Publications by authors named "Pablo C Ortiz-Lazareno"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

GPER Overexpression in Cervical Cancer Versus Premalignant Lesions: Its Activation Induces Different Forms of Cell Death.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2019 ;19(6):783-791

Laboratorio de Inmunologia, Departamento de Fisiologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico.

Background: The effect of estrogen has been traditionally studied through the modulation of its alpha and beta nuclear receptors; however, the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) has been recently involved in the pathology of numerous tumors. Although the study of GPER in cervical cancer has begun, its contribution still remains to be completely evaluated.

Objective: The purpose of this work was to determine the expression of this receptor in different degrees of cervical lesions and whether the stimulation with its specific agonist (G-1) modulated mechanisms of cell survival or cell death in cervical cancer cells.

Methods: Sections of 44 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from patients were analyzed by automated immunohistochemistry. After the stimulation with G-1, proliferation was evaluated by the xCELLigence technology, the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane permeability by MitoCaptureTM fluorescence staining, apoptosis by flow cytometry, and senescence by the senescence-associated β-galactosidase kit.

Results: GPER was widely expressed in cervical cancer but not in its precursor lesions. The staining was predominantly cytoplasmic, although it was also important in the nucleus of the epithelial cells. G-1 inhibited proliferation, decreased the mitochondrial permeability, and increased the percentage of apoptosis in SiHa, HeLa, and C-33A. Only in C-33A, an increase of the cells in necrosis was observed, whereas SiHa was the only cell line in which senescence was evidenced.

Conclusion: GPER is a receptor associated with cervical cancer that inhibits the growth and induces different mechanisms of death in cells derived from uterine cervical cancer. It suggests that GPER can be considered a pharmacological target that prevents the development of cervical carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520619666190206171509DOI Listing
March 2020

Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration.

Exp Cell Res 2015 Jul 12;335(1):39-50. Epub 2015 May 12.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO)-Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Electronic address:

According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.05.001DOI Listing
July 2015

Expression of transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 is diminished in cervical cancer.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014 15;7(11):7409-18. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

The transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) is evolutionarily conserved in many different species, and is involved in morphogenesis, epithelial differentiation, and the control of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. It has also recently been implicated in carcinogenesis, but its role in this remains controversial. Expression of GRHL2 has not previously been reported in cervical cancer, so the present study aimed to characterize GRHL2 expression in cervical cancer-derived cell lines (CCCLs) and cervical tissues with different grades of lesions. Microarray analysis found that the expression of 58 genes was down-regulated in CCCLs compared to HaCaT cells (non-tumorigenic human epithelial cell line). The expression of eight of these genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and GRHL2 was found to be the most down-regulated. Western blot assays corroborated that GRHL2 protein levels were strongly down-regulated in CCCLs. Cervical cells from women without cervical lesions were shown to express GRHL2, while immunohistochemistry found that positivity to GRHL2 decreased in cervical cancer tissues. In conclusion, a loss or strong reduction in GRHL2 expression appears to be a characteristic of cervical cancer, suggesting that GRHL2 down-regulation is a necessary step during cervical carcinogenesis. However, further studies are needed to delineate the role of GRHL2 in cervical cancer and during malignant progression.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4270610PMC
April 2017

Restoration of WNT4 inhibits cell growth in leukemia-derived cell lines.

BMC Cancer 2013 Nov 25;13:557. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Sierra Mojada No, 800, Col, Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Background: WNT signaling pathways are significantly altered during cancer development. Vertebrates possess two classes of WNT signaling pathways: the "canonical" WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and the "non-canonical" pathways including WNT/Ca²⁺ and WNT/Planar cell polarity [PCP] signaling. WNT4 influences hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion and survival; however, WNT4 function in cancer development and the resulting implications for oncogenesis are poorly understood.The aim of this study was twofold: first, to determine the expression of WNT4 in mature peripheral blood cells and diverse leukemia-derived cells including cell lines from hematopoietic neoplasms and cells from patients with leukemia; second, to identify the effect of this ligand on the proliferation and apoptosis of the blast-derived cell lines BJAB, Jurkat, CEM, K562, and HL60.

