Publications by authors named "Pallavi Singh"

92 Publications

Non-surgical Rhinoplasty and Use of Hyaluronic Acid Based Dermal Filler-User Experience in Few Subjects.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Mar 3;73(1):52-58. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences (SAIMS), Indore, India.

This study was intended to assess the utility of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers in patients who do not wish surgery in addition to the patients with minor post-surgery asymmetries. This was a prospective study which included post-surgery patients for minor nasal asymmetries, patients unwilling for surgery and those waiting for revision surgery. It is of great use in candidates who do not wish surgery but had the desire for different nasal appearance especially for important life events like marriage etc. This study included 20 patients with follow up period of 18 months. The results were compared on Nasal Imperfection Scale and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation along with pre and post injection photographs. Nasal Imperfection Scale difference of 5 and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation Scale differential of 50 is considered to be significant, which was observed in all individual cases. The growing need of medical rhinoplasty by the patient as well as surgeons has led to the introduction of fillers. Hyaluronic acid fillers are safe, easy and effective dermal fillers for patients undergoing all the expected indications of medical rhinoplasty. There is also growing number of candidates who wish for a 'nose job' for desired changes without coming under surgeon's scalpel. Our clinical experience with 20 patients has been described with satisfactory results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12070-020-02100-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881997PMC
March 2021

Effect of induced anisometropia on stereopsis and surgical tasks in a simulated environment.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar;69(3):568-572

Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. R. P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: To quantitatively correlate the loss of stereopsis by induced anisometropia with its effect on tasks that require binocular vision and stereopsis, such as ophthalmic surgery in a simulated environment.

Methods: Thirty-nine ophthalmic residents with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better OU, with normal binocular vision and stereopsis, were recruited for the study. Anisometropia was induced using spherical and cylindrical trial lenses from +1D to +5D in a trial frame. The residents performed an anterior chamber navigation exercise on the EYESi simulator and the surgical score at baseline and for each level of induced anisometropia was noted. Near stereopsis was assessed by the Randot test and TNO test at baseline and for each level of induced anisometropia.

Results: Stereoacuity on the Randot test and TNO test were 30 (95% CI, 25.9-34.1) and 44.4 (95% CI, 28.5-60.3) arcseconds, respectively which reduced to 65.5 (95% CI, 48.7-82.3) and 75.9 (95% CI, 15.5-136.3) arcseconds at anisometropia of +1D Sph (P < 0.001) and 380 (95% CI, 309.9-450.1) and 1922.1 (95% CI, 1582.5-2261.7) arcseconds for +5D Sph, respectively for the two tests, (P < 0.001). The corresponding surgical score reduced from 93.8 (95% CI, 91.1-96.7) to 87.5 (95% CI, 79.2-95.8, P < 0.001) for 1 DSph and 55.97 (95% CI, 38.3-73.7, P < 0.001) for 5DSph. There was a strong negative correlation between stereopsis scores and surgical task scores (Spearman's rho -0.86, P value <0.001) Similar changes were seen for anisometropia induced with cylindrical powers.

Conclusion: Induced anisometropia is associated with a significant diminution in surgical task scores in a simulated environment and this is correlated with the deterioration in stereoacuity. Assessment of stereopsis may be included as a regular part of the screening procedure for ophthalmic trainee residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1540_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942079PMC
March 2021

Relationship between triglyceride glucose index, retinopathy and nephropathy in Type 2 diabetes.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Jan 19;4(1):e00151. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services Medical Research Foundation Chennai India.

Aims: To explore the relationship between TyG index, diabetic retinopathy (DR) and nephropathy.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study that examined 1413 subjects with type 2 diabetes (both known and newly diagnosed). Subjects underwent a detailed standard evaluation to detect diabetic retinopathy (fundus photography) and nephropathy (defined as urinary albumin excretion ≥ 30 mg/24 h). The TyG index was calculated as ln (fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2) and stratified into 4 quartiles (TyG-Q). The baseline characteristics of the study population in the four TyG-Q (Q1 (≤7.3) n = 349, Q2 (>7.3 to ≤ 7.5) n = 358, Q3 (>7.5 to ≤ 8.0) n = 354, and Q4 (>8.0) n = 352) were analysed. Variables associated with the presence of DR and nephropathy were assessed using a stepwise binary logistic regression analysis.

