Publications by authors named "Pan-Pan Chen"

43 Publications

[Effects of Wp-PKC on gonadal development of Whitmania pigra].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Mar;46(6):1374-1378

Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials,Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095,China.

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a kind of kinase which is widely involved in cell proliferation and development. PKC(Wp-PKC) in Whitmania pigra body belongs to classic PKC. In order to investigate the effect of Wp-PKC on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells, 17β-estradiol(17β-E2)(100 ng·mL~(-1)) and methyltestosterone(MT)(150 μg·L~(-1)), 150 μg·L~(-1)(MT)+0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC, 0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC inhibitor were added to Wh. pigra culture water, and no addition group(control group) was added, and the effects on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells and the expression of Wp-PKC were observed. The results showed that: Wp-PKC in male gonads was always higher than that in female gonads; MT promoted the development of male gonads in Wh. pigra, while the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly higher than that in the control; 17β-E2 promoted the development of female gonads in Wh. pigra and Wp-PKC expression significantly lower than that of the control; while the development of the female and male gonads in the PKC inhibitor group was inhibited, the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly lower than that of the control. In summary, Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201224.102DOI Listing
March 2021

PXR mediates mifepristone-induced hepatomegaly in mice.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Mifepristone (Mif), an effective synthetic steroidal antiprogesterone drug, is widely used for medical abortion and pregnancy prevention. Due to its anti-glucocorticoid effect, high-dose Mif is also used to treat Cushing's syndrome. Mif was reported to active pregnane X receptor (PXR) in vitro and PXR can induce hepatomegaly via activation and interaction with yes-associated protein (YAP) pathway. High-dose Mif was reported to induce hepatomegaly in rats and mice, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, the role of PXR was studied in Mif-induced hepatomegaly in C57BL/6 mice and Pxr-knockout mice. The results demonstrated that high-dose Mif (100 mg · kg · d, i.p.) treatment for 5 days significantly induced hepatomegaly with enlarged hepatocytes and promoted proliferation, but low dose of Mif (5 mg · kg · d, i.p.) cannot induce hepatomegaly. The dual-luciferase reporter gene assays showed that Mif can activate human PXR in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, Mif could promote nuclear translocation of PXR and YAP, and significantly induced the expression of PXR, YAP, and their target proteins such as CYP3A11, CYP2B10, UGT1A1, ANKRD, and CTGF. However, Mif (100 mg · kg · d, i.p.) failed to induce hepatomegaly in Pxr-knockout mice, as well as hepatocyte enlargement and proliferation, further indicating that Mif-induced hepatomegaly is PXR-dependent. In summary, this study demonstrated that PXR-mediated Mif-induced hepatomegaly in mice probably via activation of YAP pathway. This study provides new insights in Mif-induced hepatomegaly, and provides novel evidence on the crucial function of PXR in liver enlargement and regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00633-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Computational Exploration of Ambiphilic Reactivity of Azides and Sustmann's Paradigmatic Parabola.

J Org Chem 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569, United States.

We examine the theoretical underpinnings of the seminal discoveries by Reiner Sustmann about the ambiphilic nature of Huisgen's phenyl azide cycloadditions. Density functional calculations with ωB97X-D and B2PLYP-D3 reproduce the experimental data and provide insights into ambiphilic control of reactivity. Distortion/interaction-activation strain and energy decomposition analyses show why Sustmann's use of dipolarophile ionization potential is such a powerful predictor of reactivity. We add to Sustmann's data set several modern distortion-accelerated dipolarophiles used in bioorthogonal chemistry to show how these fit into the orbital energy criteria that are often used to understand cycloaddition reactivity. We show why such a simple indicator of reactivity is a powerful predictor of reaction rates that are actually controlled by a combination of distortion energies, charge transfer, closed-shell repulsion, polarization, and electrostatic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c00239DOI Listing
March 2021

Caspase-11 promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the cleavage of pannexin1 in acute kidney disease.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in clinic. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is associated with inflammation and renal injury in I/R-induced AKI. In the current study we explored the molecular and cellular mechanisms for NLRP3 inflammasome activation following renal I/R. Mice were subjected to I/R renal injury by clamping bilateral renal pedicles. We showed that I/R injury markedly increased caspase-11 expression and the cleavage of pannexin 1 (panx1) in the kidneys accompanied by NLRP3 inflammasome activation evidenced by the activation of caspase-1 and interlukin-1β (IL-1β) maturation. In Casp-11 mice, I/R-induced panx1 cleavage, NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as renal functional deterioration and tubular morphological changes were significantly attenuated. In cultured primary tubular cells (PTCs) and NRK-52E cells, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) markedly increased caspase-11 expression, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β maturation and panx1 cleavage. Knockdown of caspase-11 attenuated all those changes; similar effects were observed in PTCs isolated from Casp-11 mice. In NRK-52E cells, overexpression of caspase-11 promoted panx1 cleavage; pretreatment with panx1 inhibitor carbenoxolone or knockdown of panx1 significantly attenuated H/R-induced intracellular ATP reduction, extracellular ATP elevation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation without apparent influence on H/R-induced caspase-11 increase; pretreatment with P2X7 receptor inhibitor AZD9056 also attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The above results demonstrate that the cleavage of panx1 by upregulated caspase-11 is involved in facilitating ATP release and then NLRP3 inflammasome activation in I/R-induced AKI. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00619-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Projection-specific dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area participated in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance in male mice.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 Mar 21:269881120985183. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anaesthesiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, PR China.

