Publications by authors named "P Kasi Ramanathan"

127 Publications

A single intranasal dose of human parainfluenza virus type 3-vectored vaccine induces effective antibody and memory T cell response in the lungs and protects hamsters against SARS-CoV-2.

NPJ Vaccines 2022 Apr 25;7(1):47. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Respiratory tract vaccination has an advantage of needle-free delivery and induction of mucosal immune response in the portal of SARS-CoV-2 entry. We utilized human parainfluenza virus type 3 vector to generate constructs expressing the full spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, its S1 subunit, or the receptor-binding domain, and tested them in hamsters as single-dose intranasal vaccines. The construct bearing full-length S induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies specific to S protein domains critical to the protein functions. Robust memory T cell responses in the lungs were also induced, which represent an additional barrier to infection and should be less sensitive than the antibody responses to mutations present in SARS-CoV-2 variants. Following SARS-CoV-2 challenge, animals were protected from the disease and detectable viral replication. Vaccination prevented induction of gene pathways associated with inflammation. These results indicate advantages of respiratory vaccination against COVID-19 and inform the design of mucosal SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-022-00471-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9038905PMC
April 2022

Multifocal Chorioretinitis with Serous Macular Detachment in Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis (DUSN): Unique Presentation and a Diagnostic Dilemma.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022 Apr 12:1-4. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Institute Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

Purpose: To report a case of multifocal chorioretinitis with serous macular detachment in diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) and its diagnostic dilemma.

Design: Case report.

Method: A 43-year-old woman presented with painless diminution of vision of right eye for 1 week. Dilated fundoscopy showed mild disc edema, multiple deep grey-white retinitis lesions in posterior pole with mild vitritis. Optical coherence tomography revealed serous macular detachment. Fundus fluorescein angiography was suggestive of active retinitis. Comprehensive workup was unremarkable. Six days later, a live subretinal worm was noticed in inferotemporal retina. A diagnosis of DUSN was made and treated with laser photocoagulation followed by antihelminthic therapy. One month later, patients vision improved and chorioretinal lesions also healed.

Conclusion: This report presents a unique scenario of serous macular detachment in DUSN in addition to commonly seen multifocal deep retinitis lesions. Prompt treatment with laser, antihelminthic agent can prevent irreversible vision loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2022.2061526DOI Listing
April 2022

Demographic and Regional Trends of Mortality in Patients With Aortic Dissection in the United States, 1999 to 2019.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Apr 18;11(7):e024533. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Section of Cardiology Baylor College of Medicine Houston TX.

Background Aortic dissection (AoD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, the burden of AoD mortality is not well characterized, and contemporary data and mortality trends in different demographic and geographic subgroups have not been described. Methods and Results Trends in AoD mortality were assessed using a cross-sectional analysis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) per 1 million people with associated annual percent changes were determined. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends in the overall sample and different demographic (sex, race and ethnicity, age) and geographic subgroups. Between 1999 and 2019, a total of 86 855 AoD deaths occurred within the United States. In the overall population, AAMR was 21.1 per 1 million in 1999 and 21.3 in 2019. After an initial decline in mortality, AAMR increased from 2012 to 2019, with an associated annual change of 2.5% (95% CI, 1.8-3.3). Men, older adults (aged ≥85 years), and non-Hispanic Black or African American individuals had higher mortality rates than women, younger individuals, and other racial and ethnic individuals, respectively. Despite lower AAMRs throughout the study period, women experienced greater increases in AAMR from 2012 to 2019 compared with men. Similarly, non-Hispanic Black or African American individuals had a pronounced increase in AAMR from 2012 to 2019. Conclusions Despite an initial decline in AoD mortality, the mortality rate has been increasing from 2012 to 2019, with pronounced increases among women and non-Hispanic Black or African American individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.024533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9075427PMC
April 2022

Technology as a Double-Edged Sword: Understanding Life Experiences and Coping With COVID-19 in India.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:800827. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, India.

The two waves of COVID-19 in India have had severe consequences for the lives of people. The Indian State-imposed various regulatory mechanisms like lockdowns, encouraged remote work, online teaching in academic institutions, and enforced adherence to the COVID protocols. The use of various technologies especially digital/online technologies not only helped to adapt to the "new normal" and cope with the disruptions in pursuing everyday activities but also to manage one's well-being. However, the availability and accessibility of digital technologies to various sections of the population were not uniform. This paper reports a series of three studies examining the nature of pandemic stress, the impact of technology use on people's emotional well-being during turbulent times, and the effects of technology use on psychological resources like resilience, self-efficacy, motivation to work, and emotional well-being. The differences in the residential background (Urban/Rural) and SES (Low/High) in the extent of the use of technology and strength of psychological resources were assessed. The findings indicated that the most common causes of concern included worrying about family, friends, partners, fears of getting and giving the viral infection to someone; frustration and or boredom; and changes in normal sleep patterns. It was noted that technology was a double-edged sword and created barriers as well as opportunities for the people. Also, self-efficacy mediated the relationship between the use of technology and emotional wellbeing. The results have policy implications for building resilient communities in the post COVID period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.800827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8850397PMC
February 2022

Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Surgery Versus Surgical and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Am J Cardiol 2022 Apr 12;169:154-156. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.01.011DOI Listing
April 2022
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