Results: The presence of DR was associated with higher TyG index (OR = 1.453, =.001) and longer duration of diabetes (OR = 1.085,  < .001). The presence of nephropathy was associated with a higher TyG index (OR = 1.703,  < .001), greater age (OR = 1.031, < .001), use of insulin (OR = 1.842, = .033), higher systolic BP (OR = 1.015, < .001), and the presence of DR (OR = 3.052, < .001). Higher TyG-Q correlated with the severity of DR ( = .024), presence of nephropathy ( = .001), age ( < .001) and diastolic blood pressure ( = .006).

Conclusions: A higher TyG index is associated with the presence of retinopathy and nephropathy in individuals with diabetes and could be used for monitoring metabolic status in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831221PMC
January 2021

Comparative Genome-Wide Characterization of Microsatellites in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Leading to the Development of Species-Specific Marker.

Public Health Genomics 2021 5;24(1-2):1-13. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.

Background: Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are related to genomic structure, function, and certain diseases of taxonomically different organisms.

Objective: To characterize microsatellites in two closely related Candida species by searching and comparing 1-6 bp nucleotide motifs and utilizing them to develop species-specific markers.

Methods: Whole-genome sequence was downloaded from the public domain, microsatellites were mined and analyzed, and primers were synthesized.

Results: A total of 15,821 and 7,868 microsatellites, with mono-nucleotides (8,679) and trinucleotides (3,156) as most frequent microsatellites, were mined in Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans, respectively. Chromosome size was found positively correlated with microsatellite number in both the species, whereas it was negatively correlated with the relative abundance and density of microsatellites. A number of unique motifs were also found in both the species. Overall, microsatellite frequencies of each chromosome in C. dubliniensis were higher than in C. albicans.

Conclusion: The features of microsatellite distribution in the two species' genomes revealed that it is probably not conserved in the genus Candida. Data generated in this article could be used for comparative genome mapping and understanding the distribution of microsatellites and genome structure between these closely related and phenotypically misidentified species and may provide a foundation for the development of a new set of species-specific microsatellite markers. Here, we also report a novel microsatellite-based marker for C. dubliniensis-specific identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512087DOI Listing
January 2021

Acute macular neuroretinopathy in a patient with acute coronary syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Dec 22;13(12). Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

A young man presented with bilateral diminution of vision after acute coronary syndrome. Fundus showed dark wedge-shaped perifoveal lesions in both eyes. Fundus fluorescein angiography and indocyanine angiography were normal. Optical coherence tomography showed characteristic findings of outer nuclear layer thinning and disruption of ellipsoid zone. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed flow voids in deep capillary plexus. A diagnosis of acute macular neuroretinopathy was made. The multimodal imaging findings and pathophysiology of such a scenario are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-238625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757472PMC
December 2020

The nucleotide specificity of succinyl-CoA synthetase of Plasmodium falciparum is not determined by charged gatekeeper residues alone.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Mar 17;11(3):578-587. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Protein Biochemistry and Engineering Lab, Parasite-Host Biology Group, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India.

Substrate specificity of an enzyme is an important characteristic of its mechanism of action. Investigation of the nucleotide specificity of Plasmodium falciparum succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS; PfSCS) would provide crucial insights of its substrate recognition. Charged gatekeeper residues have been shown to alter the substrate specificity via electrostatic interactions with approaching substrates. The enzyme kinetics of recombinant PfSCS (wild-type), generated by refolding of the individual P. falciparum SCSβ and Blastocystis SCSα subunits, demonstrated ADP-forming activity (K  = 48 µm). Further, the introduction of charged gatekeeper residues, either positive (Lys and Lys) or negative (Glu and Asp), resulted in significant reductions in the ATP affinity of PfSCS. It is interesting to note that the recombinant PfSCSβ subunit can be refolded to a functional enzyme conformation using Blastocystis SCSα, indicating the possibility of subunits swapping among different organisms. These results concluded that electrostatic interactions at the gatekeeper region alone are insufficient to alter the substrate specificity of PfSCS, and further structural analysis with a particular focus on binding site architecture is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931218PMC
March 2021