Background: Long-term morphine use is associated with serious side effects, such as morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance. Previous investigations have documented the association between dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and pain. However, whether VTA DA neurons are implicated in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance remains elusive.

Methods: Initially, we observed behavioural effects of lidocaine administration into VTA or ablation of VTA DA neurons on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Subsequently, c-Fos expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell-projecting and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-projecting VTA DA neurons after chronic morphine treatment was respectively investigated. Afterwards, the effects of chemogenetic manipulation of NAc shell-projecting or mPFC-projecting DA neurons on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance were observed. Additionally, effects of chemogenetic manipulation of VTA GABA neurons on c-Fos expression in VTA DA neurons were investigated.

Results: Lidocaine injection into VTA relieved established hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance whereas ablation of VTA DA neurons prevented the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Chronic morphine treatment increased c-Fos expression in NAc shell-projecting DA neurons, rather than in mPFC-projecting DA neurons. Chemogenetic manipulation of NAc shell-projecting DA neurons had influence on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. However, chemogenetic manipulation of mPFC-projecting DA neurons had no significant effects on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Chemogenetic manipulation of VTA GABA neurons affected the c-Fos expression in VTA DA neurons.

Conclusions: These findings revealed the involvement of NAc shell-projecting VTA DA neurons in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance, and may shed new light on the clinical management of morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance.

Perspective: This study demonstrated that NAc shell-projecting DA neurons rather than mPFC-projecting DA neurons in the VTA were implicated in morphine-induced hyperalgesia and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Our findings may pave the way for the discovery of novel therapies for morphine-induced hyperalgesia and analgesic tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881120985183DOI Listing
March 2021

Schisandrol B promotes liver enlargement via activation of PXR and YAP pathways in mice.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 17;84:153520. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Schisandrol B (SolB) is one of the bioactive components from a traditional Chinese medicine Schisandra chinensis or Schisandra sphenanthera. It has been demonstrated that SolB exerts hepatoprotective effects against drug-induced liver injury and promotes liver regeneration. It was found that SolB can induce hepatomegaly but the involved mechanisms remain unknown.

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the mechanisms involved in SolB-induced hepatomegaly.

Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with SolB (100 mg/kg) for 5 days. Serum and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. The mechanisms of SolB were investigated by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, luciferase reporter gene assays and immunofluorescence.

Results: SolB significantly increased hepatocyte size and proliferation, and then promoted liver enlargement without liver injury and inflammation. SolB transactivated human PXR, activated PXR in mice and upregulated hepatic expression of its downstream proteins, such as CYP3A11, CYP2B10 and UGT1A1. SolB also significantly enhanced nuclear translocation of PXR and YAP in human cell lines. YAP signal pathway was activated by SolB in mice.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that SolB can significantly induce liver enlargement, which is associated with the activation of PXR and YAP pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153520DOI Listing
April 2021

[Cloning and expression analysis of protein kinase C gene from Whitmania pigra].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Feb;46(3):599-604

Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095, China.

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a type of protein kinase widely involved in cell proliferation and development, but the developmental mechanism in the gonads of androgynous animals is still unclear. In order to explore the role of protein kinase C in the development of Whitmania pigra germ cells, the Wh. pigra PKC(Wp-PKC) gene was cloned, bioinformatics analysis was conducted, and fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of female and male gonads. The results showed that:(1)The cloned Wp-PKC had a full length of 2 580 bp, a relative molecular weight of 76 555.19, and contains an open reading frame encoding 670 amino acids, Wp-PKC was closely related to Danio rerio PKC-α and rat PKC-γ. The similarity of amino acid sequence was 55% and 58%.(2)The protein encoded by Wp-PKC had no signal peptide and was a hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils, α-helices, extended chains, folds and folds, with the largest proportion of random coils and α-helices. Wp-PKC protein does not contain a transmembrane domain. Multiple sequence alignment and domain prediction analysis show that Wp-PKC contains 4 conserved domains of classical protein kinase C.(3)Fluorescence quantitative results showed that the expression of Wp-PKC in Wh. pigra gonads was positively correlated with the development of germ cells, and the expression in male gonads was significantly higher than that in female gonads. In summary, Wp-PKC is a classic PKC, and Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads, and provide references for further research on the developmental mechanisms of Wh. pigra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201114.102DOI Listing
February 2021

Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations, oxidative stress and thyroid function biomarkers among patients with thyroid nodules.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 2;272:116416. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, And State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:

