Publications by authors named "Pan Liu"

352 Publications

Mutation spectrum of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Central South China.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China; Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

To analyze the mutational spectrum of known ALS causative genes in China ALS patients. We comprehensively analyzed 51 ALS causative genes by combining different sequencing technologies in 753 unrelated ALS patients from Central South China. The mean age at onset (AAO) was 53.7±11.4 years. The AAO was earlier in the autosomal dominant (AD) ALS patients than in the sporadic ALS (sALS) patients. Bulbar onset was more frequent in females than in males. SOD1 was the most frequently mutated gene in the AD-ALS and the sALS patients, followed by the ATXN2 and FUS genes in the AD-ALS patients and the NEK1 and CACNA1H genes in the sALS patients. Patients with RDVs in the SOD1 or FUS genes had an earlier AAO than the mean AAO of all the patients, while the patients with RDVs in the NEK1 gene showed later onset. SOD1 gene was the most commonly mutated gene in ALS patients in China, followed by ATXN2 and NEK1. The phenotype might be determined synergistically by sex and genetic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.06.008DOI Listing
June 2021

Understand the impact of traffic states on crash risk in the vicinities of Type A weaving segments: A deep learning approach.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jul 9;159:106293. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Jiangjun Road# 29, Nanjing 211106, China. Electronic address:

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of traffic states on crash risk in the vicinities of Type A weaving segments. A deep convolutional embedded clustering (DCEC) was developed to classify traffic flow into nine states. The proposed DCEC outperformed the three common clustering algorithms, i.e. K-means, deep embedded clustering, and deep convolutional autoencoders clustering, in terms of silhouette coefficient and calinski-harabaz index on the same samples, suggesting that the DCEC provides better clustering performance. The characteristics of the nine traffic states are described for the right and inside lanes separately. The DCED visualization indicates that the spatiotemporal features of the nine traffic states are different from each other. The empirical analyses suggest that crash severity and the main types of crashes are different across the nine traffic states. The results of the logistic regression model prove that the nine traffic states are significantly associated with crash risk in the vicinities of weaving segments, and each traffic state can be assigned with a unique safety level. The convolutional neural network with gated convolutional layers (G-CNN) was developed to predict the crash risk in each traffic state. Compared with the traditional four traffic states classification based on 4-phase traffic theory, the model incorporating the various crash mechanisms across the nine traffic states provides more accurate predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106293DOI Listing
July 2021

A Pulmonary Artery-Vein Separation Algorithm Based on the Relationship between Subtrees Information.

J Healthc Eng 2021 9;2021:5550379. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing in Medical Image, Ministry of Education, Shenyang 110189, China.

Physicians need to distinguish between pulmonary arteries and veins when diagnosing diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung tumors. However, manual differentiation is difficult due to various factors such as equipment and body structure. Unlike previous geometric methods of manually selecting the points of seeds and using neural networks for separation, this paper proposes a combined algorithm for pulmonary artery-vein separation based on subtree relationship by implementing a completely new idea and combining global and local information, anatomical knowledge, and two-dimensional region growing method. The algorithm completes the reconstruction of the whole vascular structure and the separation of adhesion points from the tree-like structure characteristics of blood vessels, after which the automatic classification of arteries and veins is achieved by using anatomical knowledge, and the whole process is free from human intervention. After comparing all the experimental results with the gold standard, we obtained an average separation accuracy of 85%, which achieved effective separation. Meanwhile, the time range could be controlled between 40 s and 50 s, indicating that the algorithm has good stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5550379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208852PMC
June 2021

Mitochondrial genome variations are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in patients from mainland China.

J Neurol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Rd, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the complex pathophysiology of ALS; however, the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in ALS is poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the role of mtDNA variants in the pathogenesis of ALS.

Methods: The mitochondrial haplogroups of 585 ALS patients and 371 healthy controls were determined; 38 ALS patients and 42 controls underwent long-range polymerase chain reaction combined with next-generation sequencing technology to analyze whole mitochondrial genome variants.

Results: A higher percentage of variants accumulated in ALS patients than in controls. Analysis of coding region variations that were further stratified by mtDNA genes revealed that nonsynonymous variants were more vulnerable in ALS patients than in controls, particularly in the ND4L, ND5, and ATP8 genes. Moreover, pathogenic nonsynonymous variants tended to over-represent in ALS patients. Unsurprisingly, nonsynonymous variants were not related to the phenotype. Haplogroup analysis did not found evidence of association between haplogroups with the risk of ALS, however, patients belonging to haplogroup Y and M7c were prone to develop later onset of ALS.