Methods: We determined WNT4 expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T- and B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals, as well as from five leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. To analyze the effect of WNT4 on cell proliferation, PBMCs and cell lines were exposed to a commercially available WNT4 recombinant human protein. Furthermore, WNT4 expression was restored in BJAB cells using an inducible lentiviral expression system. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by the addition of WST-1 to cell cultures and counting cells; in addition, the progression of the cell cycle and the amount of apoptosis were analyzed in the absence or presence of WNT4. Finally, the expression of WNT-pathway target genes was measured by qRT-PCR.

Results: WNT4 expression was severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. The exposure of cell lines to WNT4 recombinant protein significantly inhibited cell proliferation; inducing WNT4 expression in BJAB cells corroborated this observation. Interestingly, restoration of WNT4 expression in BJAB cells increased the accumulation of cells in G1 phase, and did not induce activation of canonical WNT/β-catenin target genes.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the WNT4 ligand plays a role in regulating the cell growth of leukemia-derived cells by arresting cells in the G1 cell cycle phase in an FZD6-independent manner, possibly through antagonizing the canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222640PMC
November 2013

The effect of ubiquinone in diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

J Diabetes Complications 2012 Jul-Aug;26(4):352-8. Epub 2012 May 16.

Unidad de Investigación Cardiovascular, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Introduction: Diabetic polyneuropathy aetiology is based on oxidative stress generation due to production of reactive oxygen species. Ubiquinone is reduced to ubiquinol and redistributed into lipoproteins, possibly to protect them from oxidation.

Aims: To evaluate the impact of oral ubiquinone in diabetic polyneuropathy, and the role of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nerve growth factor (NGF-β).

Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients were randomized to ubiquinone (400 mg) or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Main outcomes were clinical scores, nerve conduction studies, LPO, NGF-β and safety.

Results: Twenty four patients on experimental group and twenty five on control group met the inclusion criteria (mean age 56 years, 22% male and 78% female, mean evolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus 10.7 years). Significant improvement on experimental vs control group was found in neuropathy symptoms score (from 2.5 ± 0.7 to 1 ± 0.8, p<0.001), neuropathy impairment score (5.5 ± 4 to 3.1 ± 2.6, p<0.001), sural sensory nerve amplitude (13.0 ± 6.1 to 15.8 ± 5.1 μV, p=0.049), peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (39.7 ± 5.0 to 47.8 ± 4.9 m/s, p=0.047), and ulnar motor nerve conduction velocity (48.8 ± 6.8 to 54.5 ± 6.1m/s, p=0.046). There was a significant reduction of LPO in subjects treated with ubiquinone vs placebo (16.7 ± 8.6 and 23.2 ± 15.8 nmol/mL, respectively) with p<0.05, and NGF-β did not change (control 66.5 ± 26.7 vs. experimental 66.8 ± 28.4 pg/mL, p=0.856). No drug-related adverse reactions were reported.

Conclusions: Twelve weeks treatment with ubiquinone improves clinical outcomes and nerve conduction parameters of diabetic polyneuropathy; furthermore, it reduces oxidative stress without significant adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.04.004DOI Listing
January 2013

Cervical cancer cell lines expressing NKG2D-ligands are able to down-modulate the NKG2D receptor on NKL cells with functional implications.

BMC Immunol 2012 Feb 8;13. Epub 2012 Feb 8.

Departamento de Fisiología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Background: Cervical cancer represents the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. NKG2D, an activating receptor on NK cells, recognizes MHC class I chain-related molecules, such as MICA/B and members of the ULBP/RAET1 family. Tumor-derived soluble NKG2D-ligands have been shown to down-modulate the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. In addition to the down-modulation induced by soluble NKG2D-ligands, it has recently been described that persistent cell-cell contact can also down-modulate NKG2D expression. The goal of this study was to determine whether the NKG2D receptor is down-modulated by cell-cell contact with cervical cancer cells and whether this down-modulation might be associated with changes in NK cell activity.