Optical coherence tomography angiography in neuro-ophthalmology: Current clinical role and future perspectives.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 May-Jun;66(3):471-481. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive, depth-resolved imaging tool for the appraisement of retinal vascular changes. Since its introduction, the understanding of diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy, and other diseases has been enriched on many fronts. Its dyeless imaging property maps retinal as well as deeper choroidal vasculature in quick succession with good reproducibility. Hence, it can play an important role in the diagnosis and management of optic nerve-related diseases as well. A detailed literature review for its role in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, optic disc drusen, papillitis, hereditary optic neuropathies, central nervous system diseases, and others highlights its role. The whole spectrum of neuro-ophthalmological diseases shows consistent peripapillary and macular capillary changes with structural and functional correlation. The superficial and deeper retinal and choroidal vasculatures are affected depending on the nature of the disease process. Hence, OCTA positions itself as a useful, noninvasive tool in the armamentarium of a neuro-ophthalmologist in future; however, there are several limitations of the OCTA with respect to its technical abilities in challenging neuro-ophthalmic cases. Therefore, future research should be directed to enhance the technical capabilities of OCTA and to determine the more precise role of it in the prognosis of neuro-ophthalmic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.survophthal.2020.10.009DOI Listing
November 2020

Organoid Nevus Syndrome in a Young Woman: Multimodal Imaging.

Ophthalmol Retina 2020 11;4(11):1068

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2020.04.028DOI Listing
November 2020

Periocular Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma-A Case of Unseen Eyes.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2020 08 13;138(8):e194778. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Ocular Pathology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.4778DOI Listing
August 2020

Large wooden orbital foreign body: case report and literature review.

Trop Doct 2020 Aug 10:49475520946167. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. R. P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Orbital trauma is often associated with foreign bodies. Wooden foreign bodies pose an urgent need for removal owing to their reactive nature and the high risk for infection. Though visual prognosis depends on associated ocular trauma, in selected cases, excellent visual and cosmetic outcomes are possible. An 18-year-old woman presented to our trauma facility with a history of fall directly onto a wooden stick from a height. On examination, there was a large wooden foreign body in the left medial orbit, extending into the ethmoidal sinus as visualised on imaging. After administration of perioperative antibiotics, the foreign body was removed in toto using careful tissue dissection and the soft tissue was closed in layers. Postoperatively at six months, the vision in the left eye was 20/20 with mild ptosis. Early surgery, careful dissection of soft tissues and adequate infection prophylaxis can lead to good outcomes in such cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520946167DOI Listing
August 2020

Correlation of Cutaneous Manifestations with Body Mass Index, Blood Glucose, and Hormonal Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Disease.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2020 May-Jun;11(3):378-381. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Dermatology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, DPU, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is characterized by oligo/anovulation, ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries and cutaneous features such as hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, androgentic alopecia, and signs of virilization.

Aim: Correlation of dermatological manifestations with body mass index (BMI), blood glucose, and levels of free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in patients of PCOD hailing from Pimpri, Pune.

Subjects And Methods: This observational study was carried out from November 2015-April 2017 on 102 patients (aged 12-45 years, non-pregnant) of PCOD, attending dermatology/gynecology outpatient departments. After recording socio-demographic/menstrual and medical history, BMI was calculated and examination of cutaneous manifestations were done. Participants were then subjected to pelvic ultrasonography and blood sugar/hormonal estimation.

Statistical Analysis: By using statistical package for the Social Sciences 17.0 software, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test.

Results: Age: 59.80% belonged to the third decade (range,12-40; mean, 26.27 ± 5.05 years); ultrasonography revealed polycystic ovaries in 79.41%. Cutaneous manifestations recorded were - acne (74.50%); acanthosis nigricans (50%); striae (49.02%); hirsutism (40.19%); acrochordons (36.27%); seborrheic dermatitis (32.35%), and androgenetic alopecia (30.39%). Free testosterone (35;34.31%), DHEAS (9;8.82%), LH and FSH (2;1.96% each), and LH: FSH ratio (51;50%) were raised. Statistical association of acanthosis nigricans emerged with free testosterone = 0.034), DHEAS = 0.016), fasting blood sugar = 0.01), and raised BMI = 0.002) and of hirsutism with raised DHEAS = 0.016), free testosterone = 0.012), and BMI = 0.022).

