Publications by authors named "Pancras C W Hogendoorn"

222 Publications

Frequent mutated B2M, EZH2, IRF8, and TNFRSF14 in primary bone diffuse large B-cell lymphoma reflect a GCB phenotype.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct;5(19):3760-3775

Department of Hematology.

Primary bone diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PB-DLBCL) is a rare extranodal lymphoma subtype. This retrospective study elucidates the currently unknown genetic background of a large clinically well-annotated cohort of DLBCL with osseous localizations (O-DLBCL), including PB-DLBCL. A total of 103 patients with O-DLBCL were included and compared with 63 (extra)nodal non-osseous (NO)-DLBCLs with germinal center B-cell phenotype (NO-DLBCL-GCB). Cell-of-origin was determined by immunohistochemistry and gene-expression profiling (GEP) using (extended)-NanoString/Lymph2Cx analysis. Mutational profiles were identified with targeted next-generation deep sequencing, including 52 B-cell lymphoma-relevant genes. O-DLBCLs, including 34 PB-DLBCLs, were predominantly classified as GCB phenotype based on immunohistochemistry (74%) and NanoString analysis (88%). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of an extended-NanoString/Lymph2Cx revealed significantly different GEP clusters for PB-DLBCL as opposed to NO-DLBCL-GCB (P < .001). Expression levels of 23 genes of 2 different targeted GEP panels indicated a centrocyte-like phenotype for PB-DLBCL, whereas NO-DLBCL-GCB exhibited a centroblast-like constitution. PB-DLBCL had significantly more frequent mutations in four GCB-associated genes (ie, B2M, EZH2, IRF8, TNFRSF14) compared with NO-DLBCL-GCB (P = .031, P = .010, P = .047, and P = .003, respectively). PB-DLBCL, with its corresponding specific mutational profile, was significantly associated with a superior survival compared with equivalent Ann Arbor limited-stage I/II NO-DLBCL-GCB (P = .016). This study is the first to show that PB-DLBCL is characterized by a GCB phenotype, with a centrocyte-like GEP pattern and a GCB-associated mutational profile (both involved in immune surveillance) and a favorable prognosis. These novel biology-associated features provide evidence that PB-DLBCL represents a distinct extranodal DLBCL entity, and its specific mutational landscape offers potential for targeted therapies (eg, EZH2 inhibitors).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005215DOI Listing
October 2021

NTRK fusions are extremely rare in bone tumours.

Histopathology 2021 Nov 3;79(5):880-885. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aims: Because of the efficacy of tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) inhibitor therapy in tumours with rearrangements of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor genes (NRTK genes), there has been a surge in demand for NTRK fusion screening. To date, most studies involving mesenchymal tumours have focused on soft tissue tumours, and data on bone tumours are sparse. Hence, we aimed to explore the frequency of NTRK fusions in a large series of primary bone tumours.

Methods And Results: Immunohistochemical expression of pan-Trk was successfully assessed in 354 primary bone tumours by the use of tissue microarrays. In a selection of positive cases, additional molecular analysis for NTRK fusions was performed with anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based targeted next-generation sequencing. Positivity was found in 19 cases (5%), which comprised Ewing sarcoma (n = 6, 33%), osteosarcoma (n = 11, 13%), and giant-cell tumour of bone (n = 2, 3%). In all except one case, cytoplasmic staining was observed. Weak staining was most often observed (n = 13), although five cases showed moderate staining and one case showed focal strong staining. Molecular analysis was successful in six cases, all of which were negative for NTRK fusions.

Conclusion: The likelihood of finding an NTRK fusion in bone tumours in clinical practice is extremely low. This may imply that, if more comprehensive large-scale molecular studies confirm this, routine predictive NTRK testing in bone tumour patients with advanced disease may be reconsidered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14432DOI Listing
November 2021

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone of the femur and humerus: a case report and review of the literature.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2021 Apr 28;2021(4):omab024. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Lymphoma of bone is a rare neoplasm composed of malignant lymphoid cells, producing a tumefactive lesion within bone. We report a 13-year-old male who presented with progressively increasing swellings at the right shoulder and right mid-thigh for one month. Radiological images revealed lytic destructive lesions associated with soft tissue masses in both sites and a pathological fracture on the right humerus. The patient had no significant medical history. Histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent in-situ hybridization assessment of biopsies from the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone. Unfortunately, due to coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the patient was unable to follow-up treatment and died shortly after establishment of the diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and treatment is of serious concern when it comes to improve the prognosis of patients with this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omab024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082228PMC
April 2021

The adapter protein Myd88 plays an important role in limiting mycobacterial growth in a zebrafish model for tuberculosis.

Virchows Arch 2021 Aug 9;479(2):265-275. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in the world, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In this study, we have used Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) infection in zebrafish larvae as an animal model for this disease to study the role of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88), the key adapter protein of Toll-like receptors. Previously, Myd88 has been shown to enhance innate immune responses against bacterial infections, and in the present study, we have investigated the effect of Myd88 deficiency on the granuloma morphology and the intracellular distribution of bacteria during Mm infection. Our results show that granulomas formed in the tail fin from myd88 mutant larvae have a more compact structure and contain a reduced number of leukocytes compared to the granulomas observed in wild-type larvae. These morphological differences were associated with an increased bacterial burden in the myd88 mutant. Electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of Mm in the myd88 mutant are located extracellularly, whereas in the wild type, most bacteria were intracellular. In the myd88 mutant, intracellular bacteria were mainly present in compartments that were not electron-dense, suggesting that these compartments had not undergone fusion with a lysosome. In contrast, approximately half of the intracellular bacteria in wild-type larvae were found in electron-dense compartments. These observations in a zebrafish model for tuberculosis suggest a role for Myd88-dependent signalling in two important phenomena that limit mycobacterial growth in the infected tissue. It reduces the number of leukocytes at the site of infection and the acidification of bacteria-containing compartments inside these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03043-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364548PMC
August 2021

Co-existence of lung carcinoma metastasis and enchondroma in the femur of a patient with Ollier disease.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jul 13;479(1):203-207. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Pathology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China.

