Publications by authors named "P van der Tol"

68 Publications

Vast CO release from Australian fires in 2019-2020 constrained by satellite.

Nature 2021 09 15;597(7876):366-369. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Southeast Australia experienced intensive and geographically extensive wildfires during the 2019-2020 summer season. The fires released substantial amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, existing emission estimates based on fire inventories are uncertain, and vary by up to a factor of four for this event. Here we constrain emission estimates with the help of satellite observations of carbon monoxide, an analytical Bayesian inversion and observed ratios between emitted carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. We estimate emissions of carbon dioxide to be 715 teragrams (range 517-867) from November 2019 to January 2020. This is more than twice the estimate derived by five different fire inventories, and broadly consistent with estimates based on a bottom-up bootstrap analysis of this fire episode. Although fires occur regularly in the savannas in northern Australia, the recent episodes were extremely large in scale and intensity, burning unusually large areas of eucalyptus forest in the southeast. The fires were driven partly by climate change, making better-constrained emission estimates particularly important. This is because the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide may become increasingly dependent on fire-driven climate-carbon feedbacks, as highlighted by this event.
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September 2021

Experimental assessment of inter-centre variation in stopping-power and range prediction in particle therapy.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul 27;163:7-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology - OncoRay, Dresden, Germany; Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Dresden, and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: Experimental assessment of inter-centre variation and absolute accuracy of stopping-power-ratio (SPR) prediction within 17 particle therapy centres of the European Particle Therapy Network.

Material And Methods: A head and body phantom with seventeen tissue-equivalent materials were scanned consecutively at the participating centres using their individual clinical CT scan protocol and translated into SPR with their in-house CT-number-to-SPR conversion. Inter-centre variation and absolute accuracy in SPR prediction were quantified for three tissue groups: lung, soft tissues and bones. The integral effect on range prediction for typical clinical beams traversing different tissues was determined for representative beam paths for the treatment of primary brain tumours as well as lung and prostate cancer.

Results: An inter-centre variation in SPR prediction (2σ) of 8.7%, 6.3% and 1.5% relative to water was determined for bone, lung and soft-tissue surrogates in the head setup, respectively. Slightly smaller variations were observed in the body phantom (6.2%, 3.1%, 1.3%). This translated into inter-centre variation of integral range prediction (2σ) of 2.9%, 2.6% and 1.3% for typical beam paths of prostate-, lung- and primary brain-tumour treatments, respectively. The absolute error in range exceeded 2% in every fourth participating centre. The consideration of beam hardening and the execution of an independent HLUT validation had a positive effect, on average.

Conclusion: The large inter-centre variations in SPR and range prediction justify the currently clinically used margins accounting for range uncertainty, which are of the same magnitude as the inter-centre variation. This study underlines the necessity of higher standardisation in CT-number-to-SPR conversion.
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July 2021

Comparing practice and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection between high-volume expert centres and nationwide low-to-medium volume centres.

Br J Surg 2021 Aug;108(8):983-990

Department of Surgery, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Based on excellent outcomes from high-volume centres, laparoscopic liver resection is increasingly being adopted into nationwide practice which typically includes low-medium volume centres. It is unknown how the use and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection compare between high-volume centres and low-medium volume centres. This study aimed to compare use and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection in three leading European high-volume centres and nationwide practice in the Netherlands.

Method: An international, retrospective multicentre cohort study including data from three European high-volume centres (Oslo, Southampton and Milan) and all 20 centres in the Netherlands performing laparoscopic liver resection (low-medium volume practice) from January 2011 to December 2016. A high-volume centre is defined as a centre performing >50 laparoscopic liver resections per year. Patients were retrospectively stratified into low, moderate- and high-risk Southampton difficulty score groups.

Results: A total of 2425 patients were included (1540 high-volume; 885 low-medium volume). The median annual proportion of laparoscopic liver resection was 42.9 per cent in high-volume centres and 7.2 per cent in low-medium volume centres. Patients in the high-volume centres had a lower conversion rate (7.4 versus 13.1 per cent; P < 0.001) with less intraoperative incidents (9.3 versus 14.6 per cent; P = 0.002) as compared to low-medium volume centres. Whereas postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were similar in the two groups, a lower reintervention rate (5.1 versus 7.2 per cent; P = 0.034) and a shorter postoperative hospital stay (3 versus 5 days; P < 0.001) were observed in the high-volume centres as compared to the low-medium volume centres. In each Southampton difficulty score group, the conversion rate was lower and hospital stay shorter in high-volume centres. The rate of intraoperative incidents did not differ in the low-risk group, whilst in the moderate-risk and high-risk groups this rate was lower in high-volume centres (absolute difference 6.7 and 14.2 per cent; all P < 0.004).