Prior human studies have explored effects of phthalate exposures on thyroid function, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly unclear. We aimed to explore the associations between phthalate exposures and thyroid function among a potentially susceptible population such as patients with thyroid nodules, and further to assess the mediating role of oxidative stress. We measured eight phthalate metabolites, three oxidative stress biomarkers [8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F (8-isoPGF) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)] in urine and three thyroid function biomarkers [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4)] in serum among 214 patients with thyroid nodules. Multivariate regression models were applied to assess the associations among urinary phthalate metabolites, oxidative stress and thyroid function biomarkers. The potential mediating role of oxidative stress was explored by mediation analysis. We observed that multiple urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with altered FT4 and increased oxidative stress biomarkers (all FDR-adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Meanwhile, we found that 8-isoPGF was negatively associated with FT3/FT4 among patients with benign thyroid nodules (FDR-adjusted P = 0.08). The mediation analysis indicated that 8-isoPGF mediated the associations of urinary MEHHP and %MEHP with FT3/FT4, with 55.6% and 32.6% proportion of the mediating effects, respectively. Our data suggest that lipid peroxidation may be an intermediate mechanism involved in the effects of certain phthalate exposures on altered thyroid function among patients with benign thyroid nodules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116416DOI Listing
March 2021

Urinary biomarker of strontium exposure is positively associated with semen quality among men from an infertility clinic.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 25;208:111694. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubating), Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China. Electronic address:

Experimental studies have shown that nonradioactive strontium (Sr), in the form of Sr, have a positive effect on semen quality, but human evidence is lacking. This study aimed to examine the associations between nonradioactive Sr exposure and semen quality in Chinese men (n = 394). We recruited men who presented at an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China to seek for semen parameter analyses. Urinary Sr concentration as an exposure biomarker was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. We estimated the associations between urinary Sr concentrations and semen parameters using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. In multivariable linear regressions models, positive dose-response associations were estimated for sperm concentration, motility, and count across increasing urinary Sr quartiles (all p for trends<0.05), and the consistent positive associations were also observed for urinary Sr concentration modeled as a continuous exposure. In multivariable logistic models, decreased risks of below-reference sperm concentration, motility, and count were also estimated across increasing urinary Sr quartiles (all p for trends<0.05). Our results suggest that nonradioactive Sr exposure may have a beneficial effect on semen quality, but more investigations are warranted to confirm the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111694DOI Listing
January 2021

Sex-specific associations of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and its alternatives with fetal growth parameters and gestational age.

Environ Int 2021 Jan 11;146:106305. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, and Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) can cause detrimental effects on fetal growth. However, the effects of BPA alternatives, such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), on fetal growth are less known.

Objective: To investigate the relationships of prenatal BPA, BPF, and BPS exposures with fetal growth parameters and gestational age.

Methods: Urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS were measured in 1,197 pregnant women before delivery in a Chinese cohort. The associations of prenatal exposure to BPA, BPF, and BPS with fetal growth parameters and gestational age were examined, and associations stratified by fetal sex were also conducted. We used a restricted cubic splines (RCS) model to examine the dose-response associations between exposures and outcomes.

Results: Maternal urinary BPA and BPF were negatively related to birth length (-0.30 cm, 95% CI: -0.44, -0.15 and -0.21 cm, 95% CI: -0.36, -0.07 comparing the extreme exposure groups, respectively, both p for trends < 0.01). These associations were more pronounced in girls with inverted U-shaped dose-response relationships. Maternal urinary BPA and BPF were positively related to ponderal index (0.05 g/cm × 100, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.09 and 0.04 g/cm × 100, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08 comparing the extreme exposure groups, respectively, both p for trends = 0.02), and maternal urinary BPS was associated with shorter gestational age (-0.20 weeks, 95% CI: -0.37, -0.03 comparing the extreme exposure groups, p for trend = 0.02). These associations were only observed in girls and exhibited a linear dose-response relationship.

Conclusions: Prenatal BPA, BPF, and BPS exposures were associated with detrimental effects on fetal growth parameters, and stronger effects were noted in female infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106305DOI Listing
January 2021

The role of oxidative stress in association between disinfection by-products exposure and semen quality: A mediation analysis among men from an infertility clinic.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 3;268:128856. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:

Toxicological and epidemiologic evidence has suggested that exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) impairs semen quality, while the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of oxidative stress in association between DBP exposure and semen quality. We measured a urinary biomarker of DBP exposure [trichloroacetic acid (TCAA)] and three urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress [8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 (8-isoPGF2) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)] among men from an infertility clinic (n = 299). The associations of oxidative stress biomarkers with urinary TCAA and semen quality were evaluated using multivariable linear regression models, and the mediating role of oxidative stress biomarkers was assessed by a mediation analysis. Urinary TCAA was positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG and 8-isoPGF2 in a dose-response manner (both P for trend < 0.001). Significantly inverse dose-response associations were observed between urinary 8-isoPGF2 and sperm concentration and between urinary 8-OHdG and sperm motility (both P for trend < 0.05). The mediation analysis indicated a significant indirect effect of urinary 8-isoPGF2 in the association between urinary TCAA and decreased sperm concentration (P = 0.01). Our results suggest that lipid peroxidation may be an intermediate mechanism by which DBP exposure impairs semen quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128856DOI Listing
April 2021