Tumour-to-tumour metastasis is very unusual and has been defined as a tumour metastasis into another histologically different tumour. It is extremely rare in bone. We report a case of lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasized to an enchondroma in the femur of a patient with Ollier disease. A 60-year-old female had a history of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. She underwent a video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy, and a follow-up MRI scan showed three lesions in the left distal femur and proximal tibia, which were initially interpreted as metastasis on radiology. Resection of the left proximal tibial lesion was performed, and the pathological findings were consistent with enchondroma with no evidence of metastasis. Subsequent curettage of lesions in the distal left femur revealed metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma with foci of hyaline cartilage, which was most consistent with metastatic carcinoma in a pre-existing enchondroma. The MRI films were re-reviewed. Characteristic MRI features of enchondroma were found in the lesion in the left proximal tibia and one of the lesions in the left distal femur, while the features of the other lesion in the left distal femur included cortical destruction and extensive oedema in surrounding soft tissue, which were consistent with a malignant tumour. In addition, the enchondroma in the lateral condyle showed blurring and irregular inner margin and adjacent bone oedema, which likely represents a co-existing metastatic tumour and enchondroma. The difference in lineage was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The final diagnosis was metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma of the lung into a co-existent enchondroma. The diagnosis can be challenging and could be easily overlooked both radiologically and histologically. Thorough clinical and radiological information is critical for the diagnosis, and despite a very unusual event, awareness of the tumour-to-tumour metastasis phenomenon can avoid an inaccurate diagnosis by the pathologist, therefore preventing inappropriate clinical intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02936-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298348PMC
July 2021

Mutation-driven epigenetic alterations as a defining hallmark of central cartilaginous tumours, giant cell tumour of bone and chondroblastoma.

Virchows Arch 2020 Jan 14;476(1):135-146. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Recently, specific driver mutations were identified in chondroblastoma, giant cell tumour of bone and central cartilaginous tumours (specifically enchondroma and central chondrosarcoma), sharing the ability to induce genome-wide epigenetic alterations. In chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of bone, the neoplastic mononuclear stromal-like cells frequently harbour specific point mutations in the genes encoding for histone H3.3 (H3F3A and H3F3B). The identification of these driver mutations has led to development of novel diagnostic tools to distinguish between chondroblastoma, giant cell tumour of bone and other giant cell containing tumours. From a biological perspective, these mutations induce several global and local alterations of the histone modification marks. Similar observations are made for central cartilaginous tumours, which frequently harbour specific point mutations in the metabolic enzymes IDH1 or IDH2. Besides an altered methylation pattern on histones, IDH mutations also induce a global DNA hypermethylation phenotype. In all of these tumour types, the mutation-driven epigenetic alterations lead to a highly altered transcriptome, resulting for instance in alterations in differentiation. These genomic alterations have diagnostic impact. Further research is needed to identify the genes and signalling pathways that are affected by the epigenetic alterations, which will hopefully lead to a better understanding of the biological mechanism underlying tumourigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02699-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968983PMC
January 2020

Quality of Life of Patients With Osteosarcoma in the European American Osteosarcoma Study-1 (EURAMOS-1): Development and Implementation of a Questionnaire Substudy.

JMIR Res Protoc 2019 Sep 26;8(8):e14406. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Background: The quality of life (QoL) of patients with osteosarcoma (OS) may be adversely affected by the disease or its treatment. Therefore, it is important to understand the QoL of patients undergoing treatment for OS to improve the QoL. We report on the first prospective international QoL study that was embedded within a large randomized clinical trial from 4 national study groups.

Objective: This paper aimed to describe the QoL study development, methodology, accrual details, and characteristics of the QoL cohort.

Methods: A total of 2260 patients registered in the EURopean AMerican Osteosarcoma Study-1 (EURAMOS-1), of whom 97.92% (2213/2260) were eligible for the optional QoL assessment and could participate in terms of questionnaire availability. Overall, 61.86% (1369/2213) of patients and/or proxies completed the QoL evaluation at the first assessment time point (E1) after the start of preoperative treatment. The QoL measures used (self- and/or proxy reports) depending on the patient's age and national study group. Participants and nonparticipants in the ancillary QoL study were compared regarding relevant demographic and disease-related characteristics at registration in the trial.

Results: The participation rate at time point E1 did not differ with regard to age, gender, the occurrence of pathological fracture, or the presence of any metastases at diagnosis. No differences were found regarding the primary tumor site. Only the national study group affiliation had an influence on participation. Participation decreased linearly with trial progress up to 20% at the final time point of QoL assessment.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of international cooperation for the purpose of assessing and understanding the QoL of pediatric and adolescent/young adult patients with cancer. Future outcomes of this QoL substudy will help to adapt interventions to improve QoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819132PMC
September 2019

Glomerular permeability is not affected by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan deficiency in zebrafish embryos.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2019 11 28;317(5):F1211-F1216. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Proteinuria develops when specific components in the glomerular filtration barrier have impaired function. Although the precise components involved in maintaining this barrier have not been fully identified, heparan sulfate proteoglycans are believed to play an essential role in maintaining glomerular filtration. Although in situ studies have shown that a loss of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans increases the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier, recent studies using experimental models have shown that podocyte-specific deletion of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan assembly does not lead to proteinuria. However, tubular reabsorption of leaked proteins might have masked an increase in glomerular permeability in these models. Furthermore, not only podocytes but also glomerular endothelial cells are involved in heparan sulfate synthesis in the glomerular filtration barrier. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a global heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan deficiency on glomerular permeability. We used a zebrafish embryo model carrying a homozygous germline mutation in the gene. Glomerular permeability was assessed with a quantitative dextran tracer injection method. In this model, we accounted for tubular reabsorption. Loss of anionic sites in the glomerular basement membrane was measured using polyethyleneimine staining. Although mutant animals had significantly fewer negatively charged areas in the glomerular basement membrane, glomerular permeability was unaffected. Moreover, heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan-deficient embryos had morphologically intact podocyte foot processes. Glomerular filtration remains fully functional despite a global reduction of heparan sulfate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00126.2019DOI Listing
November 2019

Method to measure the mismatch between target and achieved received dose intensity of chemotherapy in cancer trials: a retrospective analysis of the MRC BO06 trial in osteosarcoma.