Conclusions: This is the first study to profile mtDNA variants in ALS patients from mainland China. Our results suggest that an increase in the number of nonsynonymous variants is linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Moreover, haplogroup Y and M7c may modulate the clinical expression of ALS. Our findings provide independent, albeit limited, evidence for the role of mtDNA in the pathogenesis of ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10659-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Graphene-coated nanoporous nickel towards a metal-catalyzed oxygen evolution reaction.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun;13(24):10916-10924

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. and WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Developing highly active electrocatalysts with low costs and long durability for oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) is crucial towards the practical implementations of electrocatalytic water-splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Anodized nanostructured 3d transition metals and alloys with the formation of OER-active oxides/hydroxides are known to have high catalytic activity towards OERs but suffer from poor electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in harsh oxidation environments. Here we report that high OER activity can be achieved from the metallic state of Ni which is passivated by atomically thick graphene in a three-dimensional nanoporous architecture. As a free-standing catalytic anode, the non-oxide transition metal catalyst shows a low OER overpotential, high OER current density and long cycling lifetime in alkaline solutions, benefiting from the high electrical conductivity and low impedance resistance for charge transfer and transport. This study may pave a new way to develop high efficiency transition metal OER catalysts for a wide range of applications in renewable energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02074aDOI Listing
June 2021

Recording of electrocochleography from the facial nerve canal in mice.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jun 11;360:109256. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Hearing and Deafness, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York, United States of America.

Background: The ever-expanding arsenal of genetically modified mice has created experimental models for studying various mechanisms of deafness. Electrocochleography (ECochG) is a recording technique of cochlear potentials evoked by sound stimulation, which was widely used to evaluate the cochlear hearing function. However, there is currently a lack of information on long-term recording technology of ECochG in mice.

New Method: We describe in detail the surgical procedure of implanting electrode into the facial nerve canal in C57BL/6J mice for ECochG recording. The results of ECochG recorded by electrode in the facial nerve canal were compared with ECochG guided by electrode on the round window niche.

Results: The surgical method of inserting the electrode into the facial nerve canal is relatively simple and can be completed within 15 min. The electrode inserted into the elongated facial nerve canal is stable and close to the auditory nerve trunk, so it is conducive to long-term auditory function monitoring. Hence, the ECochG guided by the electrode from the facial nerve canal can maintain a stable response for more than two weeks. In contrast, the ECochG guided by the electrode in the round window niche can only be maintained for a maximum of 20 min.

Comparison With Existing Methods: In mice, existing recording techniques of ECochG from round window niche is limited by conductive hearing loss due to middle ear effusion or surgical damage.

Conclusions: ECochG recording from the facial nerve canal is suitable for long-term recording in mice. This electrode approach provides a repeatable and reliable measurement of ECochG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109256DOI Listing
June 2021

Atomic Ni and Cu co-anchored 3D nanoporous graphene as an efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for zinc-air batteries.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun;13(24):10862-10870

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.

Highly active, cost-effective and durable electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are critically important for renewable energy conversion and storage. Here we report a 3D bicontinuous nitrogen doped nanoporous graphene electrocatalyst co-anchoring with atomically dispersed nickel and copper atoms ((Ni,Cu)-NG) as a highly active single-atom ORR catalyst, fabricated by the combination of chemical vapor deposition and high temperature gas transportation. The resultant (Ni,Cu)-NG exhibits an exceptional ORR activity in alkaline electrolytes, comparable to the Pt-based benchmarks, from the synergistic effect of the CuNx and NiNx complexes. Endowed with high catalytic activity and outstanding durability under harsh electrochemical environments, rechargeable zinc-air batteries using (Ni,Cu)-NG as the cathodes show excellent energy efficiency (voltage gap of 0.74 V), large power density (150.6 mW cm-2 at 250 mA cm-2) and high cycling stability (>500 discharge-charge cycles at 10 mA cm-2). This study may pave an efficient avenue for designing highly durable single-atom ORR catalysts for metal-air batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01612aDOI Listing
June 2021

[Analysis of a novel JAG1 variant and clinical phenotype in a family affected with Alagille syndrome].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(6):545-548

The Third Department of Children's Infectious and Liver Diseases, Xi'an Children's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710003, China.

