Publications by authors named "Paige L Marquez"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons.

N Engl J Med 2021 06 21;384(24):2273-2282. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (T.T.S., T.R.M., P.L. Moro, L.P., P.L. Marquez, C.K.O., C.L., B.C.Z., J.M.G.), and the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (S.W.M.), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Division of Birth Defects and Infant Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (S.Y.K., V.K.B., C.J.G., D.M.M.-D.), the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (T.O., K.T.C., S.R.E., A.N.S.), the World Trade Center Health Program, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (R.L.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (K.T.C.) - all at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta; and the Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (M.A., A.M.-J.).

Background: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy.

Methods: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons.

Results: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases).

Conclusions: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2104983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117969PMC
June 2021

Myopericarditis after vaccination, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2018.

Vaccine 2021 01 6;39(5):839-845. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Myopericarditis after vaccination has been sporadically reported in the medical literature. Here, we present a thorough descriptive analysis of reports to a national passive vaccine safety surveillance system (VAERS) of myopericarditis after vaccines licensed for use in the United States.

Methods: We identified U.S. reports of myopericarditis received by VAERS during 1990-2018 that met a published case definition for myopericarditis or were physician-diagnosed. We stratified analysis by age group (<19, 19-49, ≥50 years), describing reports by serious/non-serious status, sex, time to symptom onset after vaccination, vaccine(s) administered, and exposure to other known causes of myopericarditis. We used Empirical Bayesian data mining to detect disproportionate reporting of myopericarditis after vaccination.

Results: VAERS received 620,195 reports during 1990-2018: 708 (0.1%) met the case definition or were physician-diagnosed as myopericarditis. Most (79%) myopericarditis reports described males; 69% were serious; 72% had symptom onset ≤ 2 weeks postvaccination. Overall, smallpox (59%) and anthrax (23%) vaccines were most commonly reported. By age, among persons aged < 19 years, Haemophilus influenzae type b (22, 22%) and hepatitis B (18, 18%); among persons aged 19-49 years smallpox (387, 79%); among persons aged ≥ 50 years inactivated influenza (31, 36%) and live attenuated zoster (19, 22%) vaccines were most commonly reported. The vaccines most commonly reported remained unchanged when excluding 138 reports describing other known causes of myopericarditis. Data mining revealed disproportionate reporting of myopericarditis only after smallpox vaccine.

Conclusions: Despite the introduction of new vaccines over the years, myopericarditis remains rarely reported after vaccines licensed for use in the United States. In this analysis, myopericarditis was most commonly reported after smallpox vaccine, and less commonly after other vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.046DOI Listing
January 2021

Safety profile of rotavirus vaccines among individuals aged ≥8 months of age, United States, vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS), 2006-2019.

Vaccine 2021 01 29;39(4):746-750. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Viral Gastroenteritis Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention USA.

Introduction: In 2006 and 2008, two live, oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1), were introduced into the routine immunization program in the United States. A previous rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, was associated with an increased risk of intussusception, with data suggesting an age-dependent variation in risk. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends that RV5 or RV1 immunization be initiated by age 14 weeks and 6 days and completed by 8 months 0 days.

Methods: We searched for U.S. VAERS reports of RV5, RV1, or unknown rotavirus vaccine brand among individuals aged ≥8 months. We analyzed reports by 2 age groups (individuals aged ≥8 months-≤5 years and ≥6 years), vaccine brand name, adverse event (AE) reported, classification of seriousness (death, non-death serious, and non-serious) and mode of exposure (direct vs. indirect exposure). For serious reports we reviewed available medical records and assigned a primary diagnosis.

Results: VAERS received a total of 344 U.S. reports following rotavirus vaccination among individuals ≥8 months of age, 32 (9.3%) were serious. In the younger age-group, 307 (99%) of 309 reports followed direct vaccination of the child. In contrast, in individuals aged ≥6 years, 21 (60%) of 35 reports were via potential indirect exposure to a vaccinated child. The frequently reported AEs in the younger age-group were inappropriate schedule of drug administration 104 (34%) and drug administered to patient of inappropriate age 45 (15%); in the older group these were accidental exposure 9 (26%) and eye irritation 7 (20%). No difference in the safety profile was observed between RV1 and RV5.