Caspase-11/4 and gasdermin D-mediated pyroptosis contributes to podocyte injury in mouse diabetic nephropathy.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2020 Sep 23. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by sterile inflammation with continuous injury and loss of renal inherent parenchyma cells. Podocyte is an essential early injury target in DN. The injury and loss of podocytes are closely associated with proteinuria, the early symptom of renal injury in DN. However, the exact mechanism for podocyte injury and death in DN remains ambiguous. In this study we investigated whether pyroptosis, a newly discovered cell death pathway was involved in DN. Diabetic mice were generated by high-fat diet/STZ injections. We showed that the expression levels of caspase-11 and cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD-N) in podocytes were significantly elevated, accompanied by reduced expression of podocyte makers nephrin and podocin, loss and fusion in podocyte foot processes, increased inflammatory cytokines NF-κB, IL-1β, and IL-18, macrophage infiltration, glomerular matrix expansion and increased urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). All these changes in diabetic mice were blunted by knockout of caspase-11 or GSDMD. Cultured human and mouse podocytes were treated with high glucose (30 mM), which significantly increased the expression levels of caspase-11 or caspase-4 (the homolog of caspase-11 in human), GSDMD-N, NF-κB, IL-1β, and IL-18, and decreased the expression of nephrin and podocin. Either caspase-4 or GSDMD knockdown by siRNA significantly blunted these changes. In summary, our results demonstrate that caspase-11/4 and GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis is activated and involved in podocyte loss under hyperglycemia condition and the development of DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00525-zDOI Listing
September 2020

KLF4 initiates sustained YAP activation to promote renal fibrosis in mice after ischemia-reperfusion kidney injury.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Mar 9;42(3):436-450. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Acute renal injury (AKI) causes a long-term risk for progressing into chronic kidney disease (CKD) and interstitial fibrosis. Yes-associated protein (YAP), a key transcriptional cofactor in Hippo signaling pathway, shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus, which is required for the renal tubular epithelial cells repair in the acute phase of AKI. In this study we investigated the role of YAP during ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced AKI to CKD. Mice were subjected to left kidney IR followed by removal of the right kidney on the day before tissue harvests. Mouse shRNA expression adenovirus (Ad-shYAP or Ad-shKLF4) and mouse KLF4 expression adenovirus (Ad-KLF4) were delivered to mice by intrarenal injection on D7 after IR. We showed that the expression and nucleus distribution of YAP were persistently increased until the end of experiment (D21 after IR). The sustained activation of YAP in post-acute phase of AKI was accompanied by renal dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis. Knockdown of YAP significantly attenuated IR-induced renal dysfunction and decreased the expression of fibrogenic factors TGF-β and CTGF in the kidney. We showed that the expression of the transcription factor KLF4, lined on the upstream of YAP, was also persistently increased. Knockdown on KLF4 attenuated YAP increase and nuclear translocation as well as renal functional deterioration and interstitial fibrosis in IR mice, whereas KLF4 overexpression caused opposite effects. KLF4 increased the expression of ITCH, and ITCH facilitated YAP nuclear translocation via degrading LATS1. Furthermore, we demonstrated in primary cultured renal tubular cells that KLF4 bound to the promoter region of YAP and positively regulates YAP expression. In biopsy sample from CKD patients, we also observed increased expression and nuclear distribution of YAP. In conclusion, the activation of YAP in the post-acute phase of AKI is implicated in renal functional deterioration and fibrosis although it exhibits beneficial effect in acute phase. Reprogramming factor KLF4 is responsible for the persistent activation of YAP. Blocking the activation of KLF4-YAP pathway might be a way to prevent the transition of AKI into CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-0463-xDOI Listing
March 2021

[Effects of constant temperature on growth and gonad development of overwintering Whitmania pigra].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Apr;45(8):1873-1878

Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095, China.

The present study was conducted to explore the effect of constant temperature overwintering on the growth, gonadal development and internal quality of the Wh. pigra which were in overwintering period. Wh. pigra which in overwintering period were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃, and the Wh. pigra that overwintered under natural conditions were used as control. That the changes of growth performance, gonad index, internal quality of two groups of Wh. pigra were measured at the end of the overwintering. Simultaneously the tissue slice technique was used to observe the morphological structure of the spermary and ovary of the two groups. The results showed that the body weight of constant temperature overwintering Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ was 2.35 times that of natural overwintering Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions, and the weight of female gonads of the Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ was 11.54% higher than that of Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions, and the weight of male gonads of the Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ was 48.33% higher than that of the Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions. At the same time, that vitellogenesis cells and film forming cells which in ovarian vesicles were significantly higher than those of the Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions, and that spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes which in seminal vesicle were significantly higher than those of Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions. Most important of all, the anti-thrombin activity of Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ increased by 27.85% compared with the Wh. pigra that overwintered under natural conditions. In conclusion, that constant temperature can promote the growth, the development of sperm and egg cells, and the increase of anti-thrombin activity of Wh. pigra which were in overwintering period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200205.110DOI Listing
April 2020

Rolf Huisgen's Classic Studies of Cyclic Triene Diels-Alder Reactions Elaborated by Modern Computational Analysis.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 07 3;59(30):12506-12519. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1569, USA.