Objective: To explore the genetic basis of a pedigree affected with Alagille syndrome (ALGS).

Methods: Targeted capture and next generation sequencing was carried out for the proband. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing among his family members. Their pathogenicity of the variant was predicted with bioinformatic analysis. Clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlation were analyzed.

Results: The proband, his elder sister and mother were found to carry a heterozygous c.1270dupG (p.Ala424Glyfs*5) variant of the JAG1 gene, which may lead to premature termination of translation and a truncated protein with loss of function. The variant was unreported previously. The phenotypes of the proband (cholestasis, pulmonary artery stenosis and peculiar faces) have differed from those of his elder sister (cholestasis with pruritus, posterior embryonic ring of cornea) and mother (with no clinical manifestation). Cholestasis and peculiar face of the proband became insignificant with age.

Conclusion: The c.1270dupG (p.Ala424Glyfs*5) variant of the JAG1 gene probably underlay the ALGS in this pedigree with incomplete penetrance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200410-00249DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Injections for Elderly Patients With pneumonia-A Bayesian Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2021 21;12:610745. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Pneumonia is a prevalent and complicated disease among adults, elderly people in particular, and the debate on the optimal Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) is ongoing. Our objective is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of various CHIs strategies for elderly patients with pneumonia. A comprehensive search strategy was executed to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by browsing through several databases from their inception to first, Feb 2020; All of the direct and indirect evidence included was rated by Network meta-analysis under a Bayesian framework. We ultimately identified 34 eligible randomized controlled trials that involved 3,111 elderly participants and investigated 4 CHIs combined with Western medicine (WM) (Xiyanping injection [XYP]+WM, Yanhuning injection [YHN]+WM, Tanreqing injection [TRQ]+WM, Reduning injection [RDN]+WM), contributing 34 direct comparisons between CHIs. Seen from the outcome of Clinical effective rate and time for defervescence, patients taking medicine added with CHIs [Clinical effective rate, XYP + WM(Odd ratio (OR): 0.74, 95%Credible intervals (CrIs):0.55-0.98), YHN + WM(OR: 0.66, 95%CrI: 0.45-0.95), TRQ + WM(OR: 0.65, 95%CrI: 0.50-0.83), RDN + WM(OR: 0.60, 95%CrI: 0.40-0.89); Time for defervescence, YHN + WM(Mean difference (MD): -2.11, 95%CrI: -3.26 to -0.98), XYP + WM(MD: -2.06, 95%CrI: -3.08 to -1.09), RDN + WM(MD: -1.97, 95%CrI: -3.61 to -0.35), TRQ + WM(MD: -1.69, 95%CrI: -2.27 to -1.04)] showed statistically better effect compared with participants in the Control group (CG) who only took WM. Meanwhile, based on the time for disappearance of cough, 3 out of 4 CHIs [TRQ + WM(MD: -2.56, 95%CrI: -3.38 to -1.54), YHN + WM(MD: -2.36, 95%CrI: -3.86 to -1.00) and XYP + WM(MD: -2.21, 95%CrI: -3.72 to -1.10)] strategies indicated improvement of clinical symptoms. Only XYP + WM(MD -1.78, 95%CrI: -3.29 to -0.27) and TRQ + WM (MD: -1.71, 95%CrI: -2.71 to -0.73) could significantly shorten the time for disappearance of pulmonary rales. According to the statistical effect size (The surface under the cumulative ranking), we found that XYP + WM was presumably to be the preferable treatment for treating elderly patients with pneumonia compared with WM alone in terms of clinical effective rate. Our findings were based on very limited evidence and thus should be interpreted with caution. The application of the findings requires further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.610745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176116PMC
May 2021

Investigating the predictability of crashes on different freeway segments using the real-time crash risk models.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jun 2;159:106213. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban ITS, Southeast University, Dong Nan Da Xue Road #2, Nanjing, 211189, China; Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Urban Traffic Technologies, Dong Nan Da Xue Road #2, Nanjing, 211189, China; School of Transportation, Southeast University, Dong Nan Da Xue Road #2, Nanjing, 211189, China. Electronic address:

