Publications by authors named "Pamela J Thompson"

149 Publications

The clinical utility of a memory specialization index in epilepsy surgery patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis.

Epilepsia 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

University College Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: Although group studies provide some support for the material-specific model of memory function, there are considerable individual variations in memory function in people with temporal lobe epilepsy, even in those with the same underlying pathology. In this proof-of-concept study, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of a single measure of an individual's relative strength for the encoding of verbal or visual learning.

Methods: Six hundred ninety-two patients with left hemisphere language dominance and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis completed verbal and visual encoding tasks with similar test structures as part of their presurgical evaluation. Three hundred one patients had right hippocampal sclerosis (RHS), and 391 patients had left hippocampal sclerosis (LHS). A memory specialization index (MSI) was calculated by subtracting the Visual Learning z-score from the Verbal Learning z-score. A positive value on the MSI indicates a relative strength in verbal learning. A negative score indicates a relative strength in visual learning.

Results: Employing cut-offs of ±1, the MSI had a positive predictive value of 71% (confidence interval [CI] 95% 0.64-0.77) for LHS and 64% (CI 95% 0.55-0.74) for RHS and was superior to the standalone z-scores from the verbal and visual tests in each respect. In the LHS group, the MSI was significantly correlated with age and duration of epilepsy. Older patients who had a longer duration of epilepsy were more likely to demonstrate a similar level of impairment in both verbal and visual learning, with a decreasing discrepancy between the scores on the two tasks over time.

Significance: Our MSI provides a measure with high specificity for RHS. The pattern of strengths and weaknesses in visual and verbal encoding may evolve with age and duration of epilepsy, and clinicians should be aware of these factors when interpreting the lateralizing significance of test scores, particularly in a presurgical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16919DOI Listing
May 2021

Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Association Study of Endometrial Cancer and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Genetic Risk Regions Associated with Risk of Both Cancers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 01 3;30(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers.

Methods: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e., inverse-variance meta-analysis, colocalization, and M-values) and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data.

Results: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers ( = 0.43, = 2.66 × 10). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers ( < 2.4 × 10). In addition, four novel subgenome-wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12, and 11q13.3 were identified ( < 5 × 10). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines and expression quantitative trait loci data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation.

Conclusions: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis.

Impact: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0739DOI Listing
January 2021

Thalamus and focal to bilateral seizures: A multiscale cognitive imaging study.

Neurology 2020 10 26;95(17):e2427-e2441. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

From the Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy (L.C., L.A.A., K.T., S.B.V., M.C., M.G., M.K.S., P.J.T., G.P.W., J.S.D., M.J.K.) and Neuroradiological Academic Unit (S.B.V.), UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London; MRI Unit (L.C., L.A.A., K.T., S.B.V., M.C., M.G., M.K.S., P.J.T., G.P.W., J.S.D., M.J.K.), Epilepsy Society, Chalfont St Peter, Buckinghamshire, UK; Departments of Bioengineering (L.C., X.H., D.S.B.), Physics and Astronomy (D.S.B.), Electrical and Systems Engineering (D.S.B.), Neurology (D.S.B.), and Psychiatry (D.S.B.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Centre for Medical Image Computing (S.B.V.), University College London, UK; Department of Neurology (M.G.), University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; Santa Fe Institute (D.S.B.), NM; Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology (G.P.W.), Queen's University, Kingston, Canada; and Department of Neurology (M.R.S.), Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To investigate the functional correlates of recurrent secondarily generalized seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using task-based fMRI as a framework to test for epilepsy-specific network rearrangements. Because the thalamus modulates propagation of temporal lobe onset seizures and promotes cortical synchronization during cognition, we hypothesized that occurrence of secondarily generalized seizures, i.e., focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS), would relate to thalamic dysfunction, altered connectivity, and whole-brain network centrality.

Methods: FBTCS occur in a third of patients with TLE and are a major determinant of disease severity. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 113 patients with drug-resistant TLE (55 left/58 right), who performed a verbal fluency fMRI task that elicited robust thalamic activation. Thirty-three patients (29%) had experienced at least one FBTCS in the year preceding the investigation. We compared patients with TLE-FBTCS to those without FBTCS via a multiscale approach, entailing analysis of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 12-derived measures of activation, task-modulated thalamic functional connectivity (psychophysiologic interaction), and graph-theoretical metrics of centrality.

Results: Individuals with TLE-FBTCS had less task-related activation of bilateral thalamus, with left-sided emphasis, and left hippocampus than those without FBTCS. In TLE-FBTCS, we also found greater task-related thalamotemporal and thalamomotor connectivity, and higher thalamic degree and betweenness centrality. Receiver operating characteristic curves, based on a combined thalamic functional marker, accurately discriminated individuals with and without FBTCS.

