Publications by authors named "P Joy Ho"

3,082 Publications

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Investigating PEGDA and GelMA Microgel Models for Sustained 3D Heterotypic Dermal Papilla and Keratinocyte Co-Cultures.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 21;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 21.

School of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Pharmacy and Bank Building A15, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Hair follicle morphogenesis is heavily dependent on reciprocal, sequential, and epithelial-mesenchymal interaction (EMI) between epidermal stem cells and the specialized cells of the underlying mesenchyme, which aggregate to form the dermal condensate (DC) and will later become the dermal papilla (DP). Similar models were developed with a co-culture of keratinocytes and DP cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that co-culture with keratinocytes maintains the in vivo characteristics of the DP. However, it is often challenging to develop three-dimensional (3D) DP and keratinocyte co-culture models for long term in vitro studies, due to the poor intercellular adherence between keratinocytes. Keratinocytes exhibit exfoliative behavior, and the integrity of the DP and keratinocyte co-cultured spheroids cannot be maintained over prolonged culture. Short durations of culture are unable to sufficiently allow the differentiation and re-programming of the keratinocytes into hair follicular fate by the DP. In this study, we explored a microgel array approach fabricated with two different hydrogel systems. Using poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA), we compare their effects on maintaining the integrity of the cultures and their expression of important genes responsible for hair follicle morphogenesis, namely , , and , over prolonged duration. We discovered that low attachment surfaces such as PEGDA result in the exfoliation of keratinocytes and were not suitable for long-term culture. GelMA, on the hand, was able to sustain the integrity of co-cultures and showed higher expression of the morphogens overtime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042143DOI Listing
February 2021

The use of multi-pronged screening strategy to understand the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hong Kong: transition from epidemic to endemic setting.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Infection Control Team, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

A multi-pronged carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) screening strategy was implemented in Hong Kong West healthcare network. Of 199,192 fecal specimens from 77,194 patients screening from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2019, the incidence of CPE per 1000 patient admission significantly increased from 0.01 (2012) to 1.9 (2018) (p<0.01). With appropriate infection control measures, the incidence of nosocomial CPE per 1000 CPE colonization day decreased from 22.34 (2014) to 10.65 (2018) (p=0.0094). Exposure to wet market for purchasing raw pork (p=0.007), beef (p=0.017), chicken (p=0.026), and vegetable (p=0.034) for >3 times per week significantly associated with community acquisition of CPE. Strategic CPE control measures should be implemented in both the hospital and the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-021-04173-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Acute Myocardial Infarction Cohorts Defined by Versus Diagnosis-Related Groups: Analysis of Diagnostic Agreement and Quality Measures in an Integrated Health System.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Mar 3:CIRCOUTCOMES120006570. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora. (J.D.R., N.M.B., E.W.R., P.M.H.).

Background: Among Medicare value-based payment programs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program uses () codes to identify the program denominator, while the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced program uses diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The extent to which these programs target similar patients, whether they target the intended population (type 1 myocardial infarction), and whether outcomes are comparable between cohorts is not known.

Methods: In a retrospective study of 2176 patients hospitalized in an integrated health system, a cohort of patients assigned a principal diagnosis of AMI and a cohort of patients assigned an AMI DRG were compared according to patient-level agreement and outcomes such as mortality and readmission.

Results: One thousand nine hundred thirty-five patients were included in the cohort compared with 662 patients in the DRG cohort. Only 421 patients were included in both AMI cohorts (19.3% agreement). DRG cohort patients were older (70 versus 65 years, <0.001), more often female (48% versus 30%, <0.001), and had higher rates of heart failure (52% versus 33%, <0.001) and kidney disease (42% versus 25%, <0.001). Comparing outcomes, the DRG cohort had significantly higher unadjusted rates of 30-day mortality (6.6% versus 2.5%, <0.001), 1-year mortality (21% versus 8%, <0.001), and 90-day readmission (26% versus 19%, =0.006) than the cohort. Two observations help explain these differences: 61% of cohort patients were assigned procedural DRGs for revascularization instead of an AMI DRG, and type 1 myocardial infarction patients made up a smaller proportion of the DRG cohort (34%) than the cohort (78%).