Results: We demonstrate that NKG2D expressed on NKL cells is down-modulated by direct cell contact with cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa, and C33A, but not with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this down-modulation had functional implications. We found expression of NKG2D-ligands in all cervical cancer cell lines, but the patterns of ligand distribution were different in each cell line. Cervical cancer cell lines co-cultured with NKL cells or fresh NK cells induced a marked diminution of NKG2D expression on NKL cells. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells against K562 targets was compromised after co-culture with HeLa and SiHa cells, while co-culture with C33A increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKL cells.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that differential expression of NKG2D-ligands in cervical cancer cell lines might be associated with the down-modulation of NKG2D, as well as with changes in the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells after cell-cell contact with the tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-13-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3364150PMC
February 2012

Peripheral T-lymphocytes express WNT7A and its restoration in leukemia-derived lymphoblasts inhibits cell proliferation.

BMC Cancer 2012 Feb 7;12:60. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

División de Genética, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Background: WNT7a, a member of the Wnt ligand family implicated in several developmental processes, has also been reported to be dysregulated in some types of tumors; however, its function and implication in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Moreover, the expression of this gene and the role that it plays in the biology of blood cells remains unclear. In addition to determining the expression of the WNT7A gene in blood cells, in leukemia-derived cell lines, and in samples of patients with leukemia, the aim of this study was to seek the effect of this gene in proliferation.

Methods: We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sorted CD3 and CD19 cells, four leukemia-derived cell lines, and blood samples from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 19 clinically healthy subjects. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed to determine relative WNT7A expression. Restoration of WNT7a was done employing a lentiviral system and by using a recombinant human protein. Cell proliferation was measured by addition of WST-1 to cell cultures.

Results: WNT7a is mainly produced by CD3 T-lymphocytes, its expression decreases upon activation, and it is severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines, as well as in the blood samples of patients with ALL when compared with healthy controls (p ≤0.001). By restoring WNT7A expression in leukemia-derived cells, we were able to demonstrate that WNT7a inhibits cell growth. A similar effect was observed when a recombinant human WNT7a protein was used. Interestingly, restoration of WNT7A expression in Jurkat cells did not activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report evidencing quantitatively decreased WNT7A levels in leukemia-derived cells and that WNT7A restoration in T-lymphocytes inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, our results also support the possible function of WNT7A as a tumor suppressor gene as well as a therapeutic tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3299642PMC
February 2012

MEIS1, PREP1, and PBX4 are differentially expressed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: association of MEIS1 expression with higher proliferation and chemotherapy resistance.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2011 Dec 20;30:112. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente - IMSS, Sierra Mojada No. 800, CP 44340, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Background: The Three-amino acid-loop-extension (TALE) superfamily of homeodomain-containing transcription factors have been implicated in normal hematopoiesis and in leukemogenesis and are important survival, differentiation, and apoptosis pathway modulators. In this work, we determined the expression levels of TALE genes in leukemic-derived cell lines, in blood samples of patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and in the blood samples of healthy donors.

Results: Here we show increased expression of MEIS1, MEIS2, and PREP1 genes in leukemia-derived cell lines compared with blood normal cells. High levels of MEIS1 and PREP1, and low levels of PBX4 expression were also founded in samples of patients with ALL. Importantly, silencing of MEIS1 decreases the proliferation of leukemia-derived cells but increases their survival after etoposide treatment. Etoposide-induced apoptosis induces down-regulation of MEIS1 expression or PREP1 up-regulation in chemotherapy-resistant cells.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that up-regulation of MEIS1 is important for sustaining proliferation of leukemic cells and that down-regulation of MEIS1 or up-regulation of PREP1 and PBX genes could be implicated in the modulation of the cellular response to chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-30-112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3259065PMC
December 2011

Pentoxifylline sensitizes human cervical tumor cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis by suppressing NF-kappa B and decreased cell senescence.