Conclusion: Significant correlations demonstrated were acanthosis nigricans with free testosterone, DHEAS, FBS, and BMI and hirsutism with DHEAS, free testosterone, and BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_193_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367582PMC
May 2020

Elimination of "kitome" and "splashome" contamination results in lack of detection of a unique placental microbiome.

BMC Microbiol 2020 06 11;20(1):157. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Background: A placental microbiome, which may be altered in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), has been described. However, publications raising doubts about the existence of a placental microbiome that is different than contaminants in DNA extraction kits and reagents ("kitomes") have emerged. The aims of this study were to confirm the existence of a placental microbiome distinct from contaminants and determine if it is altered in GDM mothers.

Results: We first enrolled normal weight, obese and GDM mothers (N = 17) at term elective cesarean section delivery in a pilot case control study. Bacterial DNA was extracted from placental parenchyma, maternal and cord blood, maternal vaginal-rectal swabs, and positive and negative controls with the standard Qiagen/MoBio Power Soil kit. Placentas had significantly higher copies of bacterial 16S rRNA genes than negative controls, but the placental microbiome was similar in all three groups and could not be distinguished from contaminants in blank controls. To determine the source and composition of the putative placental bacterial community identified in the pilot study, we expanded the study to 10 subjects per group (N = 30) and increased the number and variety of negative controls (N = 53). We modified our protocol to use an ultraclean DNA extraction kit (Qiagen QIAamp UCP with Pathogen Lysis Tube S), which reduced the "kitome" contamination, but we were still unable to distinguish a placental microbiome from contaminants in negative controls. We noted microbial DNA from the high biomass vaginal-rectal swabs and positive controls in placental and negative control samples and determined that this resulted from close proximity well-to-well cross contamination or "splashome". We eliminated this source of contamination by repeating the sequencing run with a minimum of four wells separating high biomass from low biomass samples. This reduced the reads of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in placental samples to insignificant numbers.

Conclusions: We identified the problem of well-to-well contamination ("splashome") as an additional source of error in microbiome studies of low biomass samples and found a method of eliminating it. Once "kitome" and "splashome" contaminants were eliminated, we were unable to identify a unique placental microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01839-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291729PMC
June 2020

Commentary: Persistent macular hole: A long way to go.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 06;68(6):1196-1197

Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_181_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508136PMC
June 2020

Acetamidinium-Substituted Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells with Higher Open-Circuit Voltage and Improved Intrinsic Stability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Mar 13;12(12):13982-13987. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, India.

We report acetamidinium (AA)-substituted methylammonium (MA) lead iodide perovskite solar cells. AA has a restricted C-N bond rotation because of delocalized π-electron cloud over the N-C-N bond and the presence of an additional N-H···I bond (4H-bond in AA as compared to 3H-bond in MA). These bonding structures strengthen the electrostatic interaction and stabilize the AA cation inside the perovskite matrix. AA, a larger cation, is substitutional only up to 10%. Devices made with 10% AA-substituted films show an average of 1.12 V, higher than the average of 1.04 V in the case of MA lead halide perovskite (MAPbI). This increase in can be attributed to an increase in carrier lifetime from 20 μs in the case of MAPbI to 32 μs for 10% AA-substituted films respectively. Devices with 18.29% champion and 16.3% average efficiency were fabricated for films with 10% AA. Degradation experiments confirm that the material stability also makes devices more stable; under ambient exposure (72 ± 3% RH), devices with 10% AA retain 70% of their initial power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 480 h. Under the same conditions, the PCEs of reference MAPbI devices reduced to 43% of their initial value in 480 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c00663DOI Listing
March 2020

Constructing the bundle sheath towards enhanced photosynthesis.