Conclusions: The method used to identify denominators for value-based payment programs has important implications for the patient characteristics and outcomes of the populations. As national and local quality initiatives mature, an emphasis on codes to define AMI cohorts would better represent type 1 myocardial infarction patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006570DOI Listing
March 2021

Multimodal pooled Perturb-CITE-seq screens in patient models define mechanisms of cancer immune evasion.

Nat Genet 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Columbia Center for Translational Immunology, New York, NY, USA.

Resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a key challenge in cancer therapy. To elucidate underlying mechanisms, we developed Perturb-CITE-sequencing (Perturb-CITE-seq), enabling pooled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 perturbations with single-cell transcriptome and protein readouts. In patient-derived melanoma cells and autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) co-cultures, we profiled transcriptomes and 20 proteins in ~218,000 cells under ~750 perturbations associated with cancer cell-intrinsic ICI resistance (ICR). We recover known mechanisms of resistance, including defects in the interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-JAK/STAT and antigen-presentation pathways in RNA, protein and perturbation space, and new ones, including loss/downregulation of CD58. Loss of CD58 conferred immune evasion in multiple co-culture models and was downregulated in tumors of melanoma patients with ICR. CD58 protein expression was not induced by IFN-γ signaling, and CD58 loss conferred immune evasion without compromising major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression, suggesting that it acts orthogonally to known mechanisms of ICR. This work provides a framework for the deciphering of complex mechanisms by large-scale perturbation screens with multimodal, single-cell readouts, and discovers potentially clinically relevant mechanisms of immune evasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00779-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Territory-wide Study on Hospital Admissions for Asthma exacerbation in COVID-19 Pandemic.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

University of Hong Kong, 25809, Microbiology, Hong Kong, Hong Kong;

Rationale: Asthma patients were advised to avoid Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and comply to medication during COVID-19 pandemic. Respiratory tract infection is a common cause of asthma exacerbation. There has not been evidence suggesting the link between COVID-19 and asthma exacerbation, especially in places with dramatic responses in infection control with universal masking and aggressive social distancing.

Objective: To assess the number for admissions of asthma exacerbation in January to April 2020 in Hong Kong with reference to admission in past five years.

Methods: Admission records of asthma exacerbation were retrieved from Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. Patients with age at or above 18 years old with known history of asthma admitted for asthma exacerbation were included. Log-linear was used to model count with year and masking used as covariate, with further analysis on ambient temperature, length of hospital stays. Fisher exact test was used to compare the mortality rate and mechanical ventilation between the periods. Admissions for myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and gastric ulcer were included as controls.

Results: The number of admissions for asthma exacerbation significantly decreased by 53.2% (95%CI 50.4%-55.8%) in 2020 compared with monthly average admission in 2015-2019, with higher magnitude of decrease compared to control diagnoses. Admissions for asthma exacerbation decreased by 2.0% (95%CI 1.8%-2.2%) with every 1℃ (1.8°F) increase in temperature and by 0.8% with every 1% increase in masking (95%CI 0.8%-0.9%).

Conclusions: Hospitalization number for asthma exacerbation significantly decreased in early 2020 with similar length of stay. This was observed with concomitant practice of universal masking and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. We proposed that universal masking and social distancing reduced respiratory viral infection, leading to less hospital admission with asthma exacerbation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202010-1247OCDOI Listing
February 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Feb 8:1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
February 2021

Global coagulation assays in healthy controls: are there compensatory mechanisms within the coagulation system?

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Haematology, Northern Hospital, 185 Cooper St, Epping, VIC, 3076, Australia.