BMJ Open 2019 05 30;9(5):e022980. Epub 2019 May 30.

Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Objectives: In cancer studies, the target received dose intensity (tRDI) for any regimen, the intended dose and time for the regimen, is commonly taken as a proxy for achieved RDI (aRDI), the actual individual dose and time for the regimen. Evaluating tRDI/aRDI mismatches is crucial to assess study results whenever patients are stratified on allocated regimen. The manuscript develops a novel methodology to highlight and evaluate tRDI/aRDI mismatches.

Design: Retrospective analysis of a randomised controlled trial, MRC BO06 (EORTC 80931).

Setting: Population-based study but proposed methodology can be applied to other trial designs.

Participants: A total of 497 patients with resectable high-grade osteosarcoma, of which 19 were excluded because chemotherapy was not started or the estimated dose was abnormally high (>1.25 × prescribed dose).

Interventions: Two regimens with the same anticipated cumulative dose (doxorubicin 6×75 mg/m/week; cisplatin 6×100 mg/m/week) over different time schedules: every 3 weeks in regimen-C and every 2 weeks in regimen-DI. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: tRDI distribution was measured across groups of patients derived from k-means clustering of treatment data. K-means creates groups of patients who are aRDI-homogeneous. The main outcome is the proportion of tRDI values in groups of homogeneous aRDI.

Results: For nearly half of the patients, there is a mismatch between tRDI and aRDI; for 21%, aRDI was closer to the tRDI of the other regimen.

Conclusions: For MRC BO06, tRDI did not predict well aRDI. The manuscript offers an original procedure to highlight the presence of and quantify tRDI/aRDI mismatches. Caution is required to interpret the effect of chemotherapy-regimen intensification on survival outcome at an individual level where such a mismatch is present.The study relevance lies in the use of individual realisation of the intended treatment, which depends on individual delays and/or dose reductions reported throughout the treatment.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN86294690.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549670PMC
May 2019

Adjuvant Zoledronic Acid in High-Risk Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A Multicenter Randomized Phase II Trial.

Oncologist 2019 07 30;24(7):889-e421. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Lessons Learned: Adjuvant treatment with zoledronic acid did not decrease the recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in this study. The efficacy could not be determined because of the small sample size.GCTB recurrences, even in the denosumab era, are still an issue; therefore, a randomized study exploring the efficacy of zoledronic acid in the adjuvant setting in GCTB is still valid.

Background: Bisphosphonates are assumed to inhibit giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB)-associated osteoclast activity and have an apoptotic effect on the neoplastic mononuclear cell population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the 2-year recurrence rate of high-risk GCTB after adjuvant zoledronic acid versus standard care.

Methods: In this multicenter randomized open-label phase II trial, patients with high-risk GCTB were included (December 2008 to October 2013). Recruitment was stopped because of low accrual after the introduction of denosumab. In the intervention group, patients received adjuvant zoledronic acid (4 mg) intravenously at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery.

Results: Fourteen patients were included (intervention = 8, controls = 6). Median follow-up was long: 93.5 months (range, 48-111). Overall 2-year recurrence rate was 38% (3/8) in the intervention versus 17% (1/6) in the control group ( = .58). All recurrences were seen within the first 15 months after surgery.

Conclusion: Adjuvant treatment with zoledronic acid did not decrease the recurrence rate of GCTB in this study. The efficacy could not be determined because of the small sample size. Because recurrences, even in the denosumab era, are still an issue, a randomized study exploring the efficacy of zoledronic acid in the adjuvant setting in GCTB is still valid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656477PMC
July 2019

A novel method to address the association between received dose intensity and survival outcome: benefits of approaching treatment intensification at a more individualised level in a trial of the European Osteosarcoma Intergroup.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2019 05 16;83(5):951-962. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Mathematical Institute Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 1, 2333 CA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: There is lack of consensus on the prognostic value of received high dose intensity in osteosarcoma survivorship. Many studies have not shown a clear survival benefit when dose intensity is increased. The aim of this study is to go beyond chemotherapy intensification by arm-wide escalation of intended dose and/or compression of treatment schedule, while conversely addressing the relationship between treatment intensity and survival at the patient level. The study focusses on the difference in outcome results, based on a novel, progressively more individualised approach to dose intensity.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from MRC BO06/EORTC 80931 randomised controlled trial for treatment of osteosarcoma was conducted. Three types of post hoc patient groups are formed using the intended regimen: the individually achieved cumulative dose and time on treatment, and the increase of individual cumulative dose over time. Event-free survival is investigated and compared in these three stratifications.

Results: The strata of intended regimen and achieved treatment yields equivalent results. Received cumulative dose over time produces groups with evident different survivorship characteristics. In particular, it highlights a group of patients with an estimated 3-year event-free survival much larger (more than 10%) than other patient groups. This group mostly contains patients randomised to an intensified regimen. In addition, adverse events reported by that group show the presence of increased preoperative myelotoxicity.

Conclusions: The manuscript shows the benefits of analyzing studies by using longitudinal data, e.g. recorded per cycle. This has impact on the drafting of future trials by showing why such a level of detail is needed for both treatment and adverse event data. The novel method proposed, based on cumulative dose received over time, shows that longitudinal treatment data might be used to link survival outcome with drug metabolism. This is particularly valuable when pharmacogenetics data for metabolism of cytotoxic agents are not collected.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN86294690.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-019-03797-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458990PMC
May 2019

New indicators and indexes for benchmarking university-industry-government innovation in medical and life science clusters: results from the European FP7 Regions of Knowledge HealthTIES project.