Rolf Huisgen explored the Diels-Alder reactions of 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (CHT) and cyclooctatetraene (COT) with the dienophiles maleic anhydride and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of various electrocyclizations and Diels-Alder reactions. These reactions have been examined with density functional theory. Modern computational chemistry has provided information not previously available by experiment. Transition states for all the reactions have been identified, and their Gibbs energies are used to explain the experimental reactivities. Zwitterionic intermediates were not found in the [4+2] cycloadditions of both CHT or COT with PTAD and are thus not involved in these reactions. [2+2+2] cycloadditions, as an alternative path to the Diels-Alder products, are highly disfavored. Rapid double nitrogen inversion was found for the cycloaddition products with PTAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202003279DOI Listing
July 2020

SARS-CoV-2 infection control measures for the anesthesiology department: experience from the Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, China.

J Clin Anesth 2020 09 22;64:109846. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' Hospital, Chengdu 610072, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174192PMC
September 2020

Nickel-Catalyzed Alkyl-Alkyl Cross-Electrophile Coupling Reaction of 1,3-Dimesylates for the Synthesis of Alkylcyclopropanes.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 03 4;142(11):5017-5023. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025, United States.

Cross-electrophile coupling reactions of two Csp-X bonds remain challenging. Herein we report an intramolecular nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling reaction of 1,3-diol derivatives. Notably, this transformation is utilized to synthesize a range of mono- and 1,2-disubstituted alkylcyclopropanes, including those derived from terpenes, steroids, and aldol products. Additionally, enantioenriched cyclopropanes are synthesized from the products of proline-catalyzed and Evans aldol reactions. A procedure for direct transformation of 1,3-diols to cyclopropanes is also described. Calculations and experimental data are consistent with a nickel-catalyzed mechanism that begins with stereoablative oxidative addition at the secondary center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c01330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864534PMC
March 2020

Intra-myocardial Delivery of a Novel Thermosensitive Hydrogel Inhibits Post-infarct Heart Failure After Degradation in Rat.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2020 10 4;13(5):677-685. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Whether intra-myocardial delivery of hydrogel can prevent post-infarct heart failure (HF) in a long follow-up period, especially after it is degraded, remains unclear. In this study, Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm (DPHP) hydrogel was delivered into peri-infarct myocardium of rat when coronary artery was ligated, while PBS was employed as control. Twelve weeks later, compared with control, left ventricle remodeling was attenuated and cardiac function was preserved; serum brain natriuretic peptide, cardiac aldosterone, and pulmonary congestion were suppressed in hydrogel group. Pro-fibrogenic mRNA increased in infarct area while decreased in remote zone, as well as hypertrophic mRNA. These data proves DPHP hydrogel suppresses ventricular remodeling and HF by promoting fibrotic healing in infarct area and inhibiting reactive fibrosis and hypertrophy in remote zone. Timely intra-myocardial hydrogel implantation is an effective strategy to inhibit post-infarct cardiac remodeling and have a long-term beneficial effect even after it has been biodegraded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-019-09941-xDOI Listing
October 2020

[Effects of MT on growth and gonad development of natural overwintering Whitmania pigra].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Oct;44(20):4426-4432

Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials,Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095,China.

The objectives of study were to explore the effects of exogenous methyltestosterone( MT) on the growth and gonadal development of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 1,1. 0,10. 0,100. 0,150. 0 μg·L of MT were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured after hibernate for 60 days. Then the tissue slice technique was used to observe the spermary( ovary) of Wh. pigra.The results showed that the body weight,survival rate and gonadal index increased first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous MT concentration; the male gland index was found the highest at the concentration of MT 10. 0 μg·L and the female gland index was the highest at the concentration of MT 1. 0 μg·L. The survival rate of Wh. pigra peaked at the concentration of MT 10. 0 μg·L.The weight reaches a peak at a concentration of MT 100. 0 μg·L( P<0. 05). The number of primary spermatocytes in the testis was negatively correlated with the concentration of exogenous MT. The number of secondary spermatocytes and sperm cells increased first and then decreased. The concentration of secondary spermatocytes was the highest when the concentration of MT was 100. 0 μg·L.The number and volume of oocytes in the ovary and the yolk granules increased first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous MT concentration,and the highest was observed at the MT concentration of 100. 0 μg·L. The endogenous steroid hormone of Wh.pigra increased first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous MT concentration. The concentration of androgen and progesterone was the highest in MT 100. 0 μg·L treatment( P<0. 05),and the concentration of estrogen was found the highest in MT 10. 0 μg·L treatment( P<0. 05). After adding exogenous MT,Wh. pigra moisture content,acid-insoluble ash content,p H and anti-thrombin activity met the quality criterion of medicinal Wh. pigra in Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition). In conclusion,the short-term addition of 1. 0-100. 0 μg·L exogenous MT before hibernation can promote the growth,the development of sperm cells and the antithrombin activity of Wh. pigra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190729.104DOI Listing
October 2019

Engaging Sulfonamides: Intramolecular Cross-Electrophile Coupling Reaction of Sulfonamides with Alkyl Chlorides.