Conclusions: In TLE-FBTCS, impaired task-related thalamic recruitment coexists with enhanced thalamotemporal connectivity and whole-brain thalamic network embedding. Altered thalamic functional profiles are proposed as imaging biomarkers of active secondary generalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682917PMC
October 2020

Expanding Our Understanding of Ovarian Cancer Risk: The Role of Incomplete Pregnancies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):301-308

Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cancer Prevention and Genetics Program, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated.

Methods: A pooled analysis of 10 470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16 942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race and ethnicity, age, and education level and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses.

Results: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (2-sided Ptrend < .001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer.

Conclusions: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936053PMC
March 2021

Impaired naming performance in temporal lobe epilepsy: language fMRI responses are modulated by disease characteristics.

J Neurol 2021 Jan 3;268(1):147-160. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Epilepsy Society MRI Unit, Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter, SL9 0LR, UK.

Objective: To investigate alterations of language networks and their relation to impaired naming performance in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using functional MRI.

Methods: Seventy-two adult TLE patients (41 left) and 36 controls were studied with overt auditory and picture naming fMRI tasks to assess temporal lobe language areas, and a covert verbal fluency task to probe frontal lobe language regions. Correlation of fMRI activation with clinical naming scores, and alteration of language network patterns in relation to epilepsy duration, age at onset and seizure frequency, were investigated with whole-brain multiple regression analyses.

Results: Auditory and picture naming fMRI activated the left posterior temporal lobe, and stronger activation correlated with better clinical naming scores. Verbal fluency MRI mainly activated frontal lobe regions. In left and right TLE, a later age of epilepsy onset related to stronger temporal lobe activations, while earlier age of onset was associated with impaired deactivation of extratemporal regions. In left TLE patients, longer disease duration and higher seizure frequency were associated with reduced deactivation. Frontal lobe language networks were unaffected by disease characteristics.

Conclusions: While frontal lobe language regions appear spared, temporal lobe language areas are susceptible to dysfunction and reorganisation, particularly in left TLE. Early onset and long duration of epilepsy, and high seizure frequency, were associated with compromised activation and deactivation patterns of task-associated regions, which might account for impaired naming performance in individuals with TLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10116-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815622PMC
January 2021

Motor hyperactivation during cognitive tasks: An endophenotype of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2020 07 25;61(7):1438-1452. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Objective: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most common genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome. Myoclonus may relate to motor system hyperexcitability and can be provoked by cognitive activities. To aid genetic mapping in complex neuropsychiatric disorders, recent research has utilized imaging intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes). Here, we aimed to (a) characterize activation profiles of the motor system during different cognitive tasks in patients with JME and their unaffected siblings, and (b) validate those as endophenotypes of JME.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional investigation included 32 patients with JME, 12 unaffected siblings, and 26 controls, comparable for age, sex, handedness, language laterality, neuropsychological performance, and anxiety and depression scores. We investigated patterns of motor system activation during episodic memory encoding and verb generation functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks.

Results: During both tasks, patients and unaffected siblings showed increased activation of motor system areas compared to controls. Effects were more prominent during memory encoding, which entailed hand motion via joystick responses. Subgroup analyses identified stronger activation of the motor cortex in JME patients with ongoing seizures compared to seizure-free patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curves, based on measures of motor activation, accurately discriminated both patients with JME and their siblings from healthy controls (area under the curve: 0.75 and 0.77, for JME and a combined patient-sibling group against controls, respectively; P < .005).

Significance: Motor system hyperactivation represents a cognitive, domain-independent endophenotype of JME. We propose measures of motor system activation as quantitative traits for future genetic imaging studies in this syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681252PMC
July 2020

Development and Validation of the Gene Expression Predictor of High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Molecular SubTYPE (PrOTYPE).

Clin Cancer Res 2020 10 17;26(20):5411-5423. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose: Gene expression-based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features.

Experimental Design: Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to NanoString data on 3,829 HGSOCs from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. We further developed, confirmed, and validated a reduced, minimal gene set predictor, with methods suitable for a single-patient setting.

Results: Gene expression data were used to derive the predictor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtype (PrOTYPE) assay. We established a standard as a consensus of two parallel approaches. PrOTYPE subtypes are significantly associated with age, stage, residual disease, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and outcome. The locked-down clinical grade PrOTYPE test includes a model with 55 genes that predicted gene expression subtype with >95% accuracy that was maintained in all analytic and biological validations.

Conclusions: We validated the PrOTYPE assay following the Institute of Medicine guidelines for the development of omics-based tests. This fully defined and locked-down clinical grade assay will enable trial design with molecular subtype stratification and allow for objective assessment of the predictive value of HGSOC molecular subtypes in precision medicine applications..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572656PMC
October 2020

Hippocampal Shape Is Associated with Memory Deficits in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Ann Neurol 2020 07 28;88(1):170-182. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, University College London Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Cognitive problems, especially disturbances in episodic memory, and hippocampal sclerosis are common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but little is known about the relationship of hippocampal morphology with memory. We aimed to relate hippocampal surface-shape patterns to verbal and visual learning.

