Publications by authors named "Pamela Wagaman"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional Characterization of the Canine Heme-Regulated eIF2alpha Kinase: Regulation of Protein Synthesis.

Adv Hematol 2009 22;2009:251915. Epub 2009 Jun 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development L.L.C., Merryfield Row 3210, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) negatively regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha) thereby inhibiting protein translation. The importance of HRI in regulating hemoglobin synthesis in erythroid cells makes it an attractive molecular target in need of further characterization. In this work, we have cloned and expressed the canine form of the HRI kinase. The canine nucleotide sequence has 86%, 82%, and 81% identity to the human, mouse, and rat HRI, respectively. It was noted that an isoleucine residue in the ATP binding site of human, rat, and mouse HRI is replaced by a valine in the canine kinase. The expression of canine HRI protein by in vitro translation using wheat germ lysate or in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system was increased by the addition of hemin. Following purification, the canine protein was found to be 72 kD and showed kinase activity determined by its ability to phosphorylate a synthetic peptide substrate. Quercetin, a kinase inhibitor known to inhibit mouse and human HRI, inhibits canine HRI in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, quercetin is able to increase de novo protein synthesis in canine reticulocytes. We conclude that the canine is a suitable model species for studying the role of HRI in erythropoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/251915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2778829PMC
July 2011

Discovery of the first known small-molecule inhibitors of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (HRI) kinase.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Dec 13;19(23):6548-51. Epub 2009 Oct 13.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

A series of indeno[1,2-c]pyrazoles were discovered to be the first known inhibitors of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (HRI) kinase. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship profile, and in-vitro pharmacological characterization of this inaugural series of HRI kinase inhibitors are detailed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.10.033DOI Listing
December 2009

Application of the trak-C HCV core assay for monitoring antiviral activity in HCV replication systems.

J Virol Methods 2004 Jun;118(1):23-31

Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The Ortho trak-C immunoassay has recently established detection of the HCV core antigen as a viable indirect marker of HCV replication in clinical samples. In this study, trak-C is used to monitor HCV replication in three pre-clinical models: the cellular HCV replicon system, transient transfection of HCV genomes, and the murine Alb-uPa/SCID HCV infection model. All of these systems utilize full-length HCV genomes that direct the expression of core, facilitating its detection with monoclonal antibodies. When performed with purified protein, the assay detects HCV core with a lower limit of detection at 1.5pg, and exhibits linear detection up to 100pg. When assaying extracts prepared from Huh-7 clone 21-5 cells harboring a full-length HCV replicon, core is detectable from as few as 63 cell equivalents. The assay was used to determine the sensitivity of Huh 21-5 cells to the antiviral effects of interferon (IFN). Inhibition by IFN-alpha using core detection was comparable to that observed using branched-DNA (bDNA 3.0) detection of HCV RNA. Replication of transfected full-length HCV 1a Con1 genomes in Huh-7 cells was also detectable using the trak-C assay. Finally, in the transgenic murine HCV infection model, the course of viral amplification was detected from serum using trak-C with kinetics similar to those observed with RNA detection. Given its ease of use and the lack of requirement for RNA purification, the trak-C assay has several advantages over RNA-based methods of viral monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2004.01.014DOI Listing
June 2004

A point mutation in influenza B neuraminidase confers resistance to peramivir and loss of slow binding.

Antiviral Res 2003 Jun;59(1):13-22

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., Raritan, NJ 08869, USA.

The influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors peramivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir are potent inhibitors of NAs from both influenza A and B strains. In general, these inhibitors are slow, tight binders of NA, exhibiting time-dependent inhibition. A mutant of influenza virus B/Yamagata/16/88 which was resistant to peramivir was generated by passage of the virus in tissue culture, in the presence of increasing concentrations (0.1-120 microM over 15 passages) of the compound. Whereas the wild type (WT) virus was inhibited by peramivir with an EC(50) value of 0.10 microM, virus isolated at passages 3 and 15 displayed EC(50) values of 10 and >50 microM, respectively. Passage 3 virus contained 3 hemagglutinin (HA) mutations, but no NA mutation. Passage 15 (P15R) virus contained an additional 3 HA mutations, plus the NA mutation His273Tyr. The mechanism of inhibition of WT and P15R NA by peramivir was examined in enzyme assays. The WT and P15R NAs displayed IC(50) values of 8.4+/-0.4 and 127+/-16 nM, respectively, for peramivir. Peramivir inhibited the WT enzyme in a time-dependent fashion, with a K(i) value of 0.066+/-0.002nM. In contrast, the P15R enzyme did not display the property of slow binding and was inhibited competitively with a K(i) value of 4.69+/-0.44nM. Molecular modeling suggested that His273 was relatively distant from peramivir (>5A) in the NA active site, but that Tyr273 introduced a repulsive interaction between the enzyme and inhibitor, which may have been responsible for peramivir resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0166-3542(03)00011-1DOI Listing
June 2003

Development of a novel influenza A antiviral assay.

J Virol Methods 2002 Aug;105(1):105-14

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Traditional methods used to monitor influenza infection typically require 2-5 days to perform, prompting a need for more rapid and quantitative methods for monitoring viral infection in 96-well formats. Such assays would find application in high-throughput screening for novel antiviral agents. A new method, based on branched DNA (bDNA) technology, is described for the specific detection of negative strand RNA of influenza A strains using a set of oligonucleotides designed for the A/PR/8/34 nucleoprotein (NP) transcript. By detecting the genomic strand, this signal amplification assay is appropriate for monitoring the kinetics of viral replication. Assay performance was monitored following infection of MDCK cells. The assay exhibited high reproducibility, good sensitivity over a range of multiplicity of infection and has a lower limit of detection of approximately 5 x 10 (5) RNA copies. Designed to quantitate the H1N1 strain A/PR/8/34, the assay also detects other influenza A subtypes, but not the evolutionarily more distant strain B/Yamagata/16/88. Validation as an antiviral assay was demonstrated with two influenza antivirals, zanamivir and rimantadine. The EC(50) values calculated following bDNA detection for zanamivir (265 nM) and rimantadine (9.4 microg/ml) in A/PR/8/34 infection correlate closely to data previously reported from visual CPE determinations, neutral red dye uptake and plaque assays, respectively. The advantages over the more time-consuming traditional assays suggest that the influenza bDNA assay is applicable to rapid screening of compound collections for antiviral activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0166-0934(02)00088-5DOI Listing
August 2002

Oral administration of cyclopentane neuraminidase inhibitors protects ferrets against influenza virus infection.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002 Apr;46(4):996-1004

School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

Several cyclopentane inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase that have inhibitory activities in tissue culture similar to those of zanamivir and oseltamivir have recently been described. These new inhibitors have been examined for efficacy against a virulent H3N2 influenza virus when administered orally to infected ferrets. Preliminary studies indicated that oral administration of BCX-1923, BCX-1827, or BCX-1812 (RWJ-270201) at a dose of 5 or 25 mg/kg of body weight was active in ferrets in reducing respiratory and constitutional signs and symptoms, but these antivirals affected virus titers in the upper and lower respiratory tracts only marginally. Of the three compounds, BCX-1812 seemed to be the most efficacious and was examined further at higher doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg. These doses significantly reduced peak virus titers in nasal washes and total virus shedding as measured by areas under the curve. Virus titers in lung homogenates were also reduced compared to those in controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. As was observed with BCX-1812 at lower doses, the nasal inflammatory cellular response, fever, and nasal signs were reduced while ferret activity was not, with activity remaining similar to uninfected animals.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC127099PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.46.4.996-1004.2002DOI Listing
April 2002
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