Publications by authors named "P M Ramesh"

275 Publications

Relish plays a dynamic role in the niche to modulate blood progenitor homeostasis in development and infection.

Elife 2021 Jul 22;10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Developmental Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Mohali, India.

Immune challenges demand the gearing up of basal hematopoiesis to combat infection. Little is known about how during development, this switch is achieved to take care of the insult. Here, we show that the hematopoietic niche of the larval lymph gland of senses immune challenge and reacts to it quickly through the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), Relish, a component of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway. During development, Relish is triggered by ecdysone signaling in the hematopoietic niche to maintain the blood progenitors. Loss of Relish causes an alteration in the cytoskeletal architecture of the niche cells in a Jun Kinase dependent manner, resulting in the trapping of Hh implicated in progenitor maintenance. Notably, during infection, downregulation of Relish in the niche tilts the maintenance program towards precocious differentiation, thereby bolstering the cellular arm of the immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.67158DOI Listing
July 2021

Existence of genetic lineages within Asian genotype of Taenia solium-Genetic characterization based on mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA markers.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Parasitology, ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Yelahanka, Bengaluru, India.

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a potentially eradicable neglected zoonotic disease with public health importance. The genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/America are distinct and the genetic composition of the parasite was found to influence the clinical symptoms in patients with cysticercosis. In the present study, the Cysticerci collected from pigs of two southern states of India (Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh) were genetically characterized based on mitochondrial (COX 1 and Cyt b) and ribosomal (ITS-1 and TBR) DNA markers. The study confirms the existence of two mitochondrial lineages of the parasite as Asian and African/American. Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) based analysis revealed the existence of two sub-lineages of the parasite within the Asian lineage based on the polymorphism at 994 position as 994A/G. In India, both the sub-lineages were identified and genetic divergence among different Indian isolates was evident. Further, the sequence analysis of Cytochrome B (Cyt b) revealed the existence of six sub-lineages of T. solium in India as 69T/69G, 97A/97G as well as 264T/264C. The analysis of nucleotide sequence of large subunit ribosomal DNA (TBR) revealed the existence of two sub-lineages in India based on the deletion of a nucleotide at 624 position. The cysts collected in the present study were more closely related to those of China and Indonesia than with other Indian isolates. Further, the sequence analysis did not indicate the presence of Taenia asiatica in the examined pigs and African/American lineages of T. solium. The results of the present study help to better understand the genetic diversity of T. solium in India.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14227DOI Listing
July 2021

Knowledge, attitude and practice on usage and toxicity of local anaesthetic agents (LA) amongst health care professionals in obstetrics and gynaecology.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Jun 24:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Worcestershire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester, UK.

A sound knowledge of LA and their dosage is essential for effective anaesthesia and patient safety as LA toxicity could be potentially life-threatening and clinicians undertaking LA procedures must be competent in early recognition of toxicity and instigating remedial measures timely. This is a prospective national-level survey using self-administered questionnaires among health care professionals in Obstetrics and Gynaecology primarily based in Worcestershire Acute Hospital NHS Trust and further extended to other regions of the United Kingdom. The survey was focussed on evaluating the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the common local anaesthetic agents, their dosage, early recognition and management of LA systemic toxicity(LAST). We understood that all groups of health care professionals did not demonstrate adequate knowledge of safe and effective use of LA agents. We thereby propose an accredited knowledge-based learning module, laminated safety information cards for LA use and ensuring availability of Lipid-emulsion therapy in clinical areas.IMPACT STATEMENT Health care professionals using LA should have sufficient knowledge of LA including the required and maximum dose allowance, pharmacokinetic properties, possible complications and management of systemic toxicity. The lack this can trigger potentially fatal and life-threatening complications if misused. Therefore, the key objectives of the use of LA in clinical settings are to optimise pain management while ensuring safe practice. We understood that all groups of health care professionals did not demonstrate adequate knowledge of the safe and effective use of LA agents and appropriate management of its toxicity. This highlights the urgent need for extending awareness among the professionals on the safe administration of LA, early identification and prompt management of LAST. This will improve not only the safety but also the overall patient experience and quality of care. We thereby propose that an accredited knowledge-based module on safe administration and safety concerns of LA must be made compulsory for all those administering LA. Laminated safety information cards on LA with explicit algorithms/guidelines should be made available in all clinical areas to avoid any delays in the management of toxicity. Moreover, all health-care institutions must ensure the availability of Lipid Emulsion Therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2021.1916812DOI Listing
June 2021

BCL-XL is crucial for progression through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, AmsterdamUMC, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer, which is frequently mediated by upregulation of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins. In colorectal cancer (CRC), previous work has highlighted differential antiapoptotic protein dependencies determined by the stage of the disease. While intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require BCL-2 for adenoma outgrowth and survival during transformation, ISC-specific MCL1 deletion results in disturbed intestinal homeostasis, eventually contributing to tumorigenesis. Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), however, no longer require BCL-2 and depend mainly on BCL-XL for their survival. We therefore hypothesized that a shift in antiapoptotic protein reliance occurs in ISCs as the disease progresses from normal to adenoma to carcinoma. By targeting antiapoptotic proteins with specific BH3 mimetics in organoid models of CRC progression, we found that BCL-2 is essential only during ISC transformation while MCL1 inhibition did not affect adenoma outgrowth. BCL-XL, on the other hand, was crucial for stem cell survival throughout the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence. Furthermore, we identified that the limited window of BCL-2 reliance is a result of its downregulation by miR-17-5p, a microRNA that is upregulated upon APC-mutation driven transformation. Here we show that BCL-XL inhibition effectively impairs adenoma outgrowth in vivo and enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy. In line with this dependency, expression of BCL-XL, but not BCL-2 or MCL1, directly correlated to the outcome of chemotherapy-treated CRC patients. Our results provide insights to enable the rational use of BH3 mimetics in CRC management, particularly underlining the therapeutic potential of BCL-XL targeting mimetics in both early and late-stage disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00816-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of music interventions on sleep in older adults: A systematic review.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Jul-Aug;42(4):869-879. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Claire M. Fagin Hall, 418 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA 19104-4217 USA.

Sleep disruption is common among older adults. Non-pharmacological interventions involving music has emerged as a promising approach to address sleep disruption. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of music interventions on sleep outcomes among older adults (age ≥ 50). We searched five databases through May 2020 and found 16 eligible studies focused on two types of music interventions: music listening (n = 11) and multi-component (n = 5). We found mixed evidence in the efficacy of music interventions to improve sleep outcomes in older adults, which included sleep quality, objective and subjective sleep characteristics. Music listening interventions contained relaxing music with research teams personalizing music choice based on participants' preferences. Multi-component interventions included listening to music in addition to one other approach, such as massage, tai chi, and nature scenes. Future higher-quality studies should provide a detailed description of music interventions and tailor music selections to older adults' preferences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2021.04.014DOI Listing
June 2021