Methods: We analyzed hippocampal surface shapes on high-resolution magnetic resonance images and the Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery in 145 unilateral refractory TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, a validation set of 55 unilateral refractory TLE patients, and 39 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers.

Results: Both left TLE (LTLE) and right TLE (RTLE) patients had lower verbal (LTLE 44 ± 11; RTLE 45 ± 10) and visual learning (LTLE 34 ± 8, RTLE 30 ± 8) scores than healthy controls (verbal 58 ± 8, visual 39 ± 6; p < 0.001). Verbal learning was more impaired the greater the atrophy of the left superolateral hippocampal head. In contrast, visual memory was worse with greater bilateral inferomedial hippocampal atrophy. Postsurgical verbal memory decline was more common in LTLE than in RTLE (reliable change index in LTLE 27% vs RTLE 7%, p = 0.006), whereas there were no differences in postsurgical visual memory decline between those groups. Preoperative atrophy of the left hippocampal tail predicted postsurgical verbal memory decline.

Interpretation: Memory deficits in TLE are associated with specific morphological alterations of the hippocampus, which could help stratify TLE patients into those at high versus low risk of presurgical or postsurgical memory deficits. This knowledge could improve planning and prognosis of selective epilepsy surgery and neuropsychological counseling in TLE. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:170-182.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25762DOI Listing
July 2020

Association Between Breastfeeding and Ovarian Cancer Risk.

JAMA Oncol 2020 06 11;6(6):e200421. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Women's Cancer Research Center, Magee-Womens Research Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Importance: Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in multiple studies, but others showed no association. Whether risk reduction extends beyond that provided by pregnancy alone or differs by histotype is unclear. Furthermore, the observed associations between duration and timing of breastfeeding with ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent.

Objective: To determine the association between breastfeeding (ie, ever/never, duration, timing) and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A pooled analysis of parous women with ovarian cancer and controls from 13 case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the overall association were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations. All data were collected from individual sites from November 1989 to December 2009, and analysis took place from September 2017 to July 2019.

Exposures: Data on breastfeeding history, including duration per child breastfed, age at first and last breastfeeding, and years since last breastfeeding were collected by questionnaire or interview and was harmonized across studies.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Results: A total of 9973 women with ovarian cancer (mean [SD] age, 57.4 [11.1] years) and 13 843 controls (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [11.7] years) were included. Breastfeeding was associated with a 24% lower risk of invasive ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.80). Independent of parity, ever having breastfed was associated with reduction in risk of all invasive ovarian cancers, particularly high-grade serous and endometrioid cancers. For a single breastfeeding episode, mean breastfeeding duration of 1 to 3 months was associated with 18% lower risk (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88), and breastfeeding for 12 or more months was associated with a 34% lower risk (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.75). More recent breastfeeding was associated with a reduction in risk (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47-0.66 for <10 years) that persisted for decades (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.90 for ≥30 years; P for trend = .02).

Conclusions And Relevance: Breastfeeding is associated with a significant decrease in risk of ovarian cancer overall and for the high-grade serous subtype, the most lethal type of ovarian cancer. The findings suggest that breastfeeding is a potentially modifiable factor that may lower risk of ovarian cancer independent of pregnancy alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.0421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118668PMC
June 2020

Estrogen Plus Progestin Hormone Therapy and Ovarian Cancer: A Complicated Relationship Explored.

Epidemiology 2020 05;31(3):402-408

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy is a risk factor for endometrial and ovarian cancers. When a progestin is included with the estrogen daily (continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy), there is no increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the effect of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy on risk of ovarian cancer is less clear.

Methods: We pooled primary data from five population-based case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, including 1509 postmenopausal ovarian cancer cases and 2295 postmenopausal controls. Information on previous menopausal hormonal therapy use, as well as ovarian cancer risk factors, was collected using in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy and risk of ovarian cancer by duration and recency of use and disease histotype.

Results: Ever postmenopausal use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy was not associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer overall (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72, 1.0). A decreased risk was observed for mucinous ovarian cancer (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.91). The other main ovarian cancer histotypes did not show an association (endometrioid: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.57, 1.3, clear cell: OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.40, 1.2; serous: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.2).

Conclusions: Given that estrogen-alone therapy has been shown to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adding a progestin each day ameliorates the carcinogenic effects of estrogen on the cells of origin for all histotypes of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584395PMC
May 2020

Naming fMRI predicts the effect of temporal lobe resection on language decline.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 11 2;6(11):2186-2196. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Epilepsy Society MRI Unit, Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy, Chalfont St Peter, SL9 0LR, United Kingdom.

Objective: To develop language functional MRI (fMRI) methods that accurately predict postsurgical naming decline in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods: Forty-six patients with TLE (25 left) and 19 controls underwent two overt fMRI paradigms (auditory naming and picture naming, both with active baseline conditions) and one covert task (verbal fluency). Clinical naming performance was assessed preoperatively and 4 months following anterior temporal lobe resection. Preoperative fMRI activations were correlated with postoperative naming decline. Individual laterality indices (LI) were calculated for temporal (auditory and picture naming) and frontal regions (verbal fluency) and were considered as predictors of naming decline in multiple regression models, along with other clinical variables (age at onset of seizures, preoperative naming scores, hippocampal volume, age).