Improvement of the prediction efficiency of crash risks has attracted the attention of numerous studies. Nevertheless, one of the most important factors, crash precursors, were neglected. This study mainly focuses on identifying optimal crash precursors for different freeway section types, as well as providing a threshold selection method for real-time crash risk models. Freeway sections are divided into four types, i.e. basic sections, weaving areas, merging areas, and diverging areas. Bayesian logistic regression (BLR) models were established for each type of segment, and significant factors were distinguished. A threshold selection method was proposed based on cost-benefit theory, and the threshold is determined as the value when the number of proactive safety interventions to prevent a crash is 5000 in this study. BLR models with one, two and three optimal variables were developed. Then the sensitivity and false alarm rate of the models were obtained and compared. Comparison results show that the minimum amount of parameters which can achieve the ideal prediction effectiveness is two. In this situation, 25 %, 50 %, 20 % and 20 % of the crashes occurring at basic sections, weaving areas, merging areas and diverging areas can be accurately predicted respectively. Downstream average speed was recommended as the best crash precursor variable for all the segment types. Support Vector Machine and Random Forest were applied to confirm the conclusion. The conclusion of this paper has the possibility to help reduce crash risk to a relatively economical level in practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106213DOI Listing
June 2021

Cyclotriphosphazene-Based "Butterfly" Fluorescence Probe for Lysosome Targeting.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 06 24;32(6):1117-1122. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

A cyclotriphosphazene-based "butterfly" fluorescence probe bearing two naphthalimide and morpholine units were developed for lysosome targeting. The synthesized exhibited stable fluorescence signals and was cytocompatible in the given concentration range. Co-localization experimental results showed that cells treated with the and a commercial dye (Lyso-Tracker Red DND-99) had overlapped fluorescence signals, demonstrating its targeting specificity to lysosomes. The developed may be used for cell tracking applications associated with the functionalities of lysosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.1c00160DOI Listing
June 2021

Microwave absorption enhancement of 2-dimensional CoZn/[email protected]@PPy composites derived from metal-organic framework.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 30;600:209-218. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Civil Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033, People's Republic of China.

Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have caused widespread concerns in the field of microwave absorption, due to the unique microstructure and electronic state. Herein, the CoZn/[email protected]@polypyrrole (PPy) composites were prepared through MOF self-template method. The MoS sheets and PPy shell incorporated for optimizing impedance matching of two-dimensional (2D) CoZn/C composites. The introduction of MoS sheets and PPy shell endowed the composites with enhanced microwave absorption. The as-prepared CoZn/[email protected]@PPy composites showed a minimum reflection loss (RL) of -49.18 dB with the thickness of 1.5 mm. In addition, the effective absorption bandwidth (EAB, RL values exceeding -10 dB) covered 4.56 GHz, which showed greater performances than CoZn/C composites under a lower thickness (<2 mm). This work not only provides a facile route for fabricating MOF-derived carbon-based composites as microwave absorbers, but also broadens the application of MOF materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.137DOI Listing
October 2021

Near-infrared photoactive Yb-MOF functionalized with a large conjugate ionic liquid: synthesis and application for photoelectrochemical immunosensing of carcinoma embryonic antigen.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun;13(21):9757-9765

Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Energy Materials Chemistry of Ministry of Education & Hubei Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.

A novel near-infrared (NIR)-excited photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor based on an ionic liquid functionalized metal organic framework (Yb-MOF) and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) was designed for the high-performance determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The Yb-MOF was synthesized from the coordination of the Yb3+ metal ion with the 1,1'-(1,5-dihydropyrene-2,7-diyl)bis(3-(4-carboxybenzyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium) bromide [DDPDBCBIm(Br)2] ionic liquid by a hydrothermal method. To improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the Yb-MOF in the NIR region, the surface of the Yb-MOF was integrated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to fabricate a [email protected] nanocomposite through an in situ reduction of chloroauric acid with sodium borohydride. The NIR photoelectrochemical response of the [email protected] at 808 nm was enhanced 4-fold over the pristine Yb-MOF. Subsequently, a photoelectrochemical platform based on the [email protected] was constructed for loading the CEA antibody (anti-CEA). After cross-linking with glutaraldehyde followed by blocking with bovine serum albumin, a photoelectrochemical sensor for assaying CEA was fabricated. Upon specifically interacting with CEA, CEA can block the photogenerated electron-hole pair transfer and the mass transfer of ascorbic acid to the sensing interface, thus leading to a decrease in photocurrent response. The photocurrent variation can be used for determining CEA quantitatively. After optimizing the experimental conditions, the photocurrent variations before and after incubation with CEA were linearly correlated with the CEA concentration over the range of 0.005-15 ng mL-1. The detection limit of CEA was calculated to be 0.25 pg mL-1 (S/N = 3). The immunosensor was employed for the measurement of free CEA in clinical serum samples, and the results were very consistent with the values obtained by clinical tests. The NIR PEC immunosensor also demonstrated excellent accuracy and recovery, which corroborates its potential as a practical technique in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01606gDOI Listing
June 2021

Using empirical traffic trajectory data for crash risk evaluation under three-phase traffic theory framework.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jul 17;157:106191. Epub 2021 May 17.