Global coagulation assays (GCAs) may provide a more comprehensive individual hemostatic profiling. We aim to evaluate GCAs (thromboelastography, thrombin generation) in healthy controls, and correlate results with age, gender, lipid status, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and P-selectin. Blood samples were collected from healthy controls (> 18 years of age) not taking anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents and without known cardiovascular disease. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed on citrated whole blood while calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), P-selectin (endothelial marker) and TFPI (principle inhibitor of tissue factor-initiated coagulation) were performed on platelet-poor plasma. 153 healthy controls (mean age 42 years, 98 females (64%)) were recruited. Female controls demonstrated more hypercoagulable TEG and CAT parameters while those over 50 years of age demonstrated more hypercoagulable TEG parameters despite comparable thrombin generation. Paradoxically, individuals with "flattened" thrombin curves (lower velocity index (rate of thrombin generation) despite preserved endogenous thrombin potential (amount of thrombin)) were more likely to be male (49% vs 20%, p = 0.003) with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.3 vs 2.6 mmol/L, p = 0.003), P-selectin (54.2 vs 47.3 ng/mL, p = 0.038) and TFPI (18.7 vs 8.6 ng/ml, p = 0.001). In addition to reduced velocity index and thrombin peak, controls in the highest TFPI tertile also demonstrated a poorer lipid profile. GCAs can detect subtle changes of the hemostatic profile. Interestingly, reduced thrombin generation was paradoxically associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors, possibly attributable to increased TFPI. This finding may suggest compensation by the coagulation system in response to endothelial activation and represent a biomarker for early cardiovascular disease. A larger prospective study evaluating these assays in the cardiovascular disease population is ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-021-02400-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Hong Kong Anaphylaxis Consortium Consensus Statements on prescription of adrenaline autoinjectors in the acute care setting.

Asia Pac Allergy 2021 Jan 6;11(1):e1. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Accident & Emergency Department, Ruttonjee Hospital, Hong Kong.

Background: Adrenaline autoinjectors (AAInj) facilitates early administration of adrenaline and remains the first-line treatment for anaphylaxis. However, only a minority of anaphylaxis survivors in Hong Kong are prescribed AAInj and formal guidance do not exist. International anaphylaxis guidelines have been largely based on Western studies, which may not be as relevant for non-Western populations.

Objective: To formulate a set of consensus statements on the prescription of AAInj in Hong Kong.

Methods: Consensus statements were formulated by the Hong Kong Anaphylaxis Consortium by the Delphi method. Agreement was defined as greater than or equal to 80% consensus. Subgroup analysis was performed to investigate differences between allergy and emergency medicine physicians.

Results: A total of 7 statements met criteria for consensus with good overall agreement between allergy and emergency medicine physicians. AAInj should be used as first-line treatment and prescribed for all patients at risk of anaphylaxis. This should be prescribed prior to discharge from the Accident and Emergency Department together with an immediate referral to an allergy center. The decision for prescribing AAInj should be based on the severity of previous reactions; including objective signs of respiratory involvement, objective signs of cardiovascular involvement and multiorgan involvement (regardless of severity). Patient demographics and comorbidities, specifically history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, should also be considered. Patients deemed eligible for AAInj should be offered avoidance advice and prescribed one AAInj while awaiting review by allergists. AAInj technique should be demonstrated by a healthcare professional or instruction video, and a return demonstration by the patient is required. The patient should also be counseled that the decision on the continued need of AAInj prescription in the long-term should be reviewed by an allergist.

Conclusion: Consensus statements support the prescription of AAInj by front-line physicians with subsequent allergist review when treating patients at risk of anaphylaxis in Hong Kong.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5415/apallergy.2021.11.e1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870372PMC
January 2021

Improving Public Toilet Environment and Hygiene Practices in an Asian City: Voices From Hong Kong Residents.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2021 Feb 16:1010539521993685. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Toilet hygiene is an important preventive measure for infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. This study explored public's opinions on improving toilet environment and hygiene practices in Hong Kong. A mixed-method approach was applied. We conducted 4 focus groups plus 3 individual interviews among the Hong Kong Chinese, followed by a questionnaire survey with 300 respondents recruited from various districts. Difference in response distributions between groups with different demographics was tested by Pearson χ test. Instead of advocating for advanced toilet facilities, respondents were mostly concerned about basic hygiene issues. Malfunctioning facilities resulting from poor toilet management, such as clogged toilets, stained facilities, and problematic flushing systems, were most cited as barriers to toilet hygiene practices. Three quarters of the survey respondents expressed concerns over worn and poorly maintained toilets, shortage of janitors, and cleansing supplies. However, respondents who were older ( < .001), less educated ( < .001), and had lower income ( = .001) were significantly more likely to find hygiene conditions in public toilets satisfactory. The findings reflected the substandard of the current provisions as a developed city in Asia. Enhanced efforts by the government to maintain basic toilet supplies and facilities is the key to improving public compliance to toilet hygiene practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539521993685DOI Listing
February 2021

CTLA-4 blockade drives loss of T stability in glycolysis-low tumours.