Results: In left TLE patients, activation of the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus during auditory naming and activation of left fusiform gyrus during picture naming were related to greater postoperative naming decline. Activation LI were the best individual predictors of naming decline in a multivariate regression model. For picture naming, an LI of higher than 0.34 gave 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity (positive predictive value (PPV) 91.6%). For auditory naming, a temporal lobe LI higher than 0.18 identified all patients with a clinically significant naming decline with 100% sensitivity and 58% specificity (PPV: 58.3%). No effect was seen for verbal fluency.

Interpretation: Auditory and picture naming fMRI are clinically applicable to predict postoperative naming decline after left temporal lobe resection in individual patients, with picture naming being more specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.50911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856622PMC
November 2019

Abnormal hippocampal structure and function in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and unaffected siblings.

Brain 2019 09;142(9):2670-2687

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most common genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome, characterized by a complex polygenetic aetiology. Structural and functional MRI studies demonstrated mesial or lateral frontal cortical derangements and impaired fronto-cortico-subcortical connectivity in patients and their unaffected siblings. The presence of hippocampal abnormalities and associated memory deficits is controversial, and functional MRI studies in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have not tested hippocampal activation. In this observational study, we implemented multi-modal MRI and neuropsychological data to investigate hippocampal structure and function in 37 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, 16 unaffected siblings and 20 healthy controls, comparable for age, gender, handedness and hemispheric dominance as assessed with language laterality indices. Automated hippocampal volumetry was complemented by validated qualitative and quantitative morphological criteria to detect hippocampal malrotation, assumed to represent a neurodevelopmental marker. Neuropsychological measures of verbal and visuo-spatial learning and an event-related verbal and visual memory functional MRI paradigm addressed mesiotemporal function. We detected a reduction of mean left hippocampal volume in patients and their siblings compared with controls (P < 0.01). Unilateral or bilateral hippocampal malrotation was identified in 51% of patients and 50% of siblings, against 15% of controls (P < 0.05). For bilateral hippocampi, quantitative markers of verticalization had significantly larger values in patients and siblings compared with controls (P < 0.05). In the patient subgroup, there was no relationship between structural measures and age at disease onset or degree of seizure control. No overt impairment of verbal and visual memory was identified with neuropsychological tests. Functional mapping highlighted atypical patterns of hippocampal activation, pointing to abnormal recruitment during verbal encoding in patients and their siblings [P < 0.05, familywise error (FWE)-corrected]. Subgroup analyses indicated distinct profiles of hypoactivation along the hippocampal long axis in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients with and without malrotation; patients with malrotation also exhibited reduced frontal recruitment for verbal memory, and more pronounced left posterior hippocampal involvement for visual memory. Linear models across the entire study cohort indicated significant associations between morphological markers of hippocampal positioning and hippocampal activation for verbal items (all P < 0.05, FWE-corrected). We demonstrate abnormalities of hippocampal volume, shape and positioning in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and their siblings, which are associated with reorganization of function and imply an underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism with expression during the prenatal stage. Co-segregation of abnormal hippocampal morphology in patients and their siblings is suggestive of a genetic imaging phenotype, independent of disease activity, and can be construed as a novel endophenotype of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776114PMC
September 2019

Evaluation of vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway target genes reveals UGT2A1/2 and EGFR polymorphisms associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in African American Women.

Cancer Med 2019 05 18;8(5):2503-2513. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536963PMC
May 2019

Frontal lobe dysfunction as a predictor of depression and anxiety following temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

Epilepsy Res 2019 05 19;152:59-66. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom; The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: Predictors of psychiatric outcome following TLE surgery have proved elusive and represent a current challenge in the practice of TLE surgery. This prospective study investigated whether frontal lobe dysfunction is predictive of poorer psychiatric outcomes.

Methods: Forty-nine unilateral TLE surgical patients were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Measures of intellectual function, semantic knowledge, memory and executive function were completed preoperatively, at 6 and 12 months following surgery.

Results: Preoperatively, 33 (67%) patients had minimal depressive symptoms, 8 (16%) were mildly depressed, 2 (4%) were moderately depressed, and 6 (12%) reported severe depressive morbidity. Twenty-three (47%) patients reported minimal anxiety, 18 (37%) were mildly anxious, 6 (12%) were moderately anxious and 2 (4%) patients reported severe anxiety symptoms. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was performed on the BDI-FS and BAI scores, adjusting for pertinent covariates identified in univariable analyses. At a year following TLE surgery, anxiety symptoms significantly improved but depressive morbidity did not. Indicators of frontal lobe dysfunction moderated the magnitude and direction of mood change. Specifically, pre-surgical cognitive measures of frontal lobe dysfunction predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms following surgery. There was no relationship between preoperative BDI-FS or BAI scores and seizure outcome at 12 months or change in affective morbidity and seizure outcome.