J Exp Bot 2020 02;71(4):1206-1209

University of Cambridge, Department of Plant Sciences, Downing Site, Cambridge, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erz537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031064PMC
February 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium perfringens Strain TAMU, Which Causes Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Jan 23;9(4). Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA

causes severe gastrointestinal diseases, which include necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, a deadly disease worldwide. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain TAMU, which was used in developing an NE chicken challenge model. This TAMU genome sequence will aid in advancing potential intervention strategies to reduce NE pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01357-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6979301PMC
January 2020

Cladosporium Endogenous Endophthalmitis Mimicking Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019 Dec 11:1-2. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Microbiology, Sankara Nethralaya Referral Laboratory, Medical and Vision Research Foundations, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India.

: Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis is a sight-threatening condition with potentially devastating outcome. Hematogenous spread of the infective seedings is the route of infection. Infected individuals have usually a compromised immune status. The clinical picture of mycotic endogenous endophthalmitis is commonly seen as chorioretinitis. Candida is the most common fungus. Cladosporium causing endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare occurrence, with only a few cases published.: The report includes study and management of a diabetic patient with endogenous cladosporium endophthalmitis mimicking toxoplasma retinochoroiditis.: Diagnosis was confirmed as in vitreous and aqueous aspirate by polymerase chain reaction-based DNA sequencing. Patient was successfully managed with intravitreal and systemic voriconazole.: Cladosporium can cause endogenous endophthalmitis and mimic toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. Vitreous biopsy can help in diagnosis in the absence of positive blood culture. Intravitreal voriconazole along with systemic voriconazole shows a good response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2019.1691239DOI Listing
December 2019

Genome-Wide Transcription Factor Binding in Leaves from C and C Grasses.

Plant Cell 2019 10 19;31(10):2297-2314. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom

The majority of plants use C photosynthesis, but over 60 independent lineages of angiosperms have evolved the C pathway. In most C species, photosynthesis gene expression is compartmented between mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. We performed DNaseI sequencing to identify genome-wide profiles of transcription factor binding in leaves of the C grasses , , and as well as C In C species, while bundle-sheath strands and whole leaves shared similarity in the broad regions of DNA accessible to transcription factors, the short sequences bound varied. Transcription factor binding was prevalent in gene bodies as well as promoters, and many of these sites could represent duons that influence gene regulation in addition to amino acid sequence. Although globally there was little correlation between any individual DNaseI footprint and cell-specific gene expression, within individual species transcription factor binding to the same motifs in multiple genes provided evidence for shared mechanisms governing C photosynthesis gene expression. Furthermore, interspecific comparisons identified a small number of highly conserved transcription factor binding sites associated with leaves from species that diverged around 60 million years ago. These data therefore provide insight into the architecture associated with C photosynthesis gene expression in particular and characteristics of transcription factor binding in cereal crops in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.19.00078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790085PMC
October 2019

Role of a patatin-like phospholipase in gametogenesis and malaria transmission.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 08 14;116(35):17498-17508. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Malaria Parasite Biology and Vaccines Unit, Department of Parasites and Insect Vectors, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France;

Transmission of involves a complex process that starts with the ingestion of gametocytes by female mosquitoes during a blood meal. Activation of gametocytes in the mosquito midgut triggers "rounding up" followed by egress of both male and female gametes. Egress requires secretion of a perforin-like protein, PfPLP2, from intracellular vesicles to the periphery, which leads to destabilization of peripheral membranes. Male gametes also develop flagella, which assist in binding female gametes for fertilization. This process of gametogenesis, which is key to malaria transmission, involves extensive membrane remodeling as well as vesicular discharge. Phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2) are known to mediate membrane remodeling and vesicle secretion in diverse organisms. Here, we show that a patatin-like phospholipase (PfPATPL1) with PLA2 activity plays a key role in gametogenesis. Conditional deletion of the gene encoding PfPATPL1 does not affect blood stage growth or gametocyte development but reduces efficiency of rounding up, egress, and exflagellation of gametocytes following activation. Interestingly, deletion of the gene inhibits secretion of PfPLP2, reducing the efficiency of gamete egress. Deletion of also reduces the efficiency of oocyst formation in mosquitoes. These studies demonstrate that PfPATPL1 plays a role in gametogenesis, thereby identifying PLA2 phospholipases such as PfPATPL1 as potential targets for the development of drugs to block malaria transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900266116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717283PMC
August 2019