Conclusions: We did not identify any unexpected AEs for RV vaccines among individuals aged ≥8 months. Health care providers should adhere to the ACIP recommended schedule and older individuals should apply necessary precautions to prevent potential secondary exposure from vaccinated children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.11.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Adverse events following quadrivalent meningococcal diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (Menactra®) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2005-2016.

Vaccine 2020 09 31;38(40):6291-6298. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Immunization Safety Office, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Background: Post marketing safety evaluations of quadrivalent meningococcal diphtheria-toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) have focused on post-vaccination risk of Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), adverse events (AEs) after maternal vaccination, and comparative studies with the newer quadrivalent meningococcal CRM conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). To provide an updated general safety assessment, we reviewed reports of AEs following MenACWY-D submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

Methods: VAERS is a national spontaneous reporting vaccine safety surveillance system co-administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We searched the VAERS database for U.S. reports of AEs after administration of MenACWY-D from January 2005 through June 2016. We conducted clinical reviews of serious reports after MenACWY-D administered alone, reports of MenACWY-D use during pregnancy, and reports of selected pre-specified outcomes. We screened for disproportionate reporting of AEs after MenACWY-D using empirical Bayesian data mining.

Results: VAERS received 13,075 U.S. reports after receipt of MenACWY-D; most (86%) described vaccination in adolescents, were classified as non-serious (94%), and described AEs consistent with pre-licensure studies. We did not find any evidence that reported deaths were related to vaccination. In serious reports, GBS and meningococcal infection were the most commonly reported medical conditions. Many reports of MenACWY-D use during pregnancy described inadvertent vaccination; most (61%) did not report any AE.

Conclusions: Findings from our comprehensive review of reports to VAERS following MenACWY-D are consistent with data from pre-licensure studies and provide further reassurance on the safety of MenACWY-D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.07.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495357PMC
September 2020

Fever After Influenza, Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis, and Pneumococcal Vaccinations.

Pediatrics 2020 03 6;145(3). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Immunization Safety Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Administering inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine together has been associated with increased risk for febrile seizure after vaccination. We assessed the effect of administering IIV at a separate visit from PCV13 and DTaP on postvaccination fever.

Methods: In 2017-2018, children aged 12 to 16 months were randomly assigned to receive study vaccines simultaneously or sequentially. They had 2 study visits 2 weeks apart; nonstudy vaccines were permitted at visit 1. The simultaneous group received PCV13, DTaP, and quadrivalent IIV (IIV4) at visit 1 and no vaccines at visit 2. The sequential group received PCV13 and DTaP at visit 1 and IIV4 at visit 2. Participants were monitored for fever (≥38°C) and antipyretic use during the 8 days after visits.

Results: There were 110 children randomly assigned to the simultaneous group and 111 children to the sequential group; 90% received ≥1 nonstudy vaccine at visit 1. Similar proportions of children experienced fever on days 1 to 2 after visits 1 and 2 combined (simultaneous [8.1%] versus sequential [9.3%]; adjusted relative risk = 0.87 [95% confidence interval 0.36-2.10]). During days 1 to 2 after visit 1, more children in the simultaneous group received antipyretics (37.4% vs 22.4%; = .020).

Conclusions: In our study, delaying IIV4 administration by 2 weeks in children receiving DTaP and PCV13 did not reduce fever occurrence after vaccination. Reevaluating this strategy to prevent fever using an IIV4 with a different composition in a future influenza season may be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-1909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055925PMC
March 2020

Safety review of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) in adults aged ≥65 years, Vaccine Adverse Event reporting System (VAERS), United States, September 2010-December 2018.

Vaccine 2020 02 26;38(6):1476-1480. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States.

Introduction: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in persons ≥65 years of age. To date, few studies have assessed the safety of Tdap in this population. We aimed to summarize reports submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following receipt of Tdap in this age group.