Traffic Operations and Safety (TOPS) Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, 53706, United States.

This study employed surrogate safety measures to evaluate the crash risks in different traffic phases and phase transitions according to the three-phase theory. The analysis was conducted from a microscopic perspective based on empirical vehicle trajectory data collected from the Interstate 80 in California, USA, and the Yingtian Expressway in Nanjing, China. Traffic phases were identified based on traffic flow variables and their correlations. Two advanced crash risk indexes from vehicle trajectories were conducted to evaluate the safety performance in each traffic state. The effects of various traffic flow variables (i.e. flow rate, density, average speed) on crash risks were explored based on speed-density plane, speed-flow plane and flow-density plane. Three regression models were developed to quantify the effects of traffic flow variables and traffic states on crash risks. The results show significant disparities of safety performance among different traffic states. Synchronized flow and wide moving jam are found to be the most dangerous phases. High density and low speed are associated with high crash risk. The best crash risk prediction performance is achieved when integrating both traffic phases and traffic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106191DOI Listing
July 2021

Synthesis and Characterization of Metallo-Supramolecular Polymers Based on Benzodipyrrolidone.

Front Chem 2021 28;9:673834. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastic of Ministry of Education (QUST), School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China.

A simple route to the preparation of benzodipyrrolidone (BDP) based monomeric building blocks containing 2,2':6',2″-terpyridines is reported from a common precursor 4'-(4-pinacolatoboronphenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine via Suzuki coupling reaction. Self-assembly polymerization with ruthenium (II) ions under mild conditions yielded a series of novel metallo-supramolecular polymers with weak donor-acceptor (D-A) structures based on benzodipyrrolidone. The structure of the bridge connected BDP with terpyridine have a significant impact on the wavelength and intensity of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption peak. The resulting metallo-polymers exhibited strong double absorption bands around 315 nm and 510 nm involved in π-π transitions and ICT or metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorption bands. The forming of D-A structure and coordination with ruthenium (II) ions is favorable to narrow the energy gap and the energy gaps of the resulting metallo-supramolecular polymers are 2.01 and 1.62 eV, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.673834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113679PMC
April 2021

A review of surrogate safety measures and their applications in connected and automated vehicles safety modeling.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jul 8;157:106157. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Transportation, Southeast University, China. Electronic address:

Surrogate Safety Measures (SSM) are important for safety performance evaluation, since crashes are rare events and historical crash data does not capture near crashes that are also critical for improving safety. This paper focuses on SSM and their applications, particularly in Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV) safety modeling. It aims to provide a comprehensive and systematic review of significant SSM studies, identify limitations and opportunities for future SSM and CAV research, and assist researchers and practitioners with choosing the most appropriate SSM for safety studies. The behaviors of CAV can be very different from those of Human-Driven Vehicles (HDV). Even among CAV with different automation/connectivity levels, their behaviors are likely to differ. Also, the behaviors of HDV can change in response to the existence of CAV in mixed autonomy traffic. Simulation by far is the most viable solution to model CAV safety. However, it is questionable whether conventional SSM can be applied to modeling CAV safety based on simulation results due to the lack of sophisticated simulation tools that can accurately model CAV behaviors and SSM that can take CAV's powerful sensing and path prediction and planning capabilities into crash risk modeling, although some researchers suggested that proper simulation model calibration can be helpful to address these issues. A number of critical questions related to SSM for CAV safety research are also identified and discussed, including SSM for CAV trajectory optimization, SSM for individual vehicles and vehicle platoon, and CAV as a new data source for developing SSM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106157DOI Listing
July 2021

Unattended Emotional Prosody Affects Visual Processing of Facial Expressions in Mandarin-Speaking Chinese: A Comparison With English-Speaking Canadians.

