Publications by authors named "P M Mativo"

7 Publications

Multiple sclerosis in Kenya: Demographic and clinical characteristics of a registry cohort.

Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 2021 Apr-Jun;7(2):20552173211022782. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Aga Khan University Medical College of East Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. There is limited literature regarding the burden of MS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Objective: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with MS (PwMS) presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Nairobi.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study for PwMS presenting to Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi from 2008-2018.

Results: 99 cases met the diagnostic criteria for MS with a male to female ratio of 1:4. Majority (68.7%) of PwMS were indigenous Africans with a mean age of onset of 30.7 years. Mean duration from symptom onset to first neuro-imaging was 5.04 years. Only 33% of patients had sensory symptoms at onset whereas 54.5% had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. Majority (79.5%) had relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and 56.6% were initiated on disease modifying therapy (DMT). Only 21.2% of patients on DMT were non-compliant. Patients with RRMS were more likely to be initiated on DMT at our hospital (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Clinical characteristics of these patients largely resemble those of other SSA cohorts and African American patients. There was a delay between symptom onset and neuroimaging. There were also issues with DMT compliance.
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June 2021

Heidenhain Variant of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: First Reported Case from East Africa.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 2;14:39-44. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Aga Khan University Medical College of East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare prion disease that causes rapidly progressive fatal neurodegeneration. The rarer Heidenhain variant of sCJD presents with visual symptoms and is rarely reported in the literature from sub-Saharan Africa. We report the case of a 57-year-old male with a three-week history of losing direction when driving home and visual hallucinations described as seeing rainbows. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed unilateral parieto-occipital sulcal hyperintensities with restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and electroencephalography (EEG) showed right para-central slowing leading to an initial diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus. He was treated with anti-epileptic medication but was re-admitted less than a month later with worsening spatial memory, aggression, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonic jerks and a positive startle response, later developing generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Repeat MRI brain scan showed widespread posterior-predominant sulcal DWI restriction in a cortical ribboning pattern pathognomonic for sCJD. EEG showed diffuse slowing, and cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed for abnormal prion protein using real-time quaking-induced conversion but was inconclusive due to suboptimal sample collection. The patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for probable sCJD, Heidenhain variant; the family declined brain biopsy for definitive diagnosis. He was subsequently palliated at a local hospice where he died approximately three months after the onset of symptoms. Our case highlights the presence of a rare form of sCJD, and the diagnostic challenges faced in our resource-limited setting.
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February 2021

Cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from the East Africa region, highlighting challenges in diagnostics and healthcare access.

eNeurologicalSci 2021 Mar 23;22:100320. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University Medical College of East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an auto-immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with the IgG-antibody against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). There is little published epidemiology of NMOSD from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: We retrospectively collated NMOSD cases admitted to our tertiary regional neurology centre.

Results: We identified 11 cases (10 female, average age 30 years). 64% (7/11) were seropositive for AQP4-IgG, measured using indirect immunofluorescence. The remaining cases could either not afford tests, or had pathognomonic radiological features. 57% (4/7) of seropositive cases had concurrent/recent CNS infection. All patients were treated with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP), and 36% (4/11) also had plasma exchange. Only 55% (6/11) of the patients were seen by a neurologist at presentation: they had less relapses (1.3 vs 2.4), less diagnostic delay (2.3 vs 7.4 months), and were less disabled at the end of our review period. 10 cases were immunosuppressed long-term: 60% on mycophenolate, 30% azathioprine, and one on rituximab.

Conclusion: Our study is the largest case series of NMOSD from the East Africa region. Patients faced challenges of access to appropriate and affordable testing, and timely availability of a neurologist at onset, which had impacts on their functional outcomes. The majority of the seropositive cases had recent/concurrent CNS infections, suggesting triggered auto-immunity.
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March 2021

The association between asymptomatic and mild neurocognitive impairment and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with human immunodeficiency virus.

South Afr J HIV Med 2018 12;19(1):674. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Kenya.

Background: Asymptomatic cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has recently been recognised as part of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. This has been implicated as one of the causes of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Objective: To assess the association between neurocognitive impairment (asymptomatic and mild forms) and adherence to ART.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey involving 218 participants consecutively sampled from those attending the HIV treatment clinic at Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi. Data collected included quantitative primary data on pre-defined baseline characteristics, neurocognitive assessment by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool (Appendix 1), instrumental activities of daily living by Lawton score and objective and subjective adherence measures by medication possession ratio (MPR) and simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ) (see Appendix 2). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to determine the strengths of association between predictor and the outcome variables.

Results: Among the 218 participants in the study, a total of 69% had asymptomatic to mild neurocognitive impairment as assessed by the MoCA tool, while a total of 66% were determined as being adherent to ART by objective measures (by MPR) compared to subjective rates of 77% as assessed by SMAQ. However, no statistically significant association was observed between the presence of asymptomatic or mild neurocognitive impairment and likelihood of adherence to ART (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Even though asymptomatic and mild forms of cognitive impairment are prevalent in the population studied, there was no significant association between cognitive impairment and adherence to treatment.
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April 2018

Study of cardiac autonomic function in drug-naïve, newly diagnosed epilepsy patients.

Epileptic Disord 2010 Sep 20;12(3):212-6. Epub 2010 Jul 20.

Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Epilepsy is associated with ictal autonomic dysfunction which may extend into the inter-ictal period. Antiepileptic drugs have often been blamed for cardiac autonomic dysfunction in epilepsy patients. In this study we have investigated cardiac autonomic parameters in order to evaluate autonomic functions of drug-naïve epilepsy patients.

Method: Twenty drug-naïve patients (15 males and 5 females) with epilepsy, and an equal number of age and gender matched controls, were evaluated for short-term resting heart rate variability and conventional cardiovascular autonomic measurements.

Results: The mean age of patients was 29.30 +/- 9.80 yrs (17-55 yrs), mean age at seizure onset was 19.70 +/- 9.15 yrs (3-40 yrs) and mean length of time since last seizure was 5.60 +/- 7.00 days (1-30 days). While there was no difference in the resting heart rate or conventional autonomic test parameters, time domain heart rate variability measurements showed a decreased percentage of R-R intervals of less than 50 ms and root mean square of R-R intervals in patients, when compared to controls. Frequency domain parameters showed a decreased total power (patients: 1,796.58 +/- 1,052.45 ms2; controls: 2,934.23 +/- 1,767.06 ms2, p = 0.008). Parameters indicative of decreased vagal tone, i.e. decreased high frequency power and increased low to high frequency ratio (patients: 1.69 +/- 0.94; controls: 1.14 +/- 0.64, p = 0.045), were observed among patients compared to controls.

Conclusion: Subtle but definite cardiac autonomic dysfunction, especially in vagal tone, was identified in drug-naïve, new-onset epilepsy patients. Seizures can cause long-term and often progressive cardiac autonomic dysfunction which may be independent of concomitant antiepileptic drugs.
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September 2010