Quinone Methides/Esters.

J Org Chem 2022 06 3;87(12):7905-7918. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab 140001, India.

Herein, we report a straightforward one-pot synthesis of tetrahydrofurobenzopyran and tetrahydrofurobenzofuran systems an in situ ring-expansion of the cyclopropane carbaldehydes followed by a [2 + ] cycloaddition with the quinone derivatives. The transformation not only unveils a new reaction mode of cyclopropane carbaldehydes with quinone methides/esters, but also promotes a step-efficient diastereoselective route to the sophisticatedly fused oxygen tricycles that can be further dehydrogenated to access the valued dihydro-2-furo[2,3-]chromene frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c00566DOI Listing
June 2022

Nanopaper Biosensors at Point of Care.

Bioconjug Chem 2022 06 5;33(6):1114-1130. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Nano-Bioconjugate Chemistry Lab, Cluster Innovation Centre, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007, India.

In this review, we provide an overview of the nanopaper biosensors used for point of care (POC) diagnostics in various fields such as biomedical, environmental, food safety, and agriculture. The lateral flow assays (LFAs) comprising nanoparticles have drawn the interest of researchers due to their high sensitivity, low cost, lower time consumption, lack of equipment, and easy handling characteristics. These assays have become an integral part of the health sector all over the world over a short time period and are extensively being engaged in diagnosis of viral infections in regions low on resources. A large number of innovative approaches have been introduced in making these test-strips or nanopaper biosensors as quickly as possible, because of their ease of operation, cheaper cost, and quick results, even with the simplest setups or in pathological laboratories, etc. Keeping all this in mind, we have reviewed the nanoparticles based lateral flow test strips (LFTS), their composition, working methods, reaction mechanisms, detection methods, and applications in different fields. We also provide an overview of paper-based microfluidic analytical devices (μPADs) and our perspective about the future trends which may facilitate understanding their applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.2c00213DOI Listing
June 2022

Experimental and optimization studies on phycoremediation of dairy wastewater and biomass production efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris isolated from Ganga River, Haridwar, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Agro-Ecology and Pollution Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri (Deemed to Be University), Haridwar, 249404, Uttarakhand, India.

Dairy wastewaters (DWW) are rich in several pollutants, including high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and their unsafe disposal may cause damage to the environment. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris (identified as NIES:227 strain based on 28s rRNA sequencing) was isolated from the freshwater habitat of the Ganga River at Haridwar, India, and further tested for its efficacy in treating DWW. The phycoremediation experiments were conducted using three different DWW concentrations (0, 50, and 100%), operating temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C), and light intensities (2000, 3000, and 4000 lx) using response surface methodology. Results showed that after 16 days of experiments, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in BOD (96.65%) and COD (87.50%) along with a maximum biomass production of 1.757 g/L was achieved using 57.72% of dairy industry wastewater, 24.16 °C of reactor temperature, and 3874.51 lx of light intensity. The RSM models had coefficient of determination (R) values above 0.9459 with a minimum difference between measured and predicted responses. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that the isolated C. vulgaris can be effectively used to treat dairy wastewater along with significant production of algal biomass which can be further used for the generation of low-cost biofuel and other materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21069-1DOI Listing
May 2022

Meta-Analysis of Racial Disparity in Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2022 08 28;176:139-141. Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Medicine,University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS. USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.04.039DOI Listing
August 2022
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