J Cross Cult Psychol 2021 Apr 15;52(3):275-294. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Emotional cues from different modalities have to be integrated during communication, a process that can be shaped by an individual's cultural background. We explored this issue in 25 Chinese participants by examining how listening to emotional prosody in Mandarin influenced participants' gazes at emotional faces in a modified visual search task. We also conducted a cross-cultural comparison between data of this study and that of our previous work in English-speaking Canadians using analogous methodology. In both studies, eye movements were recorded as participants scanned an array of four faces portraying fear, anger, happy, and neutral expressions, while passively listening to a pseudo-utterance expressing one of the four emotions (Mandarin utterance in this study; English utterance in our previous study). The frequency and duration of fixations to each face were analyzed during 5 seconds after the onset of faces, both during the presence of the speech (early time window) and after the utterance ended (late time window). During the late window, Chinese participants looked more frequently and longer at faces conveying congruent emotions as the speech, consistent with findings from English-speaking Canadians. Cross-cultural comparison further showed that Chinese, but not Canadians, looked more frequently and longer at angry faces, which may signal potential conflicts and social threats. We hypothesize that the socio-cultural norms related to harmony maintenance in the Eastern culture promoted Chinese participants' heightened sensitivity to, and deeper processing of, angry cues, highlighting culture-specific patterns in how individuals scan their social environment during emotion processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022121990897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053741PMC
April 2021

Classification of COVID-19 Chest CT Images Based on Ensemble Deep Learning.

J Healthc Eng 2021 20;2021:5528441. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110189, China.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) has become a global pandemic disease, and computed tomography-based (CT) image analysis and recognition are one of the important tools for clinical diagnosis. In order to assist medical personnel to achieve an efficient and fast diagnosis of patients with new coronavirus pneumonia, this paper proposes an assisted diagnosis algorithm based on ensemble deep learning. The method combines the Stacked Generalization ensemble learning with the VGG16 deep learning to form a cascade classifier, and the information constituting the cascade classifier comes from multiple subsets of the training set, each of which is used to collect deviant information about the generalization behavior of the data set, such that this deviant information fills the cascade classifier. The algorithm was experimentally validated for classifying patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia, patients with common pneumonia (CP), and normal controls, and the algorithm achieved a prediction accuracy of 93.57%, sensitivity of 94.21%, specificity of 93.93%, precision of 89.40%, and F1-score of 91.74% for the three categories. The results show that the method proposed in this paper has good classification performance and can significantly improve the performance of deep neural networks for multicategory prediction tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5528441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061232PMC
May 2021

IMU Data and GPS Position Information Direct Fusion Based on LSTM.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

College of Intelligent System Science and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China.

In recent years, the application of deep learning to the inertial navigation field has brought new vitality to inertial navigation technology. In this study, we propose a method using long short-term memory (LSTM) to estimate position information based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) data and Global Positioning System (GPS) position information. Simulations and experiments show the practicability of the proposed method in both static and dynamic cases. In static cases, vehicle stop data are simulated or recorded. In dynamic cases, uniform rectilinear motion data are simulated or recorded. The value range of LSTM hyperparameters is explored through both static and dynamic simulations. The simulations and experiments results are compared with the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/GPS integrated navigation system based on kalman filter (KF). In a simulation, the LSTM method's computed position error Standard Deviation (STD) was 52.38% of what the SINS computed. The biggest simulation radial error estimated by the LSTM method was 0.57 m. In experiments, the LSTM method computed a position error STD of 23.08% using only SINSs. The biggest experimental radial error the LSTM method estimated was 1.31 m. The position estimated by the LSTM fusion method has no cumulative divergence error compared to SINS (computed). All in all, the trained LSTM is a dependable fusion method for combining IMU data and GPS position information to estimate position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21072500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038325PMC
April 2021

Unravelling the mechanism of amitriptyline removal from water by natural montmorillonite through batch adsorption, molecular simulation and adsorbent characterization studies.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 26;598:379-387. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Environmental Contaminants Group, Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia.

Amitriptyline (AMI) is one of the most common tricyclic antidepressant personal care medications. Due to its environmental persistence and bioaccumulation, release of AMI into the environment via wastewater streams in elevated levels could lead to significant ecological and human health impacts. In this study, the adsorption of AMI by montmorillonite (SWy-2), a naturally abundant smectite clay with sodium ions as the main interlayer cations, was investigated. Maximum AMI adsorption (276 mg/g) occurred at pH 7-8. After adsorption, examination of the adsorbent's X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that interlayer expansion had occurred, where chemical stoichiometry confirmed cation exchange as the principal adsorption mechanism. AMI adsorption reached equilibrium within 4 h, with kinetic data best fitting the pseudo-second order kinetic model (R = 0.98). AMI adsorption was unaffected by solution pH in the range 2-11, where adsorption was endothermic, and molecular simulations substantiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric investigations indicated that the orientation of AMI molecules in the interlayer was via an amine group and a benzene ring. Overall this research shows that SWy-2 has significant potential as a low cost, effective, and geologically derived natural material for AMI removal in wastewater systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.033DOI Listing
September 2021

Threat Upon Entry: Effect of Coworker Ostracism on Newcomers' Proactive Behaviors During Organizational Socialization.