Nature 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Ludwig Collaborative and Swim Across America Laboratory, MSK, New York, NY, USA.

Limiting the metabolic competition in the tumor microenvironment (TME) may increase the effectiveness of immunotherapy. Because of its critical role in glucose metabolism of activated T cells, CD28 signaling has been proposed as a T-cell metabolic biosensor. Conversely, CTLA-4 engagement has been shown to down-regulate T-cell glycolysis. Here, we investigated the impact of CTLA-4 blockade on the metabolic fitness of intra-tumor T cells in relationship to the tumor glycolytic capacity. We found that CTLA-4 blockade promotes immune cell infiltration and metabolic fitness especially in glycolysis-low tumors. Accordingly, anti-CTLA-4 achieved better therapeutic outcomes in mice bearing glycolysis-defective tumors. Intriguingly, tumor-specific CD8 T-cell responses correlated with phenotypic and functional destabilization of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) toward IFN-γ- and TNF-α-producing cells in glycolysis-defective tumors. By mimicking the highly and poorly glycolytic TME in vitro, we show that the effect of CTLA-4 blockade to promote Treg destabilization is dependent on Treg glycolysis and CD28 signaling. These findings indicate that decreasing tumor competition for glucose may facilitate the therapeutic activity of CTLA-4 blockade, thus supporting its combination with inhibitors of tumor glycolysis. Moreover, these results reveal a new mechanism through which anti-CTLA-4 interferes with Treg function in the presence of glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03326-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Association of Ischemic Evaluation and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Admitted With New-Onset Heart Failure.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb 15;10(5):e019452. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center Aurora CO.

Background The significant morbidity associated with systolic heart failure makes it imperative to identify patients with a reversible cause. We thus sought to evaluate the proportion of patients who received an ischemic evaluation after a hospitalization for new-onset systolic heart failure. Methods and Results Patients admitted with a new diagnosis of heart failure and a reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40%) were identified in the VA Healthcare System from January 2006 to August 2017. Among those who survived 90 days without a readmission, we evaluated the proportion of patients who underwent an ischemic evaluation. We identified 9625 patients who were admitted with a new diagnosis of systolic heart failure with a concomitant reduction in ejection fraction. A minority of patients (3859, 40%) underwent an ischemic evaluation, with significant variation across high-performing (90th percentile) and low-performing (10th percentile) sites (odds ratio, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.90-4.31). Patients who underwent an evaluation were more likely to be treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (75% versus 64%, <0.001) or beta blockers (92% versus 82%, <0.001) and subsequently undergo percutaneous (8% versus 0%, <0.001) or surgical (2% versus 0%, <0.001) revascularization. Patients with an ischemic evaluation also had a significantly lower adjusted hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47-0.61) compared with those without an evaluation. Conclusions Ischemic evaluations are underutilized in patients admitted with heart failure and a new reduction in left ventricular systolic function. A focused intervention to increase guideline-concordant care could lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019452DOI Listing
February 2021

The Focus They Deserve: Improving Women Veterans' Health Care Access.

Womens Health Issues 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Center of Innovation for Veteran-Centered and Value-Driven Care, Seattle, Washington; Department of Health Services, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington.

Purpose: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) initiatives aim to provide veterans timely access to quality health care. The focus of this analysis was provider and staff perspectives on women veterans' access in the context of national efforts to improve veterans' access to care.

Methods: We completed 21 site visits at Veterans Health Administration medical facilities to evaluate the implementation of a national access initiative. Qualitative data collection included semistructured interviews (n = 127), focus groups (n = 81), and observations with local leadership, administrators, providers, and support staff across primary and specialty care services at each facility. Deductive and inductive content analysis was used to identify barriers, facilitators, and contextual factors affecting implementation of initiatives and women veterans' access.