Management of a case of orbital lymphangioma presenting in adulthood with negative-pressure aspiration and bleomycin injection.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jun 8;12(6). Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We hereby report a case of a 55-year-old woman, with complaints of sudden onset outward protrusion of left eye progressing over 2 months, along with pain and loss of vision. Visual acuity in the affected eye was light perception only. On imaging, a well-defined solitary cystic lesion was noted in the retrobulbar space, which showed no enhancement on contrast-enhanced MRI. We performed fluid aspiration from the cyst under negative pressure and injected bleomycin as a sclerosant, without attempting a surgical excision. The proptosis reduced visibly, and after a week, visual acuity improved to finger counting at 1 m. At the 6 months follow-up, the patient did not show any recurrence of proptosis. This report highlights the importance of sclerosant therapy without the need for surgical excision in managing macrocystic lymphangiomas in adult age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6557371PMC
June 2019

Encapsulation in chitosan-based nanomatrix as an efficient green technology to boost the antimicrobial, antioxidant and in situ efficacy of Coriandrum sativum essential oil.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Jul 13;133:294-305. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Herbal Pesticides, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:

The present investigation deals with first time report on encapsulation of Coriandrum sativum essential oil (CSEO) in chitosan nanomatrix as a green nanotechnology for enhancing its antimicrobial, aflatoxin inhibitory and antioxidant efficacy. Chitosan nano biopolymer entrapped CSEO as prepared through ionic gelation process showed broad spectrum fungitoxicity against molds infesting stored rice and also exhibited enhanced bioefficacy than unencapsulated CSEO. The CSEO entrapped in chitosan nanomatrix lead to decrement in important fungal membrane biomolecule i.e. ergosterol and leakage of UV-absorbing substances along with vital cellular ions. The CSEO encapsulation in selected biopolymer nanomatrix effectively checked methylglyoxal (the aflatoxin inducer) biosynthesis, confirming antiaflatoxigenic mode of action. The physico-chemical properties, considerable decrease in lipid peroxidation and improved in situ AFB suppressive as well as antifungal potential of CSEO nanocapsules suggested the deployment of chitosan based nano biopolymer for encapsulation of essential oils as an ecofriendly technology for application in food industries in order to enhance the shelf life and control the fungal and aflatoxin contamination of stored rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.070DOI Listing
July 2019

Effectiveness of two psychological intervention techniques for de-addiction among patients with addiction to tobacco and alcohol - A double-blind randomized control trial.

Indian J Cancer 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):382-389

Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, Bhanpur, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of two psychological intervention techniques (reading - writing therapy vs. games - narrative therapy) using motivational intervention alone as a control among tobacco addicts.

Materials And Method: This randomized control trial was conducted over a period of 6 months from April to September 2013 at a de-addiction center in Madhya Pradesh, India. Patients with moderate-to-high levels of dependence as determined by Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) admitted for treatment in a de-addiction center were recruited. A cluster randomization technique was used for allocation of participants to three different groups. Group allocation was concealed from investigator and done by coordinator. Three interventions were group A - motivational intervention alone, group B - games and story therapy along with motivational intervention, and group C - reading and writing therapy along with motivational intervention. Interventions were applied for 1 month. Two postintervention follow-ups (one at the time of discharge and one after 1 month following discharge) were done to assess level of dependence using FTND besides undertaking urine cotinine analysis among three randomly selected participants in each group.

Results: A total of 82 participants (28 in group A, 27 each in groups B and C) completed the study. Eighty-one (98.8%) participants had complete abstinence at the end of 1 month with no significant difference in the success rate between different categories (P = 0.357). At the end of 1 month following discharge from center, only 7 participants (8.5%) had complete abstinence and 51 participants (62.2%) had partial reduction and remaining 24 participants (29.3%) were considered failures with no difference between three groups (P = 0.768).

Conclusion: Although overall abstinence was low (8.5%), all intervention techniques were equally effective in at least reducing level of dependence with no significant difference in their efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijc.IJC_650_17DOI Listing
June 2019

Development of efficient protocol for rice transformation overexpressing MAP kinase and their effect on root phenotypic traits.

