Publications by authors named "Palmino Sacco"

10 Publications

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy: Double Reading of Chest CT Examination.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Precision Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 80121 Naples, Italy.

To assess the performance of the second reading of chest compute tomography (CT) examinations by expert radiologists in patients with discordance between the reverse transcription real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for COVID-19 viral pneumonia and the CT report. Three hundred and seventy-eight patients were included in this retrospective study (121 women and 257 men; 71 years median age, with a range of 29-93 years) and subjected to RT-PCR tests for suspicious COVID-19 infection. All patients were subjected to CT examination in order to evaluate the pulmonary disease involvement by COVID-19. CT images were reviewed first by two radiologists who identified COVID-19 typical CT patterns and then reanalyzed by another two radiologists using a CT structured report for COVID-19 diagnosis. Weighted к values were used to evaluate the inter-reader agreement. The median temporal window between RT-PCRs execution and CT scan was zero days with a range of (-9,11) days. The RT-PCR test was positive in 328/378 (86.8%). Discordance between RT-PCR and CT findings for viral pneumonia was revealed in 60 cases. The second reading changed the CT diagnosis in 16/60 (26.7%) cases contributing to an increase the concordance with the RT-PCR. Among these 60 cases, eight were false negative with positive RT-PCR, and 36 were false positive with negative RT-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT were respectively of 97.3%, 53.8%, 89.0%, and 88.4%. Double reading of CT scans and expert second readers could increase the diagnostic confidence of radiological interpretation in COVID-19 patients.
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January 2021

COVID-19 pneumonia: computer-aided quantification of healthy lung parenchyma, emphysema, ground glass and consolidation on chest computed tomography (CT).

Radiol Med 2021 Apr 18;126(4):553-560. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Division of Radiodiagnostic, Università Degli Studi Della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Objective: To calculate by means of a computer-aided tool the volumes of healthy residual lung parenchyma, of emphysema, of ground glass opacity (GGO) and of consolidation on chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected viral pneumonia by COVID-19.

Materials And Methods: This study included 116 patients that for suspected COVID-19 infection were subjected to the reverse transcription real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. A computer-aided tool was used to calculate on chest CT images healthy residual lung parenchyma, emphysema, GGO and consolidation volumes for both right and left lung. Expert radiologists, in consensus, assessed the CT images using a structured report and attributed a radiological severity score at the disease pulmonary involvement using a scale of five levels. Nonparametric test was performed to assess differences statistically significant among groups.

Results: GGO was the most represented feature in suspected CT by COVID-19 infection; it is present in 102/109 (93.6%) patients with a volume percentage value of 19.50% and a median value of 0.64 L, while the emphysema and consolidation volumes were low (0.01 L and 0.03 L, respectively). Among quantified volume, only GGO volume had a difference statistically significant between the group of patients with suspected versus non-suspected CT for COVID-19 (p < < 0.01). There were differences statistically significant among the groups based on radiological severity score in terms of healthy residual parenchyma volume, of GGO volume and of consolidations volume (p < < 0.001).

Conclusion: We demonstrated that, using a computer-aided tool, the COVID-19 pneumonia was mirrored with a percentage median value of GGO of 19.50% and that only GGO volume had a difference significant between the patients with suspected or non-suspected CT for COVID-19 infection.
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April 2021

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy: features on chest computed tomography using a structured report system.

Sci Rep 2020 10 14;10(1):17236. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Radiodiagnostic, "Università Degli Studi Della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