Methods: We searched for and analyzed U.S. VAERS reports of Tdap among individuals ≥65 years of age submitted from September 1, 2010 through December 31, 2018. We classified reports according to concurrent vaccination, seriousness, and outcome (death, non-death) and determined the frequency of reported adverse events (AEs). For serious reports, we reviewed available medical records. Data mining analyses were undertaken to detect disproportionality in reporting.

Results: VAERS received a total of 1,798 reports following Tdap, of which 104 (6%) were serious. The most common AEs were injection site erythema (26%; n = 468), injection site pain (19%; n = 335), injection site swelling (18%; n = 329), and erythema (18%; n = 321). We identified seven deaths; none were attributed to Tdap. Among serious non-death reports, nervous system disorders (35.1%; n = 34) and infections and infestations (n = 18.6%; n = 18) were most commonly reported. Data mining did not identify any vaccine-AE combination reported more frequently than expected.

Conclusions: We did not identify any new safety concern over nearly a decade of recommended Tdap use among adults ≥65 years of age. Findings from this post-marketing review are consistent with prior post-marketing observations and pre-licensure studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.11.074DOI Listing
February 2020

Erythema multiforme, Stevens Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis reported after vaccination, 1999-2017.

Vaccine 2020 02 20;38(7):1746-1752. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Since the last review of vaccine safety surveillance data for erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS), SJS/TEN, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (EM/SJS/TEN), over 37 new vaccines have been introduced in the United States. We sought to describe reported EM/SJS/TEN after vaccines during 1999-2017.

Methods: We identified U.S. reports of EM/SJS/TEN received by the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1999-2017. We stratified analysis by condition (EM, SJS, or TEN), and analyzed reports by serious or non-serious status, sex, age group, time from vaccination to symptom onset, exposure to known causes of EM/SJS/TEN, and vaccines administered. We used Empirical Bayesian data mining to detect vaccine-AE pairs reported more frequently than expected.

Results: Of 466,027 reports to VAERS during 1999-2017, we identified 984 reports of EM, 89 reports of SJS, 6 reports of SJS/TEN, and 7 reports of TEN. Few reports of EM (9%), and most reports of SJS (52%), SJS/TEN (100%), and TEN (100%) were serious. Overall, 55% of reports described males, 48% described children aged < 4 years; 58% of EM/SJS/TEN occurred ≤ 7 days after vaccination. Few reports (≤5%) described exposure to known causes of EM/SJS/TEN. Overall, childhood vaccines (e.g., combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine) were most commonly reported. We identified 6 deaths; 4 were exposed to medications associated with EM/SJS/TEN. EM after smallpox vaccine was reported disproportionately among people aged 19-49 years.

Conclusions: EM/SJS/TEN were rarely reported after vaccination; data mining identified a known association between EM and smallpox vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.12.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008074PMC
February 2020

Safety of the 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

Pediatrics 2019 12 18;144(6). Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Immunization Safety Office, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; and.

Background: The 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine (9vHPV) was approved for females and males aged 9 to 26 years in 2014. We analyzed postlicensure surveillance reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

Methods: We searched VAERS data for US reports of adverse events (AEs) after 9vHPV from December 2014 through December 2017. We calculated reporting rates and conducted empirical Bayesian data mining to identify disproportional reporting. Physicians reviewed reports for selected prespecified conditions.

Results: VAERS received 7244 reports after 9vHPV: 31.2% among females, 21.6% among males, and for 47.2%, sex was not reported. Overall, 97.4% of reports were nonserious. Dizziness, syncope, headache, and injection site reactions were most commonly reported; the most commonly reported AEs were similar between females and males. Two reports of death after 9vHPV were verified; no information in autopsy reports or death certificates suggested a causal relationship with vaccination. Approximately 28 million 9vHPV doses were distributed during the study period; crude AE reporting rates were 259 reports per million 9vHPV doses distributed for all reports and 7 per million doses distributed for serious reports. Syncope (a known AE associated with human papillomavirus vaccination) and several types of vaccine administration errors (eg, administered at wrong age) exceeded the statistical threshold for empirical Bayesian data mining findings.