Front Psychol 2021 6;12:545478. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Extant literature has underlined the importance of newcomer proactive socialization to the organization. However, the effect of coworker ostracism on newcomers' proactive behaviors has not been noticed. Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we proposed a model exploring how coworker ostracism impacted newcomers' proactive behaviors via the mediation of psychological availability. Through an empirical study with a sample of 263 newcomers and three waves of longitudinal data, we found that coworker ostracism had a negative effect on newcomers' information seeking and developing. In addition, emotional intelligence enhanced the negative effect of coworker ostracism on newcomers' psychological availability and the indirect influence of coworker ostracism on newcomers' proactive behaviors via psychological availability. Important theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.545478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055943PMC
April 2021

The clinical prognostic value of lncRNA LINC00675 in cancer patients: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25244

Department of Hepatic-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Neijiang, Neijiang, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: A newly discovered long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is associated with the progression of a variety of tumors. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to explore further the relationship between clinicopathological features and the prognostic value of LINC00675 in caners.We searched the various database, including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase together with Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for articles on LINC00675 and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with cancers before February 20, 2020. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies that meet the criteria were systematically collected through search keywords. The Newcastle Ottawa document quality assessment system was used to evaluate the quality of documents. The required data from literature were extracted, and the hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR), and 95confidence interval (CI) were calculated using stata12.0 software and RevMan5.3 software.A total of 5 studies covering 462 patients were included in this meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic value of LINC00675 in cancers. Our results showed that high LINC00675 expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.23-2.08, P = .0005). Additionally, upregulated expression of LINC00675 was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis stage (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.18-2.58, P = .006) and distant metastasis (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.21-4.08, P = .01).Our study suggests that LINC00675 could be used as a biomarker to evaluate the prognosis of cancer patients. More studies to further confirm that the clinical value of LINC00675 in cancers will be required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078383PMC
April 2021

Multi-scale design of the chela of the hermit crab Coenobita brevimanus.

Acta Biomater 2021 06 15;127:229-241. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

The chela of the hermit crab protects its body against the attack from predators. Yet, a deep understanding of this mechanical defense is still lacking. Here, we investigate the chela of hermit crab, Coenobita brevimanus, and establish the relationships between the microstructures, chemical compositions and mechanical properties to gain insights into its biomechanical functions. We find that the chela is a multi-layered shell composed of five different layers with distinct features of the microstructures and chemical compositions, conferring different mechanical properties. Especially, an increase of the calcium carbonate content towards the layer furthest from the exterior, unlike the chemical gradients of many crustacean exoskeletons, provides a strong resistance to deformation. Nanoindentation measurements reveal that the overall gradient of the elastic modulus and hardness in the cross-section displays a sandwich profile, i.e., a soft core clamped by two stiff surface layers. Further mechanics modeling demonstrates that the high curvature and stiff innermost sublayer enhance the structural rigidity of the chela. In conjunction with the experimental observations, dynamic finite element analysis maps the time-spatial distribution of principal stress and indicates that fiber bridging might be the major mechanism against crack propagation at microscale. The lessons gained from the study of this multiphase biological composite could provide important insights into the design and fabrication of bioinspired materials for structural applications. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Multiple hierarchical structures have been discovered in a variety of exoskeletons. They are naturally designed to maintain the structural integrity and act as a protective layer for the animals. However, each kind of the hierarchical structures has its unique topology, chemical gradients as well as mechanical properties. We find that the chela is multi-layered shell composed of five different layers with distinct features of the microstructures and chemical compositions, conferring different mechanical properties. Especially, a large amount of helicoidal organic fibrils form highly organized 3D woven matrix in the innermost layer, providing a strong mechanical resistance to avoid catastrophic failure. The overall gradient of the elastic modulus and hardness in the cross-section display a sandwich profile, effectively minimizing the stress concentration and deformation. The lessons gained from the multiscale design strategy of the chela provide important insights into the design and fabrication of bioinspired materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.04.012DOI Listing
June 2021