To assess the use of a structured report in the Chest Computed Tomography (CT) reporting of patients with suspicious viral pneumonia by COVID-19 and the evaluation of the main CT patterns. This study included 134 patients (43 women and 91 men; 68.8 years of mean age, range 29-93 years) with suspicious COVID-19 viral infection evaluated by reverse transcription real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. All patients underwent CT examinations at the time of admission. CT images were reviewed by two radiologists who identified COVID-19 CT patterns using a structured reports. Temporal difference mean value between RT-PCRs and CT scan was 0.18 days ± 2.0 days. CT findings were positive for viral pneumonia in 94.0% patients while COVID-19 was diagnosed at RT-PCR in 77.6% patients. Time mean value to complete the structured report by radiologist was 8.5 min ± 2.4 min. The disease on chest CT predominantly affected multiple lobes and the main CT feature was ground glass opacity (GGO) with or without consolidation (96.8%). GGO was predominantly bilateral (89.3%), peripheral (80.3%), multifocal/patching (70.5%). Consolidation disease was predominantly bilateral (83.9%) with prevalent peripheral (87.1%) and segmental (47.3%) distribution. Additional CT signs were the crazy-paving pattern in 75.4% of patients, the septal thickening in 37.3% of patients, the air bronchogram sign in 39.7% and the "reversed halo" sign in 23.8%. Less frequent characteristics at CT regard discrete pulmonary nodules, increased trunk diameter of the pulmonary artery, pleural effusion and pericardium effusion (7.9%, 6.3%, 14.3% and 16.7%, respectively). Barotrauma sign was absent in all the patients. High percentage (54.8%) of the patients had mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Using a Chest CT structured report, with a standardized language, we identified that the cardinal hallmarks of COVID-19 infection were bilateral, peripheral and multifocal/patching GGO and bilateral consolidation with peripheral and segmental distribution.
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October 2020

Follow-up of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: Preliminary validation of digital tomosynthesis and contrast enhanced ultrasound in detection of medium- to long-term complications.

World J Radiol 2016 May;8(5):530-6

Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Susanna Guerrini, Nevada Cioffi Squitieri, Dario Notaro, Luca Volterrani, Department of Medical, Surgical and Neuro Sciences, Diagnostic Imaging Unit, University of Siena, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Aim: To validate the feasibility of digital tomosynthesis of the abdomen (DTA) combined with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in assessing complications after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) by using computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the gold standard.

Methods: For this prospective study we enrolled 163 patients (123 men; mean age, 65.7 years) referred for CTA for EVAR follow-up. CTA, DTA and CEUS were performed at 1 and 12 mo in all patients, with a maximum time interval of 2 d.

Results: Among 163 patients 33 presented complications at CTA. DTA and CTA correlated for the presence of complications in 32/33 (96.96%) patients and for the absence of complications in 127/130 (97.69%) patients; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of DTA were 97%, 98%, 91%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. CEUS and CTA correlated for the presence of complications in 19/33 (57.57%) patients and for the absence of complications in 129/130 (99.23%) patients; the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of CEUS were 58%, 99%, 95%, 90%, and 91%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of combining DTA and CEUS together in detecting EVAR complications were 77%, 98% and 95%, respectively.

Conclusion: Combining DTA and CEUS in EVAR follow-up has the potential to limit the use of CTA only in doubtful cases.
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May 2016

Polydactyly with ectodermal defect, osteopenia, and mental delay.

J Child Neurol 2008 Jun 8;23(6):683-9. Epub 2008 Jan 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, Section of Pediatrics, Policlinico Le Scotte, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Five members from 3 generations, including a 35-year-old woman and her 2 sons, both mentally impaired to a different degree, were studied in a tertiary care hospital. Anamnestic, clinical, neurological, and radiological evaluations were used to describe phenotypes. A and B postaxial polydactyly, transmitted likely as autosomal dominant, was associated with an extensive variability of phenotypic features: (1) cutaneous syndactyly, (2) nail-teeth dysplasia, (3) osteopenia, and (4) mental delay. The likelihood that the constellation of observations we report here is caused by mutation of a single gene that subsequently affects multiple physiological activities, although fascinating, remains to be proven. Instead, we hypothesize that it likely develops as a contiguous gene syndrome.
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June 2008

Global developmental delay, osteopenia and ectodermal defect: a new syndrome.

Brain Dev 2006 Apr 20;28(3):155-61. Epub 2005 Dec 20.

Department of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, Policlinico Le Scotte, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Unlabelled: Global developmental delay is a serious social problem. It is often unrecognized and the phenotypes are inadequately studied. To investigate the phenotypes of children with aspecific central nervous system (CNS) impairment (poor speech, maladaptive behavioral symptoms such as temper tantrums, aggressiveness, poor concentration and attention, impulsiveness, and mental retardation).

Setting: Tertiary care hospital.