Health Res Policy Syst 2019 Jan 28;17(1):10. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Sir William Dunn School, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: While the European Union is striving to become the 'Innovation Union', there remains a lack of quantifiable indicators to compare and benchmark regional innovation clusters. To address this issue, a HealthTIES (Healthcare, Technology and Innovation for Economic Success) consortium was funded by the European Union's Regions of Knowledge initiative, research and innovation funding programme FP7. HealthTIES examined whether the health technology innovation cycle was functioning differently in five European regional innovation clusters and proposed regional and joint actions to improve their performance. The clusters included BioCat (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain), Medical Delta (Leiden, Rotterdam and Delft, South Holland, Netherlands), Oxford and Thames Valley (United Kingdom), Life Science Zürich (Switzerland), and Innova Észak-Alföld (Debrecen, Hungary).

Methods: Appreciation of the 'triple helix' of university-industry-government innovation provided the impetus for the development of two quantifiable innovation indexes and related indicators. The HealthTIES H-index is calculated for disease and technology platforms based on the h-index proposed by Hirsch. The HealthTIES Innovation Index is calculated for regions based on 32 relevant quantitative and discriminative indicators grouped into 12 categories and 3 innovation phases, namely 'Input' (n = 12), 'Innovation System' (n = 9) and 'Output' (n = 11).

Results: The HealthTIES regions had developed relatively similar disease and technology platform profiles, yet with distinctive strengths and weaknesses. The regional profiles of the innovation cycle in each of the three phases were surprisingly divergent. Comparative assessments based on the indicators and indexes helped identify and share best practice and inform regional and joint action plans to strengthen the competitiveness of the HealthTIES regions.

Conclusion: The HealthTIES indicators and indexes provide useful practical tools for the measurement and benchmarking of university-industry-government innovation in European medical and life science clusters. They are validated internally within the HealthTIES consortium and appear to have a degree of external prima facie validity. Potentially, the tools and accompanying analyses can be used beyond the HealthTIES consortium to inform other regional governments, researchers and, possibly, large companies searching for their next location, analyse and benchmark 'triple helix' dynamics within their own networks over time, and to develop integrated public-private and cross-regional research and innovation strategies in Europe and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12961-019-0414-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350323PMC
January 2019

Bioorthogonally Applicable Fluorescence Deactivation Strategy for Receptor Kinetics Study and Theranostic Pretargeting Approaches.

Chembiochem 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The availability of a receptor for theranostic pretargeting approaches was assessed by use of a new click-chemistry-based deactivatable fluorescence-quenching concept. The efficacy was evaluated in a cell-based model system featuring both membranous (available) and internalized (unavailable) receptor fractions of the clinically relevant receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Proof of concept was achieved with a deactivatable tracer consisting of a CXCR4-specific peptide functionalized with a Cy5 dye bearing a chemoselective azide handle (N -Cy5-AcTZ14011). Treatment with a Cy7 quencher dye (Cy7-DBCO) resulted in optically silent Cy7-[click]-Cy5-AcTZ14011. In situ, a >90 % FRET-based reduction of the signal intensity of N -Cy5-AcTZ14011 [K =(222.4±25.2) nm] was seen within minutes after quencher addition. In cells, discrimination between the membranous and the internalized receptor fraction could be achieved through quantitative assessment of quenching/internalization kinetics. Similar evaluation of an activatable tracer variant based on the same targeting moiety (Cy5-S-S-Cy3-AcTZ14011) was unsuccessful in vitro. As such, using the described deactivatable approach to screen membrane receptors and their applicability in receptor-(pre-)targeted theranostics can become straightforward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201800229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120557PMC
June 2018

BCRP expression in schwannoma, plexiform neurofibroma and MPNST.

Oncotarget 2017 Oct 16;8(51):88751-88759. Epub 2017 Sep 16.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: peripheral nerve sheath tumors comprise a broad spectrum of neoplasms. Vestibular schwannomas and plexiform neurofibromas are symptomatic albeit benign, but a subset of the latter pre-malignant lesions will transform to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary strategies to treat these tumors. Intrinsic resistance to drug therapy characterizes all three tumor subtypes. The breast cancer resistance protein BCRP is a transmembrane efflux transporter considered to play a key role in various biological barriers such as the blood brain barrier. At the same time it is associated with drug resistance in various tumors. Its potential role in drug resistant tumors of the peripheral nervous system is largely unknown.

Objective: to assess if BCRP is expressed in vestibular schwannomas, plexiform neurofibromas and MPNST.

Material And Methods: immunohistochemical staining for BCRP was performed on a tissue microarray composed out of 22 vestibular schwannomas, 10 plexiform neurofibromas and 18 MPNSTs.

Results: sixteen out of twenty-two vestibular schwannomas (73%), nine out of ten plexiform neurofibromas (90%) and six out of eighteen MPNST (33%) expressed BCRP in the vasculature. Tumor cells were negative.

Conclusion: BCRP is present in the vasculature of vestibular schwannomas, plexiform neurofibromas and MPSNT. Therefore, it may reduce the drug exposure of underlying tumor tissues and potentially cause failure of drug therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687642PMC
October 2017

Hematopoietic Tumors Primarily Presenting in Bone.

Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Sep 27;10(3):675-691. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, L1-Q, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands.

Hematologic neoplasms that primarily present in bone are rare; this article describes the most common examples of hematologic tumors primarily presenting in bone, including plasma cell myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma of bone, primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone, acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The macroscopic and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, diagnostic workup, and prognosis of all these different entities are discussed, with special emphasis on common differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.path.2017.04.011DOI Listing
September 2017

Fluorescent CXCR4 targeting peptide as alternative for antibody staining in Ewing sarcoma.

BMC Cancer 2017 05 26;17(1):383. Epub 2017 May 26.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Postbus 9600, 2300 RC, The Netherlands.