His345 mutant of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) remains enzymatically active against angiotensin II.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Feinberg Cardiovascular and Renal Research Institute, Department of Medicine-Nephrology and Hypertension, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023648118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053926PMC
April 2021

Resilience analysis of the nexus across water supply, power generation and environmental systems from a stochastic perspective.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 3;289:112513. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China; Research Institute for Water Security (RIWS), Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, People's Republic of China; Hubei Provincial Key Lab of Water System Science for Sponge City Construction, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Effects of external disturbances such as the population change on dynamics of water supply, power generation and environmental (WPE) systems have seldom been investigated. Following the WPE nexus profiled in the study of Feng et al. (2016), this study incorporated stochasticity of population, water supply and power generation into the modeling of the dynamical system in the Hehuang region of China, and further quantified resilience measures to understand the system's ability to withstand stochastic disturbances. First, the stochastic differential equations were used to improve the simulation of stochasticity in the WPE nexus. Next, the transient probability distribution functions (pdfs) of system variables, obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, were used to describe the evolutionary process of the system. Finally, the stationary pdfs of variables which reflect stable states of the system were derived to calculate four resilience measures. It is shown that: (1) The system approached a stable state after Year 2400 by calculating the L2 norm of the difference between transient and stationary pdfs. (2) The environmental system was identified as the most vulnerable subsystem because of its long convergence time. (3) The water supply system did not change greatly and it would remain stable at its current low level, i.e., water consumption per capita would be less than 80m. The method adopted in this study is conducive to avoiding risk and the results provide valuable insights for regional management of a WPE nexus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112513DOI Listing
July 2021

Optimized Hierarchical Structure and Chemical Gradients Promote the Biomechanical Functions of the Spike of Mantis Shrimps.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 6;13(15):17380-17391. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230052, China.

The tail spike of the mantis shrimp is the appendage for counteracting the enemy from behind. Here, we investigate the correlations between the chemical compositions, the microstructures, and the mechanical properties of the spike. We find that the spike is a hollow beam with a varying cross section along the length. The cross section comprises four different layers with distinct features of microstructures and chemical compositions. The local mechanical properties of these layers correlate well with the microstructures and chemical compositions, a combination of which effectively restricts the crack propagation while maximizing the release of strain energy during deformation. Finite element analysis and mechanics modeling demonstrate that the optimized structure of the spike confines the mechanical damage in the region near the tip and prevents catastrophic breakage at the base. Furthermore, we use a 3D printing technique to fabricate multiple hollow cylindrical samples consisting of biomimetic microstructures of the spike and confirm that the combination of the Bouligand structure with radially oriented parallel sheets greatly improves the toughness and strength during compression tests. The multiscale design strategy of the spike revealed here is expected to be of great interest for the development of novel bioinspired materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02867DOI Listing
April 2021

Urinary Metabolite Signatures for Predicting Elderly Stroke Survivors with Depression.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 25;17:925-933. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, People's Republic of China.

Background: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a major complication in stroke survivors, especially in elderly stroke survivors. But there are still no objective methods to diagnose depression in elderly stroke survivors. Thus, this study was conducted to identify potential biomarkers for diagnosing elderly PSD subjects.

Methods: Elderly (60 years or older) stroke survivors with depression were assigned into the PSD group, and elderly stroke survivors without depression and elderly healthy controls (HCs) were assigned into the non-depressed group. Urinary metabolite signatures obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomic platform were collected. Both univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were used to find the differential urinary metabolites between the two groups.

Results: The 78 elderly HCs, 122 elderly stroke survivors without depression and 124 elderly PSD subjects were included. A set of 13 differential urinary metabolites responsible for distinguishing PSD subjects from non-depressed subjects were found. The Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, Phenylalanine metabolism and Galactose metabolism were found to be significantly changed in elderly PSD subjects. The phenylalanine was significantly negatively correlated with age and depressive symptoms. Meanwhile, a biomarker panel consisting of 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, sucrose, palmitic acid, glyceric acid, azelaic acid and α-aminobutyric acid was identified.

Conclusion: These results provided candidate molecules for developing objective methods to diagnose depression in elderly stroke survivors, suggested that taking supplements of phenylalanine might be an effective method to prevent depression in elderly stroke survivors, and would be helpful for future revealing the pathophysiological mechanism of PSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S299835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007561PMC
March 2021