Patients: Three children (two male siblings, and one unrelated girl).

Methods: We used the results from clinical neurological evaluations; imaging and electrodiagnostic studies; metabolic and genetic tests; skin biopsies and bone mineral densitometry. All three children suffered from (A) global developmental delay, (B) osteopenia, and (C) identical skin defects. The skin ultrastructural abnormalities were abnormal keratin differentiation, consisting of hyperkeratosis and granular layer thickening; sweat gland abnormalities, consisting of focal, cytoplasmic clear changes in eccrine secretory cells; and melanocyte abnormalities, with both morphological changes (reduced number and size without evident dendritic processes), and functional changes (defects in the migration of melanosomes in the keratinocytes). These patients present a previously unrecognized syndrome. We retain useful to report this new association, to be recognized, in the next future, as a specific key-sign of a well-defined genetic defect.
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April 2006

[Radiotherapy of malignant gliomas: results from conventional treatment methods and the prospects of advanced techniques].

Radiol Med 2004 Jan-Feb;107(1-2):128-35

Unità Operative di Radioterapia, Universitaria di Siena ed Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena.

Purpose: The results of post-operative radiation therapy of malignant gliomas are disappointing, with mean survival time (MST) of 16-70 weeks and 2-year survival rates ranging from 8.5% to 25% in the literature. A slightly more favourable prognosis is found in the following cases: in anaplastic astrocytomas with respect to glioblastoma multiforme; in younger patients with respect to the more elderly; the longer the duration of symptoms before diagnosis; and in the event in which surgery has been macroscopically radical. An improvement in treatment outcome is foreseeable with the use of advanced volume definition techniques for radiation therapy.

Materials And Methods And Results: Our experience with conventional radiation treatment shows therapeutic results in agreement with other institutions. In the overall 134 cases MST was 50 weeks and the 2-year survival rate was 10%. In patients affected by anaplastic astrocytoma MST was 58% and 2-year survival rate was 17%, whereas the figures for glioblastoma multiforme were 47 weeks and 8% (p>0.05, not statistically significant, probably due to the small number of cases). Patients of sixty years of age or less showed a more statistically favourable prognosis: MST was 59 weeks and 2-year survival rate was 16%, compared with 44 weeks and 4% in patients above 60 years of age (p<0.05). The duration of symptoms of 6 months or less had a less favourable prognosis with respect to symptom onset of greater than 6 months: in the former MST was 49 weeks and 2-year survival was 7%, and in the latter the figures were 68 weeks and 40% (P<0.05). Lastly, the presence of residual neoplastic tissue after surgery is an unfavourable element: in this case MST was 41 weeks and 2-year survival was 7%, compared with 68 weeks and 13% (P<0.05) after macroscopically radical surgery.

Discussion And Conclusions: Computed tomography (CT) is still today an indispensable technique for radiation therapy planning. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging, nonetheless, provides greater definition of the neoplastic extension. The possibility of combining CT and MR neuroimaging data together with stereotactic radiotherapy techniques enables the optimal development of the three-dimensional treatment plane. This translates into high dose delivery to the neoplastic volumes without affecting the regions of the brain with no tumour involvement. Furthermore, a real improvement in the prognosis of malignant gliomas must also consider the results from research in the fields of tumour biology and functional neuroimaging.
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April 2004

PACS implementation in a university hospital in Tuscany.

J Digit Imaging 2002 21;15 Suppl 1:250-1. Epub 2002 Mar 21.

Department of Radiology, University of Siena, Italy.

We describe cost/benefit analysis for the implementation of a picture archiving and communication system in the Department of radiology of University of Siena, Italy. We also highlight technical and functional innovations provided by information of several department units: cost conversion, workflow optimisation and operator development. We analysed: operator costs, paper costs, film costs, chemical costs, costs of optical disks and location rent for hardware and software of RIS/PACS. The results show that advantages provided by PACS implementation derive from a workflow optimization and saving of human resources rather than from a reduction in films and chemicals. Moreover, better management of radiological unit provides improved handling of clinical information, resulting in reduced time to initiate clinical action, with reduction in average length of patient stay and improvements in overall health outcomes.
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August 2002