Publications by authors named "Pablo De Genaro"

5 Publications

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In vitro studies revealed a downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin cascade by active vitamin D and TX 527 analog in a Kaposi's sarcoma cellular model.

Toxicol In Vitro 2020 Mar 12;63:104748. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-CONICET, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus G-protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. We have previously demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)D or its less calcemic analog TX 527 exerts antiproliferative effects in endothelial cells stable expressing vGPCR. Since it is well documented that vGPCR activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the aim of this study was to evaluate if Wnt/β-catenin cascade is target of 1α,25(OH)D or TX 527 as part of their antineoplastic mechanism. Firstly, Western blot studies showed an increase in β-catenin protein levels in a dose and time dependent manner; and when VDR was knockdown, β-catenin protein levels were significantly decreased. Secondly, β-catenin localization, investigated by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation techniques, was found increased in the nucleus and plasma membrane after 1α,25(OH)D treatment. VE-cadherin protein levels were also increased in the plasma membrane fraction. Furthermore, β-catenin interaction with VDR was observed by co-immunoprecipitation and mRNA expression of β-catenin target genes was found decreased. Finally, DKK-1, the extracellular inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, showed an initial upregulation of mRNA expression. Altogether, the results obtained by different techniques revealed a downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin cascade after 1α,25(OH)D or TX 527 treatment, showing the foundation for a potential chemotherapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2019.104748DOI Listing
March 2020

1α,25(OH)D-glycosides from leaves extract induce myoblasts differentiation through p38 MAPK and AKT activation.

Biol Open 2018 May 14;7(5). Epub 2018 May 14.

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina

We have previously shown that leaf extract (SGE) increases VDR protein levels and promotes myoblast differentiation. Here, we investigated whether p38 MAPK and AKT are involved in SGE actions. Cell-cycle studies showed that SGE prompted a peak of S-phase followed by an arrest in the G0/G1-phase through p38 MAPK. Time course studies showed that p38 MAPK and AKT phosphorylation were statistically increased by SGE (10 nM) or synthetic 1α,25(OH)D (1 nM) treatment. Furthermore, p38 MAPK and AKT inhibitors, SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, suppressed myoblasts fusion induced by SGE or synthetic 1α,25(OH)D We have also studied differentiation genes by qRT-PCR. mRNA increased significantly by SGE (24-72 h) or 1α,25(OH)D (24 h) treatment. mRNA expression of also increased upon SGE or 1α,25(OH)D treatment. Finally, mRNA expression, a late differentiation marker, was increased significantly by both compounds at 72 h compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that SGE, as synthetic 1α,25(OH)D, promotes myotube formation through p38 MAPK and AKT activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.033670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992525PMC
May 2018

In vitro effects of 1α,25(OH)₂D₃-glycosides from Solbone A (Solanum glaucophyllum leaves extract; Herbonis AG) compared to synthetic 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ on myogenesis.

Steroids 2016 May 8;109:7-15. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

INBIOSUR-CONICET-Depto. Biología Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca 8000, Argentina. Electronic address:

The presence of glycoside derivatives of 1α,25(OH)2D3 endows plants to gradual release of the free bioactive form of 1α,25(OH)2D3 from its glycoconjugates by endogenous animal tissue glycosidases. This results in increased half-life of the hormone in blood when purified plant fractions are administered for therapeutic purposes. In this work, we evaluated the role 1α,25(OH)2D3-glycosides enriched natural product (Solbone A) from Solanum glaucophyllum leaf extract compared with synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 on myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. For these, differentiation markers and myogenic parameters were studied in C2C12 myoblasts. Results showed that Solbone A, likewise the synthetic hormone, increased creatine kinase activity at day 2 after differentiation induction (60%, p<0.05). Solbone A and synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased vitamin D3 receptor protein expression at 10nM (50% and 30%, respectively) and the transcription factor myogenin (80%, p<0.05). However, tropomyosin expression was not affected by both compounds. In addition, myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein expression was increased 30% at day 2 of differentiation. Solbone A or synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 had no effects on myogenin nor MHC cell localization. Cellular mass increased with myogenesis progression, being Solbone A more effective than synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3. Finally, Solbone A, as well as synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3, augmented the index fusion of cultured muscle fibers. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Solbone A exhibit at least equal or greater effects on early myoblast differentiation as synthetic hormone, suggesting that plant glycosides could be an effective, accessible and cheaper substitute for synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 to promote muscle growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2016.03.002DOI Listing
May 2016

Retinoic acid promotes apoptosis and differentiation in photoreceptors by activating the P38 MAP kinase pathway.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 May 3;54(5):3143-56. Epub 2013 May 3.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Bahía Blanca (INIBIBB), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Purpose: Retinoic acid (RA) has a critical role during development of the retina. We investigated RA effects on photoreceptor apoptosis and differentiation, and the intracellular pathways involved.

Methods: Rat retinal neuronal cultures were supplemented with RA with or without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a photoreceptor survival factor, and photoreceptor apoptosis and differentiation were evaluated at different times of development. To investigate the intracellular pathways activated by RA, the levels of phosphorylated (P) ERK and P-p38 in cultures with or without RA, and the effect of pretreatment with SB203580, a p38 specific inhibitor, on apoptosis and differentiation were evaluated.

Results: RA addition at day 0, when cells still were proliferating, selectively increased apoptosis in photoreceptors, whereas addition at day 2 no longer caused cell death. RA stimulated opsin and peripherin expression, and neurite outgrowth regardless of the time of development. Addition of RA at day 0, but not at day 2, rapidly increased P-p38 levels, but did not affect P-ERK levels. p38 inhibition completely prevented RA-induced apoptosis, and partially decreased differentiation. DHA prevented apoptosis and additively increased differentiation, without affecting RA activation of p38.

Conclusions: Our results show that RA activation of the p38 intracellular pathway was essential for its early induction of apoptosis and partially responsible for promoting differentiation. DHA prevention of this apoptosis suggests that RA effects during early development must be counterbalanced by survival factors to prevent photoreceptor death, in an interplay that might help to establish the final number of photoreceptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-11049DOI Listing
May 2013

Müller glial cells induce stem cell properties in retinal progenitors in vitro and promote their further differentiation into photoreceptors.

J Neurosci Res 2012 Feb 4;90(2):407-21. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Using stem cells to replace lost neurons is a promising strategy for treating retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Among their multiple functions, Müller glial cells are retina stem cells, with a robust regenerative potential in lower vertebrates, which is much more restricted in mammals. In rodents, most retina progenitors exit the cell cycle immediately after birth, differentiate as neurons, and then cannot reenter the cell cycle. Here we demonstrate that, in mixed cultures with Müller glial cells, rat retina progenitor cells expressed stem cell properties, maintained their proliferative potential, and were able to preserve these properties and remain mitotically active after several consecutive passages. Notably, these progenitors retained the capacity to differentiate as photoreceptors, even after successive reseedings. Müller glial cells markedly stimulated differentiation of retina progenitors; these cells initially expressed Crx and then developed as mature photoreceptors that expressed characteristic markers, such as opsin and peripherin. Moreover, they were light responsive, insofar as they decreased their cGMP levels when exposed to light, and they also showed high-affinity glutamate uptake, a characteristic of mature photoreceptors. Our present findings indicate that, in addition to giving rise to new photoreceptors, Müller glial cells might instruct a pool of undifferentiated cells to develop and preserve stem cell characteristics, even after successive reseedings, and then stimulate their differentiation as functional photoreceptors. This complementary mechanism might contribute to enlarge the limited regenerative capacity of mammalian Müller cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22747DOI Listing
February 2012