BMC Cancer 2011 Nov 10;11:483. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Background: Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common causes of cancer in women and represents an important mortality rate. Cisplatin (CIS) is a very important antitumoral agent and can lead tumor cells toward two important cellular states: apoptosis and senescence. In some types of cancers pentoxifylline (PTX) sensitizes these cells to the toxic action of chemotherapeutics drugs such as adriamycin, inducing apoptosis. In the present work, we studied in vitro whether PTX alone or in combination with CIS induces apoptosis and/or senescence in cervix cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines infected with HPV types 16 and 18, respectively, as well as in immortalized keratinocytyes HaCaT cells.

Methods: HeLa (HPV 18+), SiHa (HPV 16+) cervix cancer cells and non-tumorigenic immortalized HaCaT cells (control) were treated with PTX, CIS or both. The cellular toxicity and survival fraction of PTX and CIS were determinate by WST-1 and clonogenic assays respectively. Apoptosis, caspase activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, p65 (NF-κB), Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL anti-apoptotic proteins were determinated by flow cytometry. Senescence by microscopy. Phosphorylation of IκBα and IκB total were measured by ELISA. Pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and senescence genes, as well as HPV-E6/7 mRNA expression, were detected by RT-PCR.

Results: Our results show that after 24 hours of incubation PTX per se is toxic for cancer cells affecting cell viability and inducing apoptosis. The toxicity in HaCaT cells was minimal. CIS induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cells and its effect was significantly increases when the cells were treated with PTX + CIS. In all studies there was a direct correlation with levels of caspases (-3, -6, -7, -9 and -8) activity and apoptosis. CIS induces important levels of senescence and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, p65/RELA, and IκBα, and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Surprisingly these levels were significantly reduced by PTX in tumor cells, and at the same time, increases the expression of pro-apoptotic genes.

Conclusion: PTX sensitizes cervical cancer cells to CIS-induced apoptosis and decreases the CIS-induced senescence in these cells via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway; diminishes expression of antiapoptotic proteins and the activation of caspases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3229613PMC
November 2011

Effects of low concentration of endosulfan on proliferation, ERK1/2 pathway, apoptosis and senescence in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) splenocytes.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2011 Dec 13;31(6):1291-6. Epub 2011 Oct 13.

Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico.

Endosulfan is a potent organochlorinated pesticide that is known to induce side effects in aquatic organisms, including Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). It has been previously shown that endosulfan induces oxidative stress and non-specific activation of splenic macrophages and exacerbated serum interleukin-2 synthesis in Nile tilapia. Endosulfan may promote proliferation of T cells through MAP kinase (MAPK) activated signal transductions. The ERK family of MAPKs includes ERK1 and ERK2. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) molecules are involved in many aspects of cellular survival, and are important for apoptosis or oxidative stress-induced senescence. In order to study the mechanisms by which endosulfan affects fish health, the present study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro effects of this insecticide on proliferation, the ERK1/2 pathway, apoptosis and cell senescence in splenocytes from Nile tilapia. Lymphoproliferation was evaluated by colorimetric method using the WST-1 assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess pERK1/2, apoptosis and senescence, using Annexin V-FITC and β-galactosidase respectively. Experimental data showed that exposure to 7 μg mL(-1) of endosulfan per se increased cellular proliferation, but decreased the lymphoproliferative response to mitogenic stimulus with PMA + ionomycin. Splenocytes exposed to endosulfan for 15-180 min showed significantly higher levels of pERK1/2 than the non-exposed control. Endosulfan mediated a decrease in etoposide-induced apoptosis and provoked cell senescence. In conclusion, exposure of immune cells to a low concentration of endosulfan deregulates their function and may facilitate the development of multiple diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2011.10.003DOI Listing
December 2011

YKL-40 expression in CD14⁺ liver cells in acute and chronic injury.

World J Gastroenterol 2011 Sep;17(33):3830-5

Department of Physiology, CUCS, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44340, México.

Aim: To demonstrate that CD14⁺ cells are an important source of the growth factor YKL-40 in acute and chronic liver damage.

Methods: Rats were inoculated with one dose of CCl(4) to induce acute damage. Liver biopsies were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. For chronic damage, CCl(4) was administered three days per week for 6 or 8 wk. Tissue samples were collected, and cellular populations were isolated by liver digestion and purified by cell sorting. YKL-40 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot.

