Publications by authors named "Paige E Cloonan"

4 Publications

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Probing the subcellular nanostructure of engineered human cardiomyocytes in 3D tissue.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 27;7:10. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 USA.

The structural and functional maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) is essential for pharmaceutical testing, disease modeling, and ultimately therapeutic use. Multicellular 3D-tissue platforms have improved the functional maturation of hiPSC-CMs, but probing cardiac contractile properties in a 3D environment remains challenging, especially at depth and in live tissues. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) imaging, we show that hiPSC-CMs matured and examined in a 3D environment exhibit a periodic spatial arrangement of the myofilament lattice, which has not been previously detected in hiPSC-CMs. The contractile force is found to correlate with both the scattering intensity (  = 0.44) and lattice spacing (  = 0.46). The scattering intensity also correlates with lattice spacing (  = 0.81), suggestive of lower noise in our structural measurement than in the functional measurement. Notably, we observed decreased myofilament ordering in tissues with a myofilament mutation known to lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Our results highlight the progress of human cardiac tissue engineering and enable unprecedented study of structural maturation in hiPSC-CMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-020-00234-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433147PMC
January 2021

Mechanical dysfunction of the sarcomere induced by a pathogenic mutation in troponin T drives cellular adaptation.

J Gen Physiol 2021 05;153(5)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a leading cause of sudden cardiac death, is primarily caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins. The pathogenesis of HCM is complex, with functional changes that span scales, from molecules to tissues. This makes it challenging to deconvolve the biophysical molecular defect that drives the disease pathogenesis from downstream changes in cellular function. In this study, we examine an HCM mutation in troponin T, R92Q, for which several models explaining its effects in disease have been put forward. We demonstrate that the primary molecular insult driving disease pathogenesis is mutation-induced alterations in tropomyosin positioning, which causes increased molecular and cellular force generation during calcium-based activation. Computational modeling shows that the increased cellular force is consistent with the molecular mechanism. These changes in cellular contractility cause downstream alterations in gene expression, calcium handling, and electrophysiology. Taken together, our results demonstrate that molecularly driven changes in mechanical tension drive the early disease pathogenesis of familial HCM, leading to activation of adaptive mechanobiological signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.202012787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054178PMC
May 2021

Disrupted mechanobiology links the molecular and cellular phenotypes in familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 09 19;116(36):17831-17840. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110

Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death and a major indicator for heart transplant. The disease is frequently caused by mutations of sarcomeric proteins; however, it is not well understood how these molecular mutations lead to alterations in cellular organization and contractility. To address this critical gap in our knowledge, we studied the molecular and cellular consequences of a DCM mutation in troponin-T, ΔK210. We determined the molecular mechanism of ΔK210 and used computational modeling to predict that the mutation should reduce the force per sarcomere. In mutant cardiomyocytes, we found that ΔK210 not only reduces contractility but also causes cellular hypertrophy and impairs cardiomyocytes' ability to adapt to changes in substrate stiffness (e.g., heart tissue fibrosis that occurs with aging and disease). These results help link the molecular and cellular phenotypes and implicate alterations in mechanosensing as an important factor in the development of DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910962116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731759PMC
September 2019
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