Results: Participants identified barriers to women veterans' access and strategies used to improve access. Barriers included a limited availability of providers trained in women's health and gender-specific care services (e.g., women's specialty care), inefficient referral and coordination with community providers, and psychosocial factors (e.g., childcare). Participants also identified issues related to childcare and perceived harassment in medical facility settings as distinct access issues for women veterans. Strategies focused on increasing internal capacity to provide on-site women's comprehensive care and specialty services by streamlining provider training and credentialing, contracting providers, using telehealth, and improving access to community providers to fill gaps in women's services. Participants also highlighted efforts to improve gender-sensitive care delivery.

Conclusions: Although some issues affect all veterans, problems with community care referrals may disproportionately affect women veterans' access owing to a necessary reliance on community care for a range of gender-specific services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2020.12.011DOI Listing
February 2021

H7N9 influenza split vaccine with SWE oil-in-water adjuvant greatly enhances cross-reactive humoral immunity and protection against severe pneumonia in ferrets.

NPJ Vaccines 2020 May 11;5(1):38. Epub 2020 May 11.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Until universal influenza vaccines become available, pandemic preparedness should include developing classical vaccines against potential pandemic influenza subtypes. We here show that addition of SWE adjuvant, a squalene-in-water emulsion, to H7N9 split influenza vaccine clearly enhanced functional antibody responses in ferrets. These were cross-reactive against H7N9 strains from different lineages and newly emerged H7N9 variants. Both vaccine formulations protected in almost all cases against severe pneumonia induced by intratracheal infection of ferrets with H7N9 influenza; however, the SWE adjuvant enhanced protection against virus replication and disease. Correlation analysis and curve fitting showed that both VN- and NI-titers were better predictors for protection than HI-titers. Moreover, we show that novel algorithms can assist in better interpretation of large data sets generated in preclinical studies. Cluster analysis showed that the adjuvanted vaccine results in robust immunity and protection, whereas the response to the non-adjuvanted vaccine is heterogeneous, such that the protection balance may be more easily tipped toward severe disease. Finally, cluster analysis indicated that the dose-sparing capacity of the adjuvant is at least a factor six, which greatly increases vaccine availability in a pandemic situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-0187-4DOI Listing
May 2020

Targeting PIM1-Mediated Metabolism in Myeloid Suppressor Cells to Treat Cancer.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Medical College of Wisconsin.

There is a strong correlation between myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), but the detailed mechanisms underlying this correlation are largely unknown. Using single-cell RNA-seq analysis in a bilateral tumor model, we found that immunosuppressive myeloid cells with characteristics of fatty acid oxidative metabolism dominate the immune-cell landscape in ICB-resistant subjects. In addition, we uncovered a previously underappreciated role of a serine/threonine kinase, PIM1, in regulating lipid oxidative metabolism via PPARγ-mediated activities. Enforced PPARγ expression sufficiently rescued metabolic and functional defects of Pim1-/- MDSCs. Consistent with this, pharmacological inhibition of PIM kinase by AZD1208 treatment significantly disrupted the myeloid cell-mediated immunosuppressive microenvironment and unleashed CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity, which enhanced PD-L1 blockade in preclinical cancer models. PIM kinase inhibition also sensitized non-responders to PD-L1 blockade by selectively targeting suppressive myeloid cells. Overall, we have identified PIM1 as a metabolic modulator in MDSCs that is associated with ICB resistance and can be therapeutically targeted to overcome ICB resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0433DOI Listing
February 2021

Ultraintense, ultrashort pulse X-ray scattering in small molecules.

Faraday Discuss 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA. and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA and James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

We examine X-ray scattering from an isolated organic molecule from the linear to nonlinear absorptive regime. In the nonlinear regime, we explore the importance of both the coherent and incoherent channels and observe the onset of nonlinear behavior as a function of pulse duration and energy. In the linear regime, we test the sensitivity of the scattering signal to molecular bonding and electronic correlation via calculations using the independent atom model (IAM), Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT). Finally, we describe how coherent X-ray scattering can be used to directly visualize femtosecond charge transfer and dissociation within a single molecule undergoing X-ray multiphoton absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fd00106fDOI Listing
February 2021

Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation for prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 mortality in patients admitted to hospital in the United States: cohort study.

BMJ 2021 02 11;372:n311. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Objective: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States.

Design: Observational cohort study.

Setting: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system.

Participants: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation.

Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion.

Results: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876672PMC
February 2021

A New Procedure to Assess When Estimates from the Cumulative Link Model Can Be Interpreted as Differences for Ordinal Scales in Quality of Life Studies.

Clin Epidemiol 2021 4;13:53-65. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose: Assessing the clinical importance of an exposure effect on a quality of life (QoL) score often requires quantifying the effect in terms of a difference in scores. Using the linear regression model (LRM) for this purpose assumes the ordinal score is a proxy for an underlying continuous variable, but the analysis offers no assessment for the validity of the assumption. We propose an approach that assesses the proxy assumption and estimates the exposure effect by using the cumulative link model (CLM).

Patients And Methods: CLM is a well-established regression model that assumes an ordinal score is an ordered category generated from applying thresholds to a latent continuous variable. Our approach assesses the proxy assumption by testing whether these thresholds are equidistant. We compared the performance of CLM and LRM using simulated ordinal data and illustrated their application to the effect of time since diagnosis on five subscales of fatigue among breast cancer survivors measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory.

Results: CLM had good performance in estimating the difference in means with simulated ordinal data satisfying the proxy assumption, even when the outcome had only a few categories. When the proxy assumption was inadequate, both the CLM and LRM had biased estimates with poor coverage. The proxy assumption was appropriate for four of the five subscales in our real data application to fatigue scores, which highlighted the importance of assessing the proxy assumption to avoid reporting invalid estimates in terms of the difference in scores.

Conclusion: The proxy assumption is critical to the interpretation of the exposure effect on the difference in mean QoL scores. CLM offers a valid test for the presence of an association, a method for assessing the proxy assumption, and when the assumption is adequate, an assessment for clinical significance using the difference in means.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S288801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869833PMC
February 2021

The Groundwater of Racial and Ethnic Disparities Research: A Statement From .

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Feb 11;14(2):e007868. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (B.K.N.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.121.007868DOI Listing
February 2021

HMD-ARG: hierarchical multi-task deep learning for annotating antibiotic resistance genes.

Microbiome 2021 02 8;9(1):40. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The spread of antibiotic resistance has become one of the most urgent threats to global health, which is estimated to cause 700,000 deaths each year globally. Its surrogates, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), are highly transmittable between food, water, animal, and human to mitigate the efficacy of antibiotics. Accurately identifying ARGs is thus an indispensable step to understanding the ecology, and transmission of ARGs between environmental and human-associated reservoirs. Unfortunately, the previous computational methods for identifying ARGs are mostly based on sequence alignment, which cannot identify novel ARGs, and their applications are limited by currently incomplete knowledge about ARGs.

Results: Here, we propose an end-to-end Hierarchical Multi-task Deep learning framework for ARG annotation (HMD-ARG). Taking raw sequence encoding as input, HMD-ARG can identify, without querying against existing sequence databases, multiple ARG properties simultaneously, including if the input protein sequence is an ARG, and if so, what antibiotic family it is resistant to, what resistant mechanism the ARG takes, and if the ARG is an intrinsic one or acquired one. In addition, if the predicted antibiotic family is beta-lactamase, HMD-ARG further predicts the subclass of beta-lactamase that the ARG is resistant to. Comprehensive experiments, including cross-fold validation, third-party dataset validation in human gut microbiota, wet-experimental functional validation, and structural investigation of predicted conserved sites, demonstrate not only the superior performance of our method over the state-of-art methods, but also the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

Conclusions: We propose a hierarchical multi-task method, HMD-ARG, which is based on deep learning and can provide detailed annotations of ARGs from three important aspects: resistant antibiotic class, resistant mechanism, and gene mobility. We believe that HMD-ARG can serve as a powerful tool to identify antibiotic resistance genes and, therefore mitigate their global threat. Our method and the constructed database are available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/HMDARG/ . Video abstract (MP4 50984 kb).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01002-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871585PMC
February 2021

Surface Doping of Organic Single-Crystal Semiconductors to Produce Strain-Sensitive Conductive Nanosheets.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Feb 18;8(3):2002