Results: Acute liver damage induced a rapid increase of YKL-40 mRNA beginning at 12 h. Expression peaked at 24 h, with a 26-fold increase over basal levels. By 72 h however, YKL-40 expression levels had nearly returned to control levels. On the other hand, chronic damage induced a sustained increase in YKL-40 expression, with 7- and 9-fold higher levels at 6 and 8 wk, respectively. The pattern of YKL-40 expression in different subpopulations showed that CD14⁺ cells, which include Kupffer cells, are a source of YKL-40 after acute damage at 72 h [0.09 relative expression units (REU)] as well as after chronic injury at 6 wk (0.11 REU). Hepatocytes, in turn, accounted for 0.06 and 0.01 REU after 72 h (acute) or 6 wk (chronic), respectively. The rest of the CD14⁻ cells (including T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer and natural killer T cells) yielded 0.07 and 0.15 REU at 72 h and 6 wk, respectively. YKL-40 protein expression in liver was detected at 72 h as well as 6 and 8 wk, with the highest expression relative to controls (11-fold; P ≤ 0.05) seen at 6 wk. Macrophages were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. We demonstrate that under these conditions, these cells showed maximum expression of YKL-40 at 12 h, with P < 0.05 compared with controls.

Conclusion: Hepatic CD14⁺ cells are an YKL-40 mRNA and protein source in acute and chronic liver injury, with expression patterns similar to growth factors implicated in inflammation-fibrogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v17.i33.3830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181445PMC
September 2011

Sensitization of cervix cancer cells to Adriamycin by Pentoxifylline induces an increase in apoptosis and decrease senescence.

Mol Cancer 2010 May 19;9:114. Epub 2010 May 19.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sierra Mojada 800, Colonia Independencia, Guadalajara, Jalisco, CP 44340, México.

Background: Chemotherapeutic drugs like Adriamycin (ADR) induces apoptosis or senescence in cancer cells but these cells often develop resistance and generate responses of short duration or complete failure. The methylxantine drug Pentoxifylline (PTX) used routinely in the clinics setting for circulatory diseases has been recently described to have antitumor properties. We evaluated whether pretreatment with PTX modifies apoptosis and senescence induced by ADR in cervix cancer cells.

Methods: HeLa (HPV 18+), SiHa (HPV 16+) cervix cancer cells and non-tumorigenic immortalized HaCaT cells (control) were treated with PTX, ADR or PTX + ADR. The cellular toxicity of PTX and survival fraction were determinated by WST-1 and clonogenic assay respectively. Apoptosis, caspase activation and ADR efflux rate were measured by flow cytometry, senescence by microscopy. IkappaBalpha and DNA fragmentation were determinated by ELISA. Proapoptotic, antiapoptotic and senescence genes, as well as HPV-E6/E7 mRNA expression, were detected by time real RT-PCR. p53 protein levels were assayed by Western blot.

Results: PTX is toxic (WST-1), affects survival (clonogenic assay) and induces apoptosis in cervix cancer cells. Additionally, the combination of this drug with ADR diminished the survival fraction and significantly increased apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cervix cancer cells. Treatments were less effective in HaCaT cells. We found caspase participation in the induction of apoptosis by PTX, ADR or its combination. Surprisingly, in spite of the antitumor activity displayed by PTX, our results indicate that methylxantine, per se does not induce senescence; however it inhibits senescence induced by ADR and at the same time increases apoptosis. PTX elevates IkappaBalpha levels. Such sensitization is achieved through the up-regulation of proapoptotic factors such as caspase and bcl family gene expression. PTX and PTX + ADR also decrease E6 and E7 expression in SiHa cells, but not in HeLa cells. p53 was detected only in SiHa cells treated with ADR.

Conclusion: PTX is a good inducer of apoptosis but does not induce senescence. Furthermore, PTX reduced the ADR-induced senescence and increased apoptosis in cervix cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-9-114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890603PMC
May 2010

Low NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D expression and reduced cytotoxic activity on NK cells in cervical cancer and precursor lesions.