Background: Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, highly metastatic primary bone and soft tissue tumor most frequently occurring in the bone of young adolescents. Patients, especially those diagnosed with a metastatic disease, have a poor overall survival. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 has a key pro-tumorigenic role in the tumor microenvironment of Ewing sarcoma and has been suggested to be involved in the increased metastatic propensity. Earlier studies on CXCR4 protein expression in Ewing sarcoma yielded contradictory results when compared to CXCR4 RNA expression studies. Previously, we demonstrated that CXCR4 expression could be detected in vivo using the fluorescently tagged CXCR4-specific peptide MSAP-Ac-TZ14011. Therefore, we studied the membranous CXCR4 expression in Ewing sarcoma cell lines using MSAP-Ac-TZ14011.

Methods: The CXCR4 membrane expression levels were studied in EWS cell lines by flow cytometry using the hybrid peptide MSAP-Ac-TZ14011 and were correlated to CXCR4 RNA expression levels. The measurements were compared to levels detected using the CXCR4 antibody ab2074 under various cell preparation conditions. In addition, the staining patterns were analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy over time.

Results: The hybrid peptide MSAP-Ac-TZ14011 levels showed a strong and better correlation of CXCR4 membrane expression with the CXCR4 RNA expression levels than observed with the anti-CXCR4 antibody ab2074. With the hybrid peptide MSAP-Ac-TZ14011 using live cell confocal microscopy CXCR4 membrane staining and internalization was detected and the signal intensity correlated well with CXCR4 mRNA expression levels.

Conclusions: The fluorescently labeled CXCR4 targeting peptide-based method provides a reliable alternative to antibody staining to study the CXCR4 membrane expression in live cells using either flow cytometry or live cell fluorescence microscopy. The fluorescently tagged CXCR4 targeting peptide could enable in vivo detection of CXCR4 expression in Ewing sarcoma which may help to stratify cases for anti-CXCR4 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3352-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5446759PMC
May 2017

Predictive and prognostic factors associated with soft tissue sarcoma response to chemotherapy: a subgroup analysis of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 62012 study.

Acta Oncol 2017 Jul 21;56(7):1013-1020. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

d Royal Marsden Hospital , London , UK.

Background: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62012 study was a Phase III trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy in 455 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Analysis of the main study showed that combination chemotherapy improved tumor response and progression-free survival, but differences in overall survival (OS) were not statistically significant. We analyzed factors prognostic for tumor response and OS, and assessed histological subgroup and tumor grade as predictive factors to identify patients more likely to benefit from combination chemotherapy.

Methods: Central pathology review was performed by six reference pathologists. Gender, age, performance status, time from first presentation with sarcoma to starting palliative chemotherapy, tumor grade, histological subgroup, primary tumor site involvement, and sites of metastases were assessed as prognostic factors.

Results: Three hundred and ten patients were included in this study. Discordance between local and central pathology opinion of tumor histology and tumor grade was observed in 98 (32%) and 122 (39%) cases, respectively. In multivariate analysis, liposarcoma patients had improved tumor response compared to other histological subgroups, whilst patients with metastases other than lung, liver or bone had a poorer response [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.78; p = 0.006]. Patients with bone metastases had reduced OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.56, 95% CI 1.16-2.09; p = 0.003]. By central pathology review, patients with undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) had improved tumor response and OS with doxorubicin-ifosfamide compared to single-agent doxorubicin (OR 9.90, 95% CI 1.93-50.7 and HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.79, respectively). Grade III tumors had improved response with combination chemotherapy but there was no interaction between chemotherapy and grade on OS.

Conclusions: Prospective central pathology review of tumor histology should be integrated into future STS clinical trials. Doxorubicin-ifosfamide may be most appropriate for young, fit patients with poorly differentiated Grade III tumors including UPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2017.1315173DOI Listing
July 2017

High prevalence of autoimmune disease in the rare inflammatory bone disorder sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis: survey of a Dutch cohort.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 01 25;12(1):20. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology & Centre for Bone Quality, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, Leiden, 2333ZA, The Netherlands.

Background: Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH; ORPHA178311) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the axial skeleton, the precise pathophysiology of which remains to be established. We addressed the potential association of SCCH with autoimmune processes by evaluating the lifetime prevalence of autoimmune disease in 70 patients with adult-onset SCCH and 518 SCCH-unaffected first-degree relatives (parents, siblings and children). Danish hospital registry data for autoimmune diseases were used as reference data.

Results: The mean age of interviewed patients was 56.3 years (range 26-80 years) and 86% were female. Interviewed patients belonged to 63 families, with four families having clusters of 2-3 patients. A diagnosis of at least one autoimmune disease was reported in 20 SCCH patients (29%) and in 47 relatives (9.1%), compared to an estimated 3.9% prevalence of autoimmune disease in the Danish reference population. A diversity of autoimmune diseases was reported in SCCH patients and relatives, most frequently psoriasis vulgaris (14%). Palmoplantar pustulosis was reported by 28 patients (40%). In SCCH patients, inclusion of palmoplantar pustulosis as putative autoimmune disease increased the overall prevalence to 54%.

Conclusions: The high prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis and their first-degree relatives suggests that autoimmunity may play a role in the still elusive pathophysiology of the intriguing osteogenic response to inflammation observed in this rare bone disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-017-0573-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267408PMC
January 2017

Comparison of MAPIE versus MAP in patients with a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma (EURAMOS-1): an open-label, international, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Oncol 2016 Oct 25;17(10):1396-1408. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA.

Background: We designed the EURAMOS-1 trial to investigate whether intensified postoperative chemotherapy for patients whose tumour showed a poor response to preoperative chemotherapy (≥10% viable tumour) improved event-free survival in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma.