Conclusion: High-volume expert centres had a sixfold higher use of laparoscopic liver resection, less conversions, and shorter hospital stay, as compared to a nationwide low-medium volume practice. Stratification into Southampton difficulty score risk groups identified some differences but largely outcomes appeared better for high-volume centres in each risk group.
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August 2021

Cone-beam CT and Augmented Fluoroscopy-guided Navigation Bronchoscopy: Radiation Exposure and Diagnostic Accuracy Learning Curves.

J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2021 Oct;28(4):262-271

Departments of Pulmonology.

Background: The endobronchial diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions suspected of lung cancer remains a challenge from a navigation as well as an adequate tissue sampling perspective. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance is a relatively new technology and allows for 3-dimensional imaging confirmation as well as navigation and biopsy guidance, but, also involves radiation. This study investigates how radiation exposure and diagnostic accuracy in the CBCT-guided navigation bronchoscopy evolves with increasing experience, and, with a specific tailoring of CBCT and fluoroscopic imaging protocols towards the procedure.

Patients And Methods: In this observational clinical trial, all 238 consecutive patients undergoing a CBCT-guided navigation bronchoscopy from the start of our CBCT-guided navigation bronchoscopy program (December 2017) until June 2020 were included. Procedural dose characteristics and diagnostic accuracy are reported as a function of time.

Results: Procedural radiation exposure as measured by the dose area product initially was 47.5 Gy·cm2 (effective dose: 14.3 mSv) and gradually reduced to 25.4 Gy·cm2 (5.8 mSv). The reduction in fluoroscopic dose area product was highest, from 19.0 Gy·cm2 (5.2 mSv) to 2.2 Gy·cm2 (0.37 mSv, 88% reduction), despite a significant increase of fluoroscopy time. The diagnostic accuracy of navigation bronchoscopy increased from 72% to 90%.

Conclusion: A significant learning effect can be seen in the radiation safety and diagnostic accuracy of a CBCT-guided and augmented fluoroscopy-guided navigation bronchoscopy. With increasing experience and tailoring of imaging protocols to the procedure, the procedural accuracy improved, while the effective dose for patients and staff was reduced.
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October 2021

Transcatheter CT Hepatic Arteriography Compared with Conventional CT Fluoroscopy Guidance in Percutaneous Thermal Ablation to Treat Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Single-Center Comparative Analysis of 2 Historical Cohorts.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2020 11 25;31(11):1772-1783. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers (location VUmc), De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To evaluate safety and efficacy of CT hepatic arteriography compared with conventional CT fluoroscopy guidance in percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) ablation to treat colorectal liver metastases (CRLM).

Materials And Methods: This single-center comparative, retrospective study analyzed data of 108 patients treated with 156 percutaneous ablation procedures (42 CT fluoroscopy guidance [25 RF ablation, 17 MW ablation]; 114 CT hepatic arteriography guidance [18 RF ablation, 96 MW ablation]) for 260 CRLM between January 2009 and May 2019. Local tumor progression-free survival (LTPFS) was assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. LTPFS and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: There were no complications related to the transarterial catheter procedure. CT hepatic arteriography proved superior to CT fluoroscopy regarding 2-year LTPFS (18/202 [8.9%] vs 19/58 [32.8%]; P < .001, respectively). CT hepatic arteriography versus CT fluoroscopy (hazard ratio = 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.54; P < .001) and MW ablation versus RF ablation (hazard ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-1.12; P = .094) were positive predictors for longer LTPFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that CT hepatic arteriography versus CT fluoroscopy (hazard ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.90; P = .025) was associated with a significantly superior LTPFS. OS was similar between the 2 cohorts (P = .3).

Conclusions: While adding procedure time and marginal patient burden, transcatheter CT hepatic arteriography-guided ablation was associated with increased local disease control and superior LTPFS compared with conventional CT fluoroscopy. CT hepatic arteriography represents a safe and valid alternative to CT fluoroscopy, as it reduces the number of repeat ablations required without adding risk or detrimental effect on survival.
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November 2020