J Org Chem 2020 02 16;85(4):1775-1793. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Chemistry , University of California , Irvine , California 92697-2025 , United States.

The application of amine derivatives as coupling partners is rare due to the inherent strength of the C-N bond. Herein, we report the first cross-electrophile coupling reaction of unstrained benzylic sulfonamides. Nickel-catalyzed intramolecular cross-electrophile coupling reactions of acyclic and cyclic benzylic sulfonamides with pendant alkyl chlorides generate cyclopropane products. Mechanistic experiments and DFT calculations are consistent with initiation of the reaction by magnesium iodide accelerated oxidative addition of the benzylic sulfonamide. This work establishes neutral and unstrained amine derivatives as XEC partners, furnishes structural rearrangement of benzylic sulfonamides, and provides valuable information regarding catalyst design for the development of new cross-electrophile coupling reactions of carbon-heteroatom bonds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.9b02603DOI Listing
February 2020

[Effects of 17β-E2 on growth and gonad development of overwintering Whitmania pigra].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Aug;44(15):3239-3245

Institute of China Medicinal Materials,Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095,China.

The present study was conducted to explores the effects of short-term addition of 17β-E2 on the growth,gonad development and internal quality of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 0,1. 0,10. 0,25. 0,50. 0,100. 0 μg·L~(-1) of 17β-E2 were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks and then hibernated for 60 days. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,morphological structure of spermary( ovary),endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured. The results showed that the body weight,weight gain rate,specific growth rate,female gonad index,oocyte development and endogenous estrogen level of the leech increased first and then decreased with the increase of the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2,which were higher than those of the control group. The body weight,weight gain rate and specific growth rate of the leech at the concentration of 25 μg·L~(-1)17β-E2 were significantly higher than those of the other groups( P<0. 05),oocyte development and endogenous estrogen levels were significantly higher than those of other groups at the concentration of 50 μg·L~(-1)( P<0. 05). When the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2 was higher than 50 μg·L~(-1),the levels of male gonad index,spermatocyte development,endogenous androgen and progesterone were significantly inhibited( P< 0. 05). There was no significant difference in endogenous corticosteroid levels among the groups. In conclusion,short-term addition of exogenous 17β-E2 of 10-25 μg·L~(-1) could promote the growth of overwintering leeches,oocyte development and antithrombin activity without inhibiting the development of male gonads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190527.110DOI Listing
August 2019

[Chemical constituent analysis for seeds of Celosia argentea by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Feb;44(3):500-508

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University Nanjing 211166, China.

This Paper aimed to analyze and identify the chemical constituents from the seeds of Celosia argentea by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The analysis was performed on an ACQUITY HSS T3 reverse phase column(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm). The mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid was used for gradient elution, and the flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1). Mass spectrometry was applied for the qualitative analysis under positive and negative ionization modes and ESI ion source. Data was analyzed by Masslynx 4.1 software, literatures in SciFinder database, and standards. A total of 49 compounds, including 14 triterpenoids, 17 flavonoids, 11 cyclic peptides, 2 phenols, 2 organic acids, and 3 steroids were putatively identified. Among them, 19 compounds were firstly reported from this species. In-depth chemical constituent analysis for the seeds of C. argentea were accomplished here, and the findings could lay a good foundation for its quality control and clarifying the material basis of its efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20181126.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Sodium ferulate inhibits myocardial hypertrophy induced by abdominal coarctation in rats: Involvement of cardiac PKC and MAPK signaling pathways.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Apr 27;112:108735. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education and Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, 563000, China. Electronic address:

Sodium ferulate (SF) is the sodium salt of ferulic acid which is an active ingredient of Radix Angelica Sinensis and Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. Here, we investigated SF inhibition in a rat model of myocardial hypertrophy induced by coarctation of the abdominal aorta. Following coarctation, rats were given SF (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/day) for 25 consecutive days. We characterized myocardial hypertrophy using myocardial hypertrophic parameters, histopathology, and gene expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) -a gene related to myocardial hypertrophy. We detected the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), protein kinase C beta (PKC-β), Raf-1, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in myocardium. Notably, coarctation of the abdominal aorta increases myocardial hypertrophic parameters, cardiac myocyte diameter, the concentration of Ang II and ET-1 in myocardium, and gene expression of ANF. SF significantly ameliorates myocardial hypertrophy caused by coarctation of the abdominal aorta; reduces concentrations of Ang II and ET-1; suppresses the overexpression of ANF, PKC-β, Raf-1, and ERK1/2; and increases the expression of MKP-1. These results indicate that SF alleviates myocardial hypertrophy induced by coarctation of the abdominal aorta, and these protective effects could be related to the inhibition of PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108735DOI Listing
April 2019

Inhibitory effects of total ginsenoside on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jun 6;114:108851. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education and Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, 563006, China. Electronic address:

Pulmonary fibrosis is the final outcome of a variety of diffuse pulmonary interstitial diseases, and it has an unclear pathogenesis. There is no effective drug treatment, so the clinical prognosis is poor. As an effective component of ginseng, total ginsenoside (TG) inhibits acute lung injury. This study determined whether TG has protective effects on pulmonary fibrosis and investigated its protective mechanisms. A pulmonary fibrosis model in BALB/c mice was established by injecting the bleomycin chemotherapeutic agent into the trachea. TG (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d) was given continuously for 28 days from the second day after development of the model. Pulmonary fibrosis was determined by measuring the lung coefficient, haematoxylin and eosin, and Masson's trichrome staining of lung samples, and detection of alpha smooth muscle actin expression in lung tissues. To investigate the mechanisms of anti-pulmonary fibrosis by TG, we detected the genes and proteins of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signalling pathway and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system. Treatment with TG (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d) ameliorated pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice, downregulated the expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, MMP-2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and upregulated the protein expression of Smad7. These results suggest that the protective effects of TG on pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin are related to regulation of the TGF-β1/Smad signalling pathway and MMP system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108851DOI Listing
June 2019

A Unified Explanation for Chemoselectivity and Stereospecificity of Ni-Catalyzed Kumada and Cross-Electrophile Coupling Reactions of Benzylic Ethers: A Combined Computational and Experimental Study.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 04 26;141(14):5835-5855. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310027 , China.

Ni-catalyzed C(sp)-O bond activation provides a useful approach to synthesize enantioenriched products from readily available enantioenriched benzylic alcohol derivatives. The control of stereospecificity is key to the success of these transformations. To elucidate the reversed stereospecificity and chemoselectivity of Ni-catalyzed Kumada and cross-electrophile coupling reactions with benzylic ethers, a combined computational and experimental study is performed to reach a unified mechanistic understanding. Kumada coupling proceeds via a classic cross-coupling mechanism. Initial rate-determining oxidative addition occurs with stereoinversion of the benzylic stereogenic center. Subsequent transmetalation with the Grignard reagent and syn-reductive elimination produce the Kumada coupling product with overall stereoinversion at the benzylic position. The cross-electrophile coupling reaction initiates with the same benzylic C-O bond cleavage and transmetalation to form a common benzylnickel intermediate. However, the presence of the tethered alkyl chloride allows a facile intramolecular S2 attack by the benzylnickel moiety. This step circumvents the competing Kumada coupling, leading to the excellent chemoselectivity of cross-electrophile coupling. These mechanisms account for the observed stereospecificity of the Kumada and cross-electrophile couplings, providing a rationale for double inversion of the benzylic stereogenic center in cross-electrophile coupling. The improved mechanistic understanding will enable design of stereoselective transformations involving Ni-catalyzed C(sp)-O bond activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b00097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773265PMC
April 2019

c-Myc promotes tubular cell apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury by negatively regulating c-FLIP and enhancing FasL/Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2019 Aug 28;40(8):1058-1066. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

c-Myc plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell apoptosis. FasL/Fas pathway is a key regulator of cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of c-Myc on the FasL/Fas pathway in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced renal injury. Rats were objected to bilateral renal ischemia for 60 min and reperfused for 24 or 48 h. NRK-52E cells were treated with hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) or FasL. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of c-Myc. Cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining. Ad-c-Myc and recombinant pcDAN 3.0 were used to overexpress c-Myc and c-FLIP, respectively. ChIP assay and luciferase assay were used to detect the binding of c-Myc to c-FLIP promoter. In I/R rats, c-Myc was increased significantly and mainly located in renal tubular epithelial cells; meanwhile, c-FLIP was decreased, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive staining cells were increased. Treatment of I/R rats with c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4 significantly attenuated the decrease in c-FLIP, the increase in cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, TUNEL-positive cells, Scr and BUN in I/R rats. In NRK-52E cells, hypoxia and reoxygen induced the increase in c-Myc and decrease in c-FLIP. ChIP and luciferase assay results indicated that c-Myc binds to the promoter region of c-FLIP gene. Overexpression of c-Myc markedly decreased c-FLIP. Overexpression of c-FLIP inhibited the increase in cleaved caspase-8 and caspase-3 induced by FasL. Data indicated that c-Myc is increased in kidneys of I/R rats and negatively regulates the expression of c-FLIP, then enhanced FasL-induced cell apoptosis in I/R stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-018-0201-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786400PMC
August 2019

Domino effect of IL-15 and CD8 T cell-mediated neuronal apoptosis in experimental traumatic brain injury.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou, China ;

The effects of local factors on the activation of immune cells infiltrating the CNS in rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains to be defined. The cytokine IL-15 is crucial in the development and activation of CD8 T lymphocytes, a prominent lymphocytic population identified in TBI lesions. We investigated whether IL-15 originates from astrocytes as well as evoke the CD8 T lymphocyte response in TBI. We observed that astrocytes were activated in TBI rat model, with IL-15 overexpressed on the astrocytic surface. Furthermore, the infiltrating CD8 T lymphocytes in the TBI lesions were adjacent to the IL-15-expressing astrocytes. Subsequently, CD8 T lymphocytes released Gra-b, which in turn activated Caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, and ultimately induced neuronal apoptosis. Conversely, inhibition of astrocytes by fluorocitrate (FC) pretreatment resulted in the improved neurological function and memory, as well as downregulation of IL-15 and CD8 T cells, and decreased neuronal apoptosis. In contrast, recombinant rat IL-15 (rIL-15) pretreatment upregulated the levels of CD8 T cells and Gra-b, and induced neuronal apoptosis. We concluded that IL-15 could induce neuronal apoptosis by enhancing CD8 T cell function in the rat model of TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2017.5607DOI Listing
November 2018