Significance: This is the first longitudinal study to provide evidence that specific pre-surgical cognitive and behavioural indices of frontal dysfunction are predictive of poorer psychiatric outcome following TLE surgery. In addition, our findings highlight the potential utility of a dysexecutive behavioural rating scale (DEX) as an assessment tool in epilepsy. Examination of executive functioning in pre-surgical evaluations may lead to an increase in the power of prognostic models used to predict the psychiatric outcome of TLE surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.03.003DOI Listing
May 2019

Genome-wide association studies identify susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer in east Asian women.

Gynecol Oncol 2019 05 19;153(2):343-355. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Hebei Medical University, Fourth Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women.

Methods: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations.

Results: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10).

Conclusion: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.02.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754211PMC
May 2019

A comprehensive gene-environment interaction analysis in Ovarian Cancer using genome-wide significant common variants.

Int J Cancer 2019 05 20;144(9):2192-2205. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), our study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used. The top multiplicative interaction was noted between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (ever vs. never) and rs13255292 (p value = 3.48 × 10 ). Among women with the TT genotype for this variant, the odds ratio for OCP use was 0.53 (95% CI = 0.46-0.60) compared to 0.71 (95%CI = 0.66-0.77) for women with the CC genotype. When stratified by duration of OCP use, women with 1-5 years of OCP use exhibited differential protective benefit across genotypes. However, no interaction on either the multiplicative or additive scale was found to be statistically significant after multiple testing correction. The results suggest that OCP use may offer increased benefit for women who are carriers of the T allele in rs13255292. On the other hand, for women carrying the C allele in this variant, longer (5+ years) use of OCP may reduce the impact of carrying the risk allele of this SNP. Replication of this finding is needed. The study presents a comprehensive analytic framework for conducting gene-environment analysis in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399057PMC
May 2019

rs495139 in the TYMS-ENOSF1 Region and Risk of Ovarian Carcinoma of Mucinous Histology.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 21;19(9). Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Gynecology, Jena University Hospital-Friedrich Schiller University, Jena 07743, Germany.

Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA synthesis. TYMS expression is regulated by its antisense mRNA, ENOSF1. Disrupted regulation may promote uncontrolled DNA synthesis and tumor growth. We sought to replicate our previously reported association between rs495139 in the 3' gene region and increased risk of mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) in an independent sample. Genotypes from 24,351 controls to 15,000 women with invasive OC, including 665 MOC, were available. We estimated per-allele odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression, and meta-analysis when combining these data with our previous report. The association between rs495139 and MOC was not significant in the independent sample (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.97⁻1.22; = 0.15; N = 665 cases). Meta-analysis suggested a weak association (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03⁻1.24; = 0.01; N = 1019 cases). No significant association with risk of other OC histologic types was observed ( = 0.05 for tumor heterogeneity). In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, the rs495139 allele was positively associated with ENOSF1 mRNA expression in normal tissues of the gastrointestinal system, particularly esophageal mucosa ( = 0.51, = 1.7 × 10), and nonsignificantly in five MOC tumors. The association results, along with inconclusive tumor eQTL findings, suggest that a true effect of rs495139 might be small.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163881PMC
August 2018

Association of p16 expression with prognosis varies across ovarian carcinoma histotypes: an Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium study.

J Pathol Clin Res 2018 10 21;4(4):250-261. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC, USA.

We aimed to validate the prognostic association of p16 expression in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) and to explore it in other ovarian carcinoma histotypes. p16 protein expression was assessed by clinical-grade immunohistochemistry in 6525 ovarian carcinomas including 4334 HGSC using tissue microarrays from 24 studies participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. p16 expression patterns were interpreted as abnormal (either overexpression referred to as block expression or absence) or normal (heterogeneous). CDKN2A (which encodes p16) mRNA expression was also analyzed in a subset (n = 2280) mostly representing HGSC (n = 2010). Association of p16 expression with overall survival (OS) was determined within histotypes as was CDKN2A expression for HGSC only. p16 block expression was most frequent in HGSC (56%) but neither protein nor mRNA expression was associated with OS. However, relative to heterogeneous expression, block expression was associated with shorter OS in endometriosis-associated carcinomas, clear cell [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02, 95% confidence (CI) 1.47-2.77, p < 0.001] and endometrioid (HR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.30-2.75, p = 0.004), while absence was associated with shorter OS in low-grade serous carcinomas (HR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.61-5.38, p = 0.001). Absence was most frequent in mucinous carcinoma (50%), and was not associated with OS in this histotype. The prognostic value of p16 expression is histotype-specific and pattern dependent. We provide definitive evidence against an association of p16 expression with survival in ovarian HGSC as previously suggested. Block expression of p16 in clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma should be further validated as a prognostic marker, and absence in low-grade serous carcinoma justifies CDK4 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174617PMC
October 2018

