Publications by authors named "P W Crous"

385 Publications

How to publish a new fungal species, or name, version 3.0.

IMA Fungus 2021 May 3;12(1):11. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

It is now a decade since The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) produced an overview of requirements and best practices for describing a new fungal species. In the meantime the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) has changed from its former name (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and introduced new formal requirements for valid publication of species scientific names, including the separation of provisions specific to Fungi and organisms treated as fungi in a new Chapter F. Equally transformative have been changes in the data collection, data dissemination, and analytical tools available to mycologists. This paper provides an updated and expanded discussion of current publication requirements along with best practices for the description of new fungal species and publication of new names and for improving accessibility of their associated metadata that have developed over the last 10 years. Additionally, we provide: (1) model papers for different fungal groups and circumstances; (2) a checklist to simplify meeting (i) the requirements of the ICNafp to ensure the effective, valid and legitimate publication of names of new taxa, and (ii) minimally accepted standards for description; and, (3) templates for preparing standardized species descriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00063-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091500PMC
May 2021

Fungal taxonomy and sequence-based nomenclature.

Nat Microbiol 2021 May 26;6(5):540-548. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), .

The identification and proper naming of microfungi, in particular plant, animal and human pathogens, remains challenging. Molecular identification is becoming the default approach for many fungal groups, and environmental metabarcoding is contributing an increasing amount of sequence data documenting fungal diversity on a global scale. This includes lineages represented only by sequence data. At present, these taxa cannot be formally described under the current nomenclature rules. By considering approaches used in bacterial taxonomy, we propose solutions for the nomenclature of taxa known only from sequences to facilitate consistent reporting and communication in the literature and public sequence repositories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00888-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic Diversity and Pathogenicity of Species Associated with Symptomatic Citrus Plants in Europe.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

This study represents the first survey studying the occurrence, genetic diversity, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with symptomatic citrus species in citrus-production areas in five European countries. Based on morphological features and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), translation elongation factor 1-alpha () and β-tubulin () genes, nine species were identified as belonging to the genera , , and . Isolates of and were the most frequently detected, while had the widest distribution, occurring in four of the five countries sampled. Representative isolates of the nine Botryosphaeriaceae species used in the pathogenicity tests caused similar symptoms to those observed in nature. Isolates assayed were all re-isolated, thereby fulfilling Koch's postulates. Isolates of and are recorded for the first time on citrus and all species found in our study, except , are reported for the first time on citrus in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999779PMC
March 2021

A world-wide analysis of reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicides in the banana pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Wageningen Research, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal agent of the black leaf streak disease (BLSD) of banana. Bananas are important global export commodities and a major staple food. Their susceptibility to BLSD pushes disease management towards excessive fungicide use, largely relying on multisite inhibitors and sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). These fungicides are ubiquitous in plant disease control, targeting the CYP51 enzyme. We examined sensitivity to DMIs in P. fijiensis field isolates collected from various major banana production zones in Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, the Philippines, Guadalupe, Martinique and Cameroon and determined the underlying genetic reasons for the observed phenotypes.

Results: We observed a continuous range of sensitivity towards the DMI fungicides difenoconazole, epoxiconazole and propiconazole with clear cross-sensitivity. Sequence analyses of PfCYP51 in 266 isolates showed 28 independent amino acid substitutions, nine of which correlated with reduced sensitivity to DMIs. In addition to the mutations, we observed up to six insertions in the Pfcyp51 promoter. Such promoter insertions contain repeated elements with a palindromic core and correlate with the enhanced expression of Pfcyp51 and hence with reduced DMI sensitivity. Wild-type isolates from unsprayed bananas fields did not contain any promoter insertions.

Conclusion: The presented data significantly contribute to understanding of the evolution and global distribution of DMI resistance mechanisms in P. fijiensis field populations and facilitate the prediction of different DMI efficacy. The overall reduced DMI sensitivity calls for the deployment of a wider range of solutions for sustainable control of this major banana disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6372DOI Listing
March 2021

sp. nov. causing cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an immunosuppressed woman.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):400-406

Division of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital of Geneva, Genève, Switzerland.

Rare or opportunistic fungal infections are mostly described in immunosuppressed patients. We present a case of a cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis that developed on the dorsal foot in an immunosuppressed woman suffering from AIDS, caused by a novel species. It clinically presented as an indurated violaceous plaque, surmounted by nodules exuding a sero-purulent discharge. A filamentous fungus was isolated from pus and cutaneous biopsy. ITS and LSU sequences phylogenetically resolved the fungus as an unknown species of , which is an unresolved family within . In this study we describe the new species as , which clusters on a single branch clearly separated from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. This new strain showed low MIC to itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1892458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946049PMC
December 2021