Methods: EURAMOS-1 was an open-label, international, phase 3 randomised, controlled trial. Consenting patients with newly diagnosed, resectable, high-grade osteosarcoma aged 40 years or younger were eligible for randomisation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either postoperative cisplatin, doxorubicin, and methotrexate (MAP) or MAP plus ifosfamide and etoposide (MAPIE) using concealed permuted blocks with three stratification factors: trial group; location of tumour (proximal femur or proximal humerus vs other limb vs axial skeleton); and presence of metastases (no vs yes or possible). The MAP regimen consisted of cisplatin 120 mg/m, doxorubicin 37·5 mg/m per day on days 1 and 2 (on weeks 1 and 6) followed 3 weeks later by high-dose methotrexate 12 g/m over 4 h. The MAPIE regimen consisted of MAP as a base regimen, with the addition of high-dose ifosfamide (14 g/m) at 2·8 g/m per day with equidose mesna uroprotection, followed by etoposide 100 mg/m per day over 1 h on days 1-5. The primary outcome measure was event-free survival measured in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00134030.

Findings: Between April 14, 2005, and June 30, 2011, 2260 patients were registered from 325 sites in 17 countries. 618 patients with poor response were randomly assigned; 310 to receive MAP and 308 to receive MAPIE. Median follow-up was 62·1 months (IQR 46·6-76·6); 62·3 months (IQR 46·9-77·1) for the MAP group and 61·1 months (IQR 46·5-75·3) for the MAPIE group. 307 event-free survival events were reported (153 in the MAP group vs 154 in the MAPIE group). 193 deaths were reported (101 in the MAP group vs 92 in the MAPIE group). Event-free survival did not differ between treatment groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0·98 [95% CI 0·78-1·23]); hazards were non-proportional (p=0·0003). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (268 [89%] patients in MAP vs 268 [90%] in MAPIE), thrombocytopenia (231 [78% in MAP vs 248 [83%] in MAPIE), and febrile neutropenia without documented infection (149 [50%] in MAP vs 217 [73%] in MAPIE). MAPIE was associated with more frequent grade 4 non-haematological toxicity than MAP (35 [12%] of 301 in the MAP group vs 71 [24%] of 298 in the MAPIE group). Two patients died during postoperative therapy, one from infection (although their absolute neutrophil count was normal), which was definitely related to their MAP treatment (specifically doxorubicin and cisplatin), and one from left ventricular systolic dysfunction, which was probably related to MAPIE treatment (specifically doxorubicin). One suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction was reported in the MAP group: bone marrow infarction due to methotrexate.

Interpretation: EURAMOS-1 results do not support the addition of ifosfamide and etoposide to postoperative chemotherapy in patients with poorly responding osteosarcoma because its administration was associated with increased toxicity without improving event-free survival. The results define standard of care for this population. New strategies are required to improve outcomes in this setting.

Funding: UK Medical Research Council, National Cancer Institute, European Science Foundation, St Anna Kinderkrebsforschung, Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek-Vlaanderen, Parents Organization, Danish Medical Research Council, Academy of Finland, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Deutsche Krebshilfe, Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Semmelweis Foundation, ZonMw (Council for Medical Research), Research Council of Norway, Scandinavian Sarcoma Group, Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group, Cancer Research UK, National Institute for Health Research, University College London Hospitals, and Biomedical Research Centre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30214-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5052459PMC
October 2016

Expression of CCL21 in Ewing sarcoma shows an inverse correlation with metastases and is a candidate target for immunotherapy.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2016 08 1;65(8):995-1002. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive neoplasm predominantly occurring in adolescents and has a poor prognosis when metastasized. For patients with metastatic disease in particular, immunotherapy has been proposed as possible beneficial additive therapy. CCL21 activation-based immunotherapy was successful in preclinical studies in other tumor types; therefore, we investigated CCL21 expression in Ewing sarcoma as potential target for immunotherapy. The CCL21 RNA expression was determined in 21 Ewing sarcoma cell lines and 18 primary therapy-naive Ewing sarcoma samples. In the tumor samples, this was correlated with the number and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio of infiltrating T cells and clinical parameters. Higher RNA expression levels of CCL21 significantly correlated with a lower CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratio (P = 0.009), good chemotherapeutic response (P = 0.01) and improved outcome (P < 0.001). In patients with metastases, CCL21 expression was significantly lower than in patients without (P < 0.0005). CCL21 expression was significantly higher in Ewing sarcoma tissue samples compared to cell lines (P < 0.01), implying the involvement of a stromal factor. Protein expression analysis of CCL21 and its receptor CCR7 in 24 therapy-naïve tumors showed that there was no expression in all bar one Ewing sarcoma cells. In conclusion, CCL21 is expressed in clinical Ewing sarcoma samples by nontumor-infiltrating immune cells. The observed positive correlation with survival implies that CCL21 might be a potential prognostic marker for Ewing sarcoma and marks the potential of CCL21 immunotherapy for use in Ewing sarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-016-1862-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4956712PMC
August 2016

Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2016 ;916:315-32

Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30654-4_14DOI Listing
September 2016

Loss of H3K27 tri-methylation is a diagnostic marker for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and an indicator for an inferior survival.

Mod Pathol 2016 06 18;29(6):582-90. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive sarcomas that can show overlapping features with benign neurofibromas as well as high-grade sarcomas. Additional diagnostic markers are needed to aid in this often challenging differential diagnosis. Recently mutations in two critical components of the polycomb repressor 2 (PRC2) complex, SUZ12 and EED, were reported to occur specifically in MPNSTs while such mutations are absent in neurofibromas, both in the setting of neurofibromatosis (NF) and sporadic cases. Furthermore, both SUZ12 and EED mutations in MPNSTs were associated with loss of H3K27 tri-methylation, a downstream target of PRC2. Therefore, we tested whether H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry is useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for MPNSTs. We performed H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry in 162 primary MPNSTs, 97 neurofibromas and 341 other tumors using tissue microarray. We observed loss of H3K27me3 in 34% (55/162) of all MPNSTs while expression was retained in all neurofibromas including atypical (n=8) and plexiform subtypes (n=24). Within other tumors we detected loss of H3K27me3 in only 7% (24/341). Surprisingly, 60% (9/15) of synovial sarcomas and 38% (3/8) of fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) showed loss of H3K27 trimethylation. Only 1 out of 44 schwannomas showed loss of H3K27me3 and all 4 perineuriomas showed intact H3K27me3. Furthermore, MPNSTs with loss of H3K27 tri-methylation showed inferior survival compared with MPNSTs with intact H3K27 tri-methylation, which was validated in two independent cohorts. Our results indicate that H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry is useful as a diagnostic marker, in which loss of H3K27me3 favors MPNST above neurofibroma. However, H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry is not suitable to distinguish MPNST from its morphological mimicker synovial sarcoma or fibrosarcomatous DFSP. Since loss of H3K27 tri-methylation was related to poorer survival in MPNST, chromatin modification mediated by this specific histone seems to orchestrate more aggressive tumour biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2016.45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948583PMC
June 2016