Variants in genes encoding small GTPases and association with epithelial ovarian cancer susceptibility.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(7):e0197561. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in American women. Normal ovarian physiology is intricately connected to small GTP binding proteins of the Ras superfamily (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran) which govern processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cell motility, and vesicle transport. We hypothesized that common germline variation in genes encoding small GTPases is associated with EOC risk. We investigated 322 variants in 88 small GTPase genes in germline DNA of 18,736 EOC patients and 26,138 controls of European ancestry using a custom genotype array and logistic regression fitting log-additive models. Functional annotation was used to identify biofeatures and expression quantitative trait loci that intersect with risk variants. One variant, ARHGEF10L (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 like) rs2256787, was associated with increased endometrioid EOC risk (OR = 1.33, p = 4.46 x 10-6). Other variants of interest included another in ARHGEF10L, rs10788679, which was associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR = 1.07, p = 0.00026) and two variants in AKAP6 (A-kinase anchoring protein 6) which were associated with risk of invasive EOC (rs1955513, OR = 0.90, p = 0.00033; rs927062, OR = 0.94, p = 0.00059). Functional annotation revealed that the two ARHGEF10L variants were located in super-enhancer regions and that AKAP6 rs927062 was associated with expression of GTPase gene ARHGAP5 (Rho GTPase activating protein 5). Inherited variants in ARHGEF10L and AKAP6, with potential transcriptional regulatory function and association with EOC risk, warrant investigation in independent EOC study populations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197561PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034790PMC
December 2018

The impact of brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism on cognition and functional brain networks in patients with intractable partial epilepsy.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2019 02 27;25(2):223-232. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Introduction: Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Around 30%-40% of patients have prominent memory impairment and experience significant postoperative memory and language decline after surgical treatment. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has also been associated with cognition and variability in structural and functional hippocampal indices in healthy controls and some patient groups.

Aims: We examined whether BDNF Val66Met variation was associated with cognitive impairment in mTLE.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the association of Val66Met polymorphism with cognitive performance (n = 276), postoperative cognitive change (n = 126) and fMRI activation patterns during memory encoding and language paradigms in 2 groups of patients with mTLE (n = 37 and 34).

Results: mTLE patients carrying the Met allele performed more poorly on memory tasks and showed reduced medial temporal lobe activation and reduced task-related deactivations within the default mode networks in both the fMRI memory and language tasks than Val/Val patients.

Conclusions: Although cognitive impairment in epilepsy is the result of a complex interaction of factors, our results suggest a role of genetic factors on cognitive impairment in mTLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6488925PMC
February 2019

Left temporal lobe language network connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Brain 2018 08;141(8):2406-2418

Epilepsy Society MRI Unit, Epilepsy Society, Chalfont St Peter, SL9 0LR, UK.

Impairment of naming function is a critical problem for temporal lobe epilepsy patients, yet the neural correlates of the disruption of temporal lobe language networks are poorly understood. Using functional MRI, we investigated the activation and task-related functional connectivity of left temporal lobe language networks and their relation to clinical naming performance and disease characteristics. We studied 59 adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (35 left temporal lobe epilepsy) and 32 healthy controls with auditory and visual naming functional MRI tasks. Time series of activation maxima in the left posterior inferior temporal lobe were extracted to create a psychophysiological interaction regressor for subsequent seed-based whole-brain task-related functional connectivity analyses. Correlational analyses were performed to assess the association of functional MRI activation and functional connectivity with clinical naming scores, age of onset of epilepsy, and duration of epilepsy. Auditory naming elicited activation in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus and visual naming in the left fusiform gyrus across all groups. Activations in the left inferior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and left supplementary motor region during auditory naming as well as left fusiform activations during picture naming correlated with better clinical naming performance. Functional connectivity analyses indicated coupling of left posterior inferior temporal regions to bilateral anterior and posterior temporal lobe regions and the bilateral inferior precentral gyrus as well as contralateral occipital cortex. Stronger functional connectivity was associated with better clinical naming performance in all groups. In patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy only, functional connectivity increased with later age of onset of epilepsy and shorter disease duration. This suggests that onset of seizures early in life and prolonged disease duration lead to disrupted recruitment of temporal lobe networks ipsilateral to the seizure focus, which might account for naming deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy164DOI Listing
August 2018

Effects of carbamazepine and lamotrigine on functional magnetic resonance imaging cognitive networks.

Epilepsia 2018 07 13;59(7):1362-1371. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Objective: To investigate the effects of sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language network activations in patients with focal epilepsy.

Methods: In a retrospective study, we identified patients who were treated at the time of language fMRI scanning with either carbamazepine (CBZ; n = 42) or lamotrigine (LTG; n = 42), but not another sodium channel-blocking AED. We propensity-matched 42 patients taking levetiracetam (LEV) as "patient-controls" and included further 42 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. After controlling for age, age at onset of epilepsy, gender, and antiepileptic comedications, we compared verbal fluency fMRI activations between groups and out-of-scanner psychometric measures of verbal fluency.