[Preliminary study on changes of sex steroid hormones in periodic development of Whitmania pigra gonad].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018 Sep;43(18):3639-3643

Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

The present study was conducted to investigate the rule of sex steroid hormones dynamic in the periodic development of Whitmania pigra gonad. The dynamic of sex steroid hormones in different age of Wh. pigra were detected by enzymolysis, extraction and UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the concentrations of estrone, estriol, testosterone and progesterone in the Wh. pigra showed M-type curve and peaked in 6-month-old Wh. pigra. The concentrations of above-mentioned four steroid hormones were the lowest in 9-month-old and then increased slightly. The another peaks of testosterone and progesterone were found in 2-month-old and the another peaks of estrone and estriol were obtained in 8-month-old. The concentrations of testosterone and progesterone are slightly higher than estriol during 1-month-old to 4-month-old, and thereafter strone and estriol showed higher concentration than testosterone and progesterone. In summary, the concentrations of four sex steroid hormones in Wh. pigra increased gradually with the maturation of gonads and decreased rapidly after the discharge period, which indicated that the ratio between estrogen, androgen and progesterone may be greatly related to the specificity of gonad development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.2018.0101DOI Listing
September 2018

[Effects of Cu²⁺ enrichment and release on growth, internal quality and relative gene expression of Whitmania pigra].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018 Sep;43(18):3624-3632

Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

The present study explored the effects of Cu²⁺enrichment and release on the growth and internal quality of Whitmania pigra, and the regularity of enrichment and release in different tissues of Wh. pigra. In the range of safe concentration(SC), a certain concentration of Cu²⁺ was added to the Wh. pigra for 50 days, and stopped adding for another 50 days. The growth index of Wh. pigra, Cu²⁺ content in different tissues, and the internal quality were determined. The results showed that the average body weight of Wh. pigra in 0.014 mg·L⁻¹ of Cu²⁺ group was significantly higher than that in control group during the experimental period (<0.05), and the mortality rate was lower than that in the control group. The specific growth rate, digestive enzyme activity, growth and digestive enzyme related gene expression of Wh. pigra in Cu²⁺ group were significantly higher than that in the control group (<0.05) during the early 40 days of enrichment, and there was no significant difference in the release period. In Cu²⁺ group, the expression of immune enzyme and immune enzyme related gene of Wh. pigra increased first and then decreased compared with control group (<0.05). The ability of enriched Cu²⁺ in different tissues of Wh. pigra was digestive tract>muscle>skin. The ability of release Cu²⁺ was muscle>digestive tract>skin. There was no significant difference in the internal quality and hirudin gene expression between Cu²⁺ group and control group. In conclusion, Cu²⁺ can improve the expression of digestive enzymes, immune enzyme and related genes of Wh. pigra, promote the growth of Wh. pigra and enhance their immunity, but it doesn't affect the internal quality of Wh. pigra. The Wh. pigra can completely release Cu²⁺ within 30 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.2018.0100DOI Listing
September 2018

[Effect of Astragali Radix on growth, immunity and related gene expression of Whitmania pigra].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018 Sep;43(18):3611-3617

Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

To explore the effect and mechanism of Astragali Radix on growth and immunity of Whitmania pigra, 0, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.09% of Astragali Radix were added to the daily feeding of Wh. pigra. After 60 days of feeding, the growth performance, activities of digestive enzyme and anti-reverse enzyme, inner quality, the expression levels of GH, IGF-1 and digestive enzyme-related genes were measured. Meanwhile, the effects of heat stress on the living conditions of Wh. pigra were observed and counted, and the expression levels of HSP70 and immune related genes were measured. The results showed that the final weight, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, activities of digestive enzyme and anti-reverse enzyme, the expression levels of GH, IGF-1 and digestive enzyme-related genes in the Astragali Radix group were higher than those in the control group, and with the increase of Astragali Radix concentration, the above-mentioned indexes increased initially and then decreased, and significantly higher in the 0.05% of Astragali Radix group than in the other groups (<0.05). There was no significant difference in the inner quality of Wh. pigra between the Astragali Radix and control groups. The survival rate of Wh. pigra was negatively correlated with heat stress treatment duration. With the prolongation of heat stress treatment duration, the expression levels of HSP70 and immune related genes were increased first and then decreased, and peaked at 24 h. The survival rate and the expression levels of HSP70 and immune related genes in the Astragali Radix group were higher than those in the control group, and was significantly higher in the 0.05% of Astragali Radix group than in the other groups (<0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the activities of digestive enzyme and anti-reverse enzyme, the expression levels of related genes, growth performance, and immunity to heat stress of Wh. pigra. It is suggested to add 0.05% of Astragali Radix in the actual production of Wh. pigra to improve the production profit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20180703.006DOI Listing
September 2018