MEK inhibition induces apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells with constitutive ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

Genes Cancer 2015 Nov;6(11-12):503-12

Division of Toxicology, Leiden/Academic Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Conventional high-grade osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer with relatively high incidence in young people. Recurrent and metastatic tumors are difficult to treat. We performed a kinase inhibitor screen in two osteosarcoma cell lines, which identified MEK1/2 inhibitors. These inhibitors were further validated in a panel of six osteosarcoma cell lines. Western blot analysis was performed to assess ERK activity and efficacy of MEK inhibition. A 3D culture system was used to validate results from 2D monolayer cultures. Gene expression analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed gene signatures in sensitive and resistant cell lines. Activation of the AKT signaling network was explored using Western blot and pharmacological inhibition. In the screen, Trametinib, AZD8330 and TAK-733 decreased cell viability by more than 50%. Validation in six osteosarcoma cell lines identified three cell lines as resistant and three as sensitive to the inhibitors. Western blot analysis of ERK activity revealed that sensitive lines had high constitutive ERK activity. Treatment with the three MEK inhibitors in a 3D culture system validated efficacy in inhibition of osteosarcoma viability. MEK1/2 inhibition represents a candidate treatment strategy for osteosarcomas displaying high MEK activity as determined by ERK phosphorylation status.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4701229PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/genesandcancer.91DOI Listing
November 2015

Ewing sarcoma: The clinical relevance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 and the poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase pathway.

Eur J Cancer 2016 Jan 5;53:171-80. Epub 2016 Jan 5.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: In the last three decades the outcome for patients with localised Ewing sarcoma (ES) has improved significantly since the introduction of multimodality primary treatment. However, for patients with (extra-) pulmonary metastatic and/or non-resectable relapsed disease the outcome remains poor and new treatment options are urgently needed. Currently the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway and the poly-ADP(adenosinediphosphate)-ribose-polymerase (PARP) pathway are being investigated for potential targeted therapies. IGF-1R: The IGF-1R pathway is known to be deregulated by the EWSR1-FLI1 translocation which makes it a potential target for therapy. Clinical trials have been reported in which only ES patients were treated with an IGF-1R inhibitor, either as single agent or in combination. In total 291 ES patients were included in these trials, in which two (0.7%) complete responses, 32 (11%) partial responses of which some durable, and 61 (21%) stable diseases were observed. PARP: In the presence of a PARP inhibitor DNA strand breaks cannot be efficiently repaired, leading to cell death. The first phase II trial with ES patients was recently published and showed no clinical responses, which may have been due to the drug being non-effective as a single agent.

Discussion: The IGF-1R pathway is an interesting target for ES and should be explored further, as biomarkers to select patients that might benefit from treatment are lacking. PARP inhibitors as single agent have so far failed to show improvement in outcome. Future directions include dual insulin receptor/IGF-1R blockade with linsitinib as well as chemotherapy-PARP combinations. Both therapeutic strategies are currently being explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2015.09.009DOI Listing
January 2016

Prognosis of Primary and Recurrent Chondrosarcoma of the Rib.

Ann Surg Oncol 2016 Mar 23;23(3):811-7. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Department of Surgical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Chondrosarcoma of the rib is a rare disease. Although surgery is the only curative treatment option, rib resection with an adequate margin can be challenging and local recurrence is a frequent problem. In this study, the prognosis of primary and recurrent chondrosarcoma of the rib is reported.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated for chondrosarcoma of the rib between 1984 and 2014 in three major tertiary referral centers in The Netherlands. Clinical and histopathological features were analyzed for their prognostic value using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Endpoints were set at local recurrent disease, metastasis rate, or death.

Results: Overall, 76 patients underwent a resection for a primary chondrosarcoma, and 26 patients underwent a resection for a recurrent chondrosarcoma. Five-year overall survival in the primary group was 90%, local recurrence rate was 17%, and metastasis rate was 12%. The 5-year outcome after recurrent chondrosarcoma was lower, with an overall survival of 65%, local recurrence rate of 27%, and metastasis rate of 27%. For primary chondrosarcoma, tumor size >5 cm and a positive resection margin were correlated with worse overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) 3.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-10.44; HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.03-8.25). A higher histological grade was correlated with a higher local recurrence and metastasis rate (HR 5.92, 95% CI 1.11-31.65; HR 6.96, 95% CI 1.15-42.60).

Conclusion: Surgical resection of both primary and recurrent chondrosarcoma of the rib is an effective treatment strategy. The oncological outcome after surgery is worse in tumors >5 cm, in tumors with positive resection margins and grade 3 chondrosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-015-4932-2DOI Listing
March 2016

Inactivation of SDH and FH cause loss of 5hmC and increased H3K9me3 in paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma and smooth muscle tumors.