Results: Patients on CBZ performed less well on a verbal fluency tests than those taking LTG or LEV. Compared to either LEV-treated patients or controls, patients taking CBZ showed decreased activations in left inferior frontal gyrus and patients on LTG showed abnormal deactivations in frontal and parietal default mode areas. All patient groups showed fewer activations in the putamen bilaterally compared to controls. In a post hoc analysis, out-of-scanner fluency scores correlated positively with left putamen activation.

Significance: Our study provides evidence of AED effects on the functional neuroanatomy of language, which might explain subtle language deficits in patients taking otherwise well-tolerated sodium channel-blocking agents. Patients on CBZ showed dysfunctional frontal activation and more pronounced impairment of performance than patients taking LTG, which was associated only with failure to deactivate task-negative networks. As previously shown for working memory, LEV treatment did not affect functional language networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6216427PMC
July 2018

Evaluating a mobile application for improving clinical laboratory test ordering and diagnosis.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2018 07;25(7):841-847

Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objective: Mobile applications for improving diagnostic decision making often lack clinical evaluation. We evaluated if a mobile application improves generalist physicians' appropriate laboratory test ordering and diagnosis decisions and assessed if physicians perceive it as useful for learning.

Methods: In an experimental, vignette study, physicians diagnosed 8 patient vignettes with normal prothrombin times (PT) and abnormal partial thromboplastin times (PTT). Physicians made test ordering and diagnosis decisions for 4 vignettes using each resource: a mobile app, PTT Advisor, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Clinical Laboratory Integration into Healthcare Collaborative (CLIHC); and usual clinical decision support. Then, physicians answered questions regarding their perceptions of the app's usefulness for diagnostic decision making and learning using a modified Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation Framework.

Results: Data from 368 vignettes solved by 46 physicians at 7 US health care institutions show advantages for using PTT Advisor over usual clinical decision support on test ordering and diagnostic decision accuracy (82.6 vs 70.2% correct; P < .001), confidence in decisions (7.5 vs 6.3 out of 10; P < .001), and vignette completion time (3:02 vs 3:53 min.; P = .06). Physicians reported positive perceptions of the app's potential for improved clinical decision making, and recommended it be used to address broader diagnostic challenges.

Conclusions: A mobile app, PTT Advisor, may contribute to better test ordering and diagnosis, serve as a learning tool for diagnostic evaluation of certain clinical disorders, and improve patient outcomes. Similar methods could be useful for evaluating apps aimed at improving testing and diagnosis for other conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocy026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947660PMC
July 2018

Adult height is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer: a Mendelian randomisation study.

Br J Cancer 2018 04 20;118(8):1123-1129. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Radiation Oncology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Observational studies suggest greater height is associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, but cannot exclude bias and/or confounding as explanations for this. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can provide evidence which may be less prone to bias.

Methods: We pooled data from 39 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies (16,395 cases; 23,003 controls). We applied two-stage predictor-substitution MR, using a weighted genetic risk score combining 609 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted height and risk were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: Greater genetically predicted height was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk overall (pooled-OR (pOR) = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11 per 5 cm increase in height), and separately for invasive (pOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and borderline (pOR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29) tumours.

Conclusions: Women with a genetic propensity to being taller have increased risk of ovarian cancer. This suggests genes influencing height are involved in pathways promoting ovarian carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0011-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931085PMC
April 2018

Ovarian cancer risk, ALDH2 polymorphism and alcohol drinking: Asian data from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Sci 2018 Feb 21;109(2):435-445. Epub 2018 Jan 21.

Division of Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism rs671 (Glu504Lys) causes ALDH2 inactivation and adverse acetaldehyde exposure among Asians, but little is known of the association between alcohol consumption and rs671 and ovarian cancer (OvCa) in Asians. We conducted a pooled analysis of Asian ancestry participants in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We included seven case-control studies and one cohort study comprising 460 invasive OvCa cases, 37 borderline mucinous OvCa and 1274 controls of Asian descent with information on recent alcohol consumption. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for OvCa risk associated with alcohol consumption, rs671 and their interaction were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. No significant association was observed for daily alcohol intake with invasive OvCa (OR comparing any consumption to none = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.58-1.18) or with individual histotypes. A significant decreased risk was seen for carriers of one or both Lys alleles of rs671 for invasive mucinous OvCa (OR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.97) and for invasive and borderline mucinous tumors combined (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.89). No significant interaction was observed between alcohol consumption and rs671 genotypes. In conclusion, self-reported alcohol consumption at the quantities estimated was not associated with OvCa risk among Asians. Because the rs671 Lys allele causes ALDH2 inactivation leading to increased acetaldehyde exposure, the observed inverse genetic association with mucinous ovarian cancer is inferred to mean that alcohol intake may be a risk factor for this histotype. This association will require replication in a larger sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5797830PMC
February 2018

Analyses of germline variants associated with ovarian cancer survival identify functional candidates at the 1q22 and 19p12 outcome loci.