Conclusions: No new or unexpected safety concerns or reporting patterns of 9vHPV with clinically important AEs were detected. The safety profile of 9vHPV is consistent with data from prelicensure trials and from postmarketing safety data of its predecessor, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-1791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935554PMC
December 2019

Adverse events following adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, live, oral in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, October 2011-July 2018.

Vaccine 2019 10 20;37(44):6760-6767. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP), National Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases (NCZEID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Background: In March 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, live, oral (Barr Labs, Inc.) (adenovirus vaccine) for use in military personnel 17 through 50 years of age. The vaccine was first universally administered to U.S. military recruits in October 2011. We investigated adverse event (AE) reports following the adenovirus vaccine submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

Methods: We searched the VAERS database for U.S. reports among persons who received adenovirus vaccine during October 2011 through July 2018 including participants in a military observational study. We reviewed all serious reports and accompanying medical records. We compared the proportion of serious reports in a proxy military recruit population and reviewed all reports of suspected allergic reactions following adenovirus vaccination.

Results: During the analytic period, VAERS received 100 reports following adenovirus vaccination; 39 (39%) were classified as serious and of these, 17 (44%) were from the observational study. One death was reported. Males accounted for 72% of reports. Median age of vaccinees was 19 years (range 17-32). The most frequently reported serious AEs were Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 12) and anaphylaxis (n = 8); of these, two GBS and all the anaphylaxis reports were reported in the observational study. Reports documented concurrent receipt of multiple other vaccines (95%) and penicillin G (IM Pen G) or other antibiotics (50%).

Conclusions: The reporting rate for serious AEs was higher than with other vaccines administered in the comparison military recruit population (39% vs 18%); however, we identified no unexpected or concerning pattern of adenovirus vaccine AEs. Co-administration of vaccines and IM Pen G was commonly reported in this military population. These exposures may have contributed to the GBS and anaphylaxis outcomes observed with the adenovirus vaccine. Future adenovirus vaccine safety studies in a population without these co-administrations would be helpful in clarifying the vaccine's safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.087DOI Listing
October 2019

Is there any harm in administering extra-doses of vaccine to a person? Excess doses of vaccine reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2007-2017.

Vaccine 2019 06 30;37(28):3730-3734. Epub 2019 May 30.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA.

Background: The administration of an extra dose of a vaccine may occur due to a programmatic error (e.g., vaccination error) when there is need to provide one of the antigens of a combination vaccine not readily available as a single antigen, or when there is need to provide immunization in a person with uncertain vaccination histories (e.g., refugees). There is little data available on the safety of an extra dose of vaccine.

Objective: To assess for the presence of adverse events (AEs) most commonly reported following the administration of excess doses of vaccine in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).

Methods: We searched VAERS for US reports where an excess dose of vaccine was administered to a person received from 1/1/2007 through 1/26/2018. We reviewed medical records for all serious reports and a random sample of non-serious reports. The most common AEs among reports of excess dose of vaccine administered were compared with the corresponding AEs for all vaccines reported to VAERS during the same period.

Results: Out of 366,815 total VAERS reports received, 5067 (1.4%) reported an excess dose of vaccine was administered; 3898 (76.9%) did not describe an adverse health event (AHE). The most common vaccines reported were trivalent inactivated influenza (15.4%), varicella (13.9%), hepatitis A (11.4%), and measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (11.1%). Among reports where only AHEs were reported, the most common were pyrexia (12.8%), injection site erythema (9.7%), injection site pain (8.9%), and headache (6.6%). The percentage of AHEs among these reports was comparable to all reports submitted to VAERS during the same study period.

Conclusion: More than three-fourths of reports of an excess dose of vaccine did not describe an AHE. Among reports where an AHE event was reported, we did not observe any unexpected conditions or clustering of AEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925972PMC
June 2019