Protoplasma 2019 Jul 25;256(4):997-1011. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Exhaustive studies on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) have reported the importance in regulating a variety of responses during plant growth and development. In particular, the potential MAPK genes, MPK3 and MPK6, seem to regulate a plethora of responses, conferring tolerance to varied abiotic, biotic, and developmental stimuli. This makes both MPK3 and MPK6 potential targets for further studies. It would be an important concern to overexpress and knock out these pivotal proteins and then, in turn, to monitor the plant response which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal contexts. However, overexpression of MAPK genes has remained a puzzle in plants. In the present study, we report the generation of stable transgenic lines overexpressing OsMPK3 in indica and japonica cultivars and OsMPK6 in japonica cultivar under the control of an inducible promoter. We also establish the crucial steps and troubleshooting for each of the indicated rice transformation medium components. Later, we study the potential role of these MAPKs in high-throughput analysis of root system architectural (RSA) traits. It was observed that OsMPK6 overexpression lines had a more robust and spread out root architectural system while OsMPK3 overexpression lines had a typical bushy phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-019-01359-1DOI Listing
July 2019

Apocrine Hydrocystoma-Lantern of the Eye.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2019 Feb 14;137(2):e183975. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Ocular Pathology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.3975DOI Listing
February 2019

Canalicular laceration visualisation using chandelier illumination.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Feb 11;12(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381966PMC
February 2019

Isolated conjunctival involvement in a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Trop Doct 2019 Apr 5;49(2):149-151. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

4 Professor, Dr. R. P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475519827112DOI Listing
April 2019

Choroidal melanoma masquerading as orbital cellulitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Dec 9;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Orbital cellulitis is the most common subset of orbital inflammatory disease. We describe a patient with necrotic choroidal melanoma who presented with orbital cellulitis. MRI revealed a mass lesion suggesting intraocular melanoma with no extrascleral extension. There was no metastasis on positron emission tomography-CT scan. Enucleation with orbital implant was performed. Histopathological analysis of the specimen revealed intraocular necrotic melanoma with very few recognisable melanoma cells. The necrotic subtype is more commonly associated with extrascleral extension, distant metastasis and poorer prognosis than other melanoma types. Sterile orbital cellulitis may rarely be a manifestation of ocular tumours in adults, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained to rule out the same.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301580PMC
December 2018

Knowledge, attitude, and practice among tobacco and alcohol addicts before and after psychological intervention in a de-addiction center at Madhya Pradesh, India.

Ind Psychiatry J 2018 Jan-Jun;27(1):27-40

Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Context: Tobacco and alcohol addiction has emerged as a major public health issue in most of the regions of the world. It has resulted in enormous disability, disease, and death and acquired the dimension of an epidemic. It is estimated that five million preventable deaths occur every year globally, attributable to tobacco use. The number is expected to double by 2020 if death due to tobacco continues to occur at the same rate. Alcohol, on the other hand, contributes to 25% of all deaths in the age group of 20-39 years. The interventions such as supportive pharmacotherapy, nicotine replacement therapy, counseling, behavioral intervention, psychotherapy, and detoxification therapy are being commonly employed in the management of patients with addiction to tobacco and alcohol.

Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) among tobacco and alcohol addicts before and after psychological intervention in a de-addiction center.

Settings And Design: This study was a randomized control trial, focusing on psychological interventions practiced in a de-addiction center, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Materials And Methods: The information on KAP related to tobacco and alcohol was collected at baseline from 83 participants. This was compared with the information collected in the postintervention follow-ups from each participant.

Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical tests for parametric analysis were done using one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's test, RMANOVA with Mauchly's test for sphericity assumption, and Bonferroni test for comparing the main effects. Nonparametric tests included Pearson's Chi-square test, McNemar's Chi-square test, Spearman's rho, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05.

Results: The mean KAP score for the study population was highest at the first follow-up followed by the second follow-up for both tobacco and alcohol addiction. The least KAP score was observed at the baseline.

Conclusions: Although a significant improvement in the mean KAP score was observed at the first follow-up, subsequent follow-up revealed a reduction in the overall KAP score in the present study. This could be attributed to the fact that following their discharge from the de-addiction center, most of the participants reverted back to their deleterious habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ipj.ipj_77_14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198589PMC
November 2018

Comment on: Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness after optic canal decompression.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 11;66(11):1658-1659

Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_876_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213661PMC
November 2018