Oncotarget 2017 Sep 15;8(39):64670-64684. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

We previously identified associations with ovarian cancer outcome at five genetic loci. To identify putatively causal genetic variants and target genes, we prioritized two ovarian outcome loci (1q22 and 19p12) for further study. Bioinformatic and functional genetic analyses indicated that and are targets of candidate outcome variants at 1q22 and 19p12, respectively. At 19p12, the chromatin interaction of a putative regulatory element with the promoter region correlated with candidate outcome variants. At 1q22, putative regulatory elements enhanced promoter activity and haplotypes containing candidate outcome variants modulated these effects. In a public dataset, and expression were both associated with ovarian cancer progression-free or overall survival time. In an extended set of 6,162 epithelial ovarian cancer patients, we found that functional candidates at the 1q22 and 19p12 loci, as well as other regional variants, were nominally associated with patient outcome; however, no associations reached our threshold for statistical significance (<1×10). Larger patient numbers will be needed to convincingly identify any true associations at these loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.18501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5630285PMC
September 2017

Memory Rehabilitation Strategies in Nonsurgical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Review.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2017 Jul;96(7):506-514

From the Department of Neuroscience, Section of Rehabilitation, University of Padova, Padova, Italy (ADF, MA, AB, SM); Clinical Research Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria, Padova, Italy (MM); Department of Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milano, Milano, Italy (DG); NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom (PJT, JWS); Epilepsy Society, Chalfont St Peter, Bucks, United Kingdom (PJT, LWS); and Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, Heemstede, The Netherlands (JWS).

People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions. A comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Scholars Portal/PSYCHinfo, Proceedings First, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses identified articles published in English before February 2016. The search retrieved 372 abstracts. Of 25 eligible studies, six were included in the final review. None included pediatric populations. Strategies included cognitive training, external memory aids, brain training, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Selection criteria tended to be general. Overall, there was insufficient evidence to make definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of traditional memory rehabilitation strategies, brain training, and noninvasive brain stimulation. The review suggests that cognitive rehabilitation in nonsurgical TLE is underresearched and that there is a need for a systematic evaluation in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000714DOI Listing
July 2017

Identification of 12 new susceptibility loci for different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Nat Genet 2017 May 27;49(5):680-691. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus.

To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5612337PMC
May 2017

Anticoagulation manager: development of a clinical decision support mobile application for management of anticoagulants.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:2582-2585

Patients with certain clotting disorders or conditions have a greater risk of developing arterial or venous clots and downstream embolisms, strokes, and arterial insufficiency. These patients need prescription anticoagulant drugs to reduce the possibility of clot formation. However, historically, the clinical decision making workflow in determining the correct type and dosage of anticoagulant(s) is part science and part art. To address this problem, we developed Anticoagulation Manager, an intelligent clinical decision workflow management system on iOS-based mobile devices to help clinicians effectively choose the most appropriate and helpful follow-up clotting tests for patients with a common clotting profile. The app can provide physicians guidance to prescribe the most appropriate medication for patients in need of anticoagulant drugs. This intelligent app was jointly designed and developed by medical professionals in CDC and engineers at Georgia Tech, and will be evaluated by physicians for ease-of-use, robustness, flexibility, and scalability. Eventually, it will be deployed and shared in both physician community and developer community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2016.7591258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335594PMC
August 2016

Effect of topiramate and zonisamide on fMRI cognitive networks.

Neurology 2017 Mar 17;88(12):1165-1171. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

From the Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy (B.W., J.B., A.H., P.J.T., J.S.D., M.J.K.), UCL Institute of Neurology, London; and MRI Unit (B.W., J.B., L.T., A.H., P.J.T., J.S.D., M.J.K.), Epilepsy Society, Chalfont St. Peter, UK.

Objective: To investigate the effects of topiramate (TPM), zonisamide (ZNS), and levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive network activations in patients with focal epilepsy using an fMRI language task.

Methods: In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, we identified patients from our clinical database of verbal fluency fMRI studies who were treated with either TPM (n = 32) or ZNS (n = 51). We matched 62 patients for clinical measures who took LEV but not TPM or ZNS. We entered antiepileptic comedications as nuisance variables and compared out-of-scanner psychometric measures for verbal fluency and working memory between groups.

Results: Out-of-scanner psychometric data showed overall poorer performance for TPM compared to ZNS and LEV and poorer working memory performance in ZNS-treated patients compared to LEV-treated patients. We found common fMRI effects in patients taking ZNS and TPM, with decreased activations in cognitive frontal and parietal lobe networks compared to those taking LEV. Impaired deactivation was seen only with TPM.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TPM and ZNS are associated with similar dysfunctions of frontal and parietal cognitive networks, which are associated with impaired performance. TPM is also associated with impaired attenuation of language-associated deactivation. These studies imply medication-specific effects on the functional neuroanatomy of language and working memory networks.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with focal epilepsy, TPM and ZNS compared to LEV lead to disruption of language and working memory networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5373787PMC
March 2017