Oncotarget 2015 Nov;6(36):38777-88

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) are tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and tumor suppressors. Loss-of-function mutations give rise to hereditary paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Inactivation of SDH and FH results in an abnormal accumulation of their substrates succinate and fumarate, leading to inhibition of numerous α-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) hydroxylases. To evaluate the distribution of DNA and histone methylation, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of 5 mC, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC), TET1, H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 on tissue microarrays containing paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas (n = 134) and hereditary and sporadic smooth muscle tumors (n = 56) in comparison to their normal counterparts. Our results demonstrate distinct loss of 5 hmC in tumor cells in SDH- and FH-deficient tumors. Loss of 5 hmC in SDH-deficient tumors was associated with nuclear exclusion of TET1, a known regulator of 5 hmC levels. Moreover, increased methylation of H3K9me3 occurred predominantly in the chief cell component of SDH mutant tumors, while no changes were seen in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, data supported by in vitro knockdown of SDH genes. We also show for the first time that FH-deficient smooth muscle tumors exhibit increased H3K9me3 methylation compared to wildtype tumors. Our findings reveal broadly similar patterns of epigenetic deregulation in both FH- and SDH-deficient tumors, suggesting that defects in genes of the TCA cycle result in common mechanisms of inhibition of histone and DNA demethylases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770736PMC
November 2015

Pharmacological inhibition of Bcl-xL sensitizes osteosarcoma to doxorubicin.

Oncotarget 2015 Nov;6(34):36113-25

Division of Toxicology, Leiden/Academic Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

High-grade conventional osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor. Prognosis for osteosarcoma patients is poor and resistance to chemotherapy is common. We performed an siRNA screen targeting members of the Bcl-2 family in human osteosarcoma cell lines to identify critical regulators of osteosarcoma cell survival. Silencing the anti-apoptotic family member Bcl-xL but also the pro-apoptotic member Bak using a SMARTpool of siRNAs as well as 4/4 individual siRNAs caused loss of viability. Loss of Bak impaired cell cycle progression and triggered autophagy. Instead, silencing Bcl-xL induced apoptotic cell death. Bcl-xL was expressed in clinical osteosarcoma samples but mRNA or protein levels did not significantly correlate with therapy response or survival. Nevertheless, pharmacological inhibition of a range of Bcl-2 family members showed that inhibitors targeting Bcl-xL synergistically enhanced the response to the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin. Indeed, in osteosarcoma cells strongly expressing Bcl-xL, the Bcl-xL-selective BH3 mimetic, WEHI-539 potently enhanced apoptosis in the presence of low doses of doxorubicin. Our results identify Bcl-xL as a candidate drug target for sensitization to chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4742165PMC
November 2015

A translocation t(6;14) in two cases of leiomyosarcoma: Molecular cytogenetic and array-based comparative genomic hybridization characterization.

Cancer Genet 2015 Nov 31;208(11):537-44. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, LUMC, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Leiomyosarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors that recapitulate smooth muscle cell differentiation. Tumors are characterized by a genetic heterogeneity with complex karyotypes without a tumor-specific genetic aberration. Their pathobiology is still poorly understood and no specific targeted treatment is currently available for these aggressive tumors. For six leiomyosarcomas, cells were cultured and analyzed by combined binary ratio labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization (COBRA-FISH) karyotyping. A t(6;14) was identified in two cases. FISH breakpoint mapping of case L1339 reveals a breakpoint at chromosome 6p21.31 close to HMGA1, and a small deletion was observed on the distal side of the gene. A small homozygous deletion was also found in the breakpoint region of chromosome 14q24.1 involving ACTN1. The second case revealed a der(6)t(6;14)(p21.1;q21.3), with a duplication adjacent to the breakpoint at chromosome 6. Confirmatory FISH revealed a second leiomyosarcoma with an aberration at 14q24.1. Alterations at this locus were found in 5% (2 of 39) of the leiomyosarcomas in this study. The other identified breakpoints appeared to be non-recurrent, because they were not detected in other leiomyosarcomas, uterine leiomyomas, undifferentiated spindle cell sarcomas, or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2015.07.005DOI Listing
November 2015

Sequencing Overview of Ewing Sarcoma: A Journey across Genomic, Epigenomic and Transcriptomic Landscapes.

Int J Mol Sci 2015 Jul 16;16(7):16176-215. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands.

Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive neoplasm occurring predominantly in adolescent Caucasians. At the genome level, a pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS translocation is present. The resulting fusion protein acts as a molecular driver in the tumor development and interferes, amongst others, with endogenous transcription and splicing. The Ewing sarcoma cell shows a poorly differentiated, stem-cell like phenotype. Consequently, the cellular origin of Ewing sarcoma is still a hot discussed topic. To further characterize Ewing sarcoma and to further elucidate the role of EWSR1-ETS fusion protein multiple genome, epigenome and transcriptome level studies were performed. In this review, the data from these studies were combined into a comprehensive overview. Presently, classical morphological predictive markers are used in the clinic and the therapy is dominantly based on systemic chemotherapy in combination with surgical interventions. Using sequencing, novel predictive markers and candidates for immuno- and targeted therapy were identified which were summarized in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms160716176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4519945PMC
July 2015

Mesenchymal stromal cells of osteosarcoma patients do not show evidence of neoplastic changes during long-term culture.

Clin Sarcoma Res 2015 23;5:16. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Department of Pediatrics, J6-S, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: In vitro expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as experimental cellular therapy. However, there have been concerns regarding the safety of their use, particularly with regard to possible oncogenic transformation. MSCs are the hypothesized precursor cells of high-grade osteosarcoma, a tumor with often complex karyotypes occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults.

Methods: To determine if MSCs from osteosarcoma patients could be predisposed to malignant transformation we cultured MSCs of nine osteosarcoma patients and five healthy donors for an average of 649 days (range 601-679 days). Also, we compared MSCs derived from osteosarcoma patients at diagnosis and from healthy donors using genome wide gene expression profiling.

Results: Upon increasing passage, increasing frequencies of binucleate cells were detected, but no increase in proliferation suggestive of malignant transformation occurred in MSCs from either patients or donors. Hematopoietic cell specific Lyn substrate 1 (HLCS1) was differentially expressed (fold change 0.25, P value 0.0005) between MSCs of osteosarcoma patients (n = 14) and healthy donors (n = 9).

Conclusions: This study shows that although HCLS1 expression was downregulated in MSCs of osteosarcoma patients and binucleate cells were present in both patient and donor derived MSCs, there was no evidence of neoplastic changes to occur during long-term culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13569-015-0031-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477606PMC
June 2015
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