BMC Cancer 2009 Jun 16;9:186. Epub 2009 Jun 16.

Departamento de Fisiología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada No 950, Colonia Independencia, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Background: Persistent high risk HPV infection can lead to cervical cancer, the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. NK cells play a crucial role against tumors and virus-infected cells through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors. Expression of triggering receptors NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D on NK cells correlates with cytolytic activity against tumor cells, but these receptors have not been studied in cervical cancer and precursor lesions. The aim of the present work was to study NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression in NK cells from patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, in the context of HPV infection.

Methods: NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry on NK cells from 59 patients with cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesions. NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated in a 4 hour CFSE/7-AAD flow cytometry assay. HPV types were identified by PCR assays.

Results: We report here for the first time that NK cell-activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 are significantly down-regulated in cervical cancer and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) patients. NCRs down-regulation correlated with low cytolytic activity, HPV-16 infection and clinical stage. NKG2D was also down-regulated in cervical cancer patients.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D down-regulation represent an evasion mechanism associated to low NK cell activity, HPV-16 infection and cervical cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2704222PMC
June 2009

Gossypol induced apoptosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes: involvement of mitochondrial pathway and reactive oxygen species.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2009 Jun;31(2):320-30

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, IMSS, Guadalajara, Mexico.

The aim of this study was to determine how gossypol affects the viability and activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes in blood obtained from healthy donors. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) and apoptosis was maximized in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes after incubation with gossypol. Pretreatment with a caspase-9 inhibitor or antioxidants (superoxide dismutase or Trolox) inhibited gossypol-induced loss of the delta psi m and apoptosis. Likewise, we observed participation of caspase -3, -7, and -10 in gossypol-induced apoptosis. Expression of the proapoptotic genes bax, bak, bad and p53/Tp53 increased in polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to gossypol. The expression of the anti-apoptotic genes bcl-(XL) and mcl-1 was reduced when polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes were treated with gossypol. Gossypol treatment also inhibited yeast phagocytosis by these cells. We concluded that gossypol induces apoptosis in phagocytic cells and that this effect was dose-dependent. The findings in this report may be important to consider in light of possible gossypol use in clinical strategies for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923970902718049DOI Listing
June 2009

Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer.

BMC Cancer 2008 Apr 11;8:99. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Background: Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95) in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls.

Methods: Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma). The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L) were measured by ELISA kits.

Results: We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of the apoptotic rate induced by serum in Jurkat cells and the levels of sCD95 in serum could be helpful during the prognosis and treatment of women detected with precancerous lesions or cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-8-99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2330055PMC
April 2008

MG132 proteasome inhibitor modulates proinflammatory cytokines production and expression of their receptors in U937 cells: involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1.

Immunology 2008 Aug 20;124(4):534-41. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

División de Inmunología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jal. Mexico.

In response to inflammatory stimuli, monocytes/macrophages secrete greater quantities of the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6. The inflammatory process and the innate immune response are related to the activation of several transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). The proteasome is a multimeric protease complex, which plays a vital role in several cellular functions, including the regulation of transcription factors like NF-kappaB. In this study, we used the human monocyte cell line U937 stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as a model to investigate the in vitro effects of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, on the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and on the expression of their membrane and soluble receptors TNF-R1, IL-1R1 and IL-6R. We also analysed the effects of MG132 on the activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and on the IkappaB molecule. MG132 significantly inhibited the secretion of those proinflammatory cytokines. MG132 increased the release of the soluble receptors TNF-R1 and IL-1R1 from U937 cells and decreased their cell-surface expression. MG132 also increased IL-6R cell-surface expression and decreased its release. Proteasome inhibition also led to an increase in LPS+PMA-induced AP-1 activation and the attenuation of LPS+PMA-induced IkappaB degradation, resulting in the abolition of NF-kappaB activation. Our experiments strongly suggest that the proteasome is an important factor in the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.02806.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2492945PMC
August 2008

In vivo and in vitro sensitization of leukemic cells to adriamycin-induced apoptosis by pentoxifylline. Involvement of caspase cascades and IkappaBalpha phosphorylation.

Immunol Lett 2006 Mar 18;103(2):149-58. Epub 2005 Nov 18.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, IMSS, División de Inmunología, Sierra Mojada 800, Col. Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Unlabelled: The aim of this work was to investigate whether in vivo and in vitro pentoxifylline (PTX) sensitizes hematological tumor cells to adriamycin (ADM)-induced apoptosis, and to investigate the involvement of caspase cascades and phosphorylated forms of IkappaBalpha. Balb/c mice inoculated intraperitoneally with L5178-Y murine lymphoma cells were used for in vivo experiments and for survival studies. The U937 human monocytic cell line was used for in vitro experiments. Both cell lines were treated under similar experimental conditions with PTX and/or ADM to assess their effects on apoptosis. Apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy with ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining and confirmed by electrophoretic DNA analysis. Caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-fmk, Z-DEVD-fmk, and Z-LEHD-fmk were used to investigate the involvement of caspase cascades. C-terminally and Ser32 phosphorylated forms of IkappaBalpha were evaluated in cytoplasmic extracts in the absence or presence of TNFalpha.

Results: In vivo, PTX (50 mg/kg) with ADM (5 mg/kg) increased the apoptotic index relative to PTX or ADM administered alone, time- and dose-dependently. DNA laddering appeared in lymphoma cells treated with PTX+ADM at 24 h, whereas neither untreated control, PTX-, nor ADM-treated cells showed DNA fragmentation. All (100%) tumor-bearing mice treated with PTX (25 mg/kg)+ADM (2.5 mg/kg) survived for 1 year, whereas the mortality rates of mice treated with either PTX or ADM alone at the same doses were similar to that of untreated tumor-bearing mice (28+/-3 days). Caspase inhibitors inhibited apoptosis more efficiently in PTX- or ADM-treated cultures than in PTX+ADM-treated cultures. Pretreatment with TNFalpha (10 ng/mL) increased apoptosis in PTX- or ADM-treated U937 cells. However, the apoptotic index of PTX+ADM-treated cultures was significantly reduced and the expression of C-terminally and Ser32 phosphorylated IkappaBalpha was reduced. PTX sensitizes hematological malignancies to ADR-induced apoptosis. An independent caspase pathway is involved in PTX+ADM-induced apoptosis. The phosphorylation status of IkappaBalpha is closely related via TNFalpha to the possible mechanisms of drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2005.10.019DOI Listing
March 2006

In vivo adriamycin-induced apoptosis in peritoneal murine macrophages: partial participation of a caspase cascade.

Anticancer Res 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5A):2689-96

Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente del IMSS, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Background: Adriamycin (ADM) is a potent antitumor drug that induces apoptosis (AP) in tumor cells. AP is modulated by caspases and by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) as well as by the mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsim). We studied the participation of these systems in peritoneal macrophages from ADM-treated mice.

Materials And Methods: Balb/c mice were either treated with ADM (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or with 0.85% NaCl solution (controls). One hour later, peritoneal cells were harvested and cultured for 28 h. AP was evaluated by ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining; deltapsim was monitored using a MitoCapture stain Kit; DNA integrity was assessed by electrophoretic analysis. Animals were treated (i.p.) 1 h before ADM administration with Z-LEHD-FMK, Z-DEVD-FMK, or Z-VAD-FMK (caspase-9, caspases-3, 7,10 and general caspase inhibitors, respectively) or with PD169316 (a MAPKp38 inhibitor).

Results: ADM induced a higher rate of AP and the characteristic electrophoretic DNA ladder pattern. Mice treated with caspases inhibitors plus ADM showed significant reductions in AP and DNA laddering; in contrast, no differences were observed in mice treated with PD169316 plus ADM in comparison with ADM alone. ADM also induced early loss of the deltapsim.

Conclusion: In these experimental conditions, ADM induced AP in a mainly caspase-9-dependent manner and this was related to a reduction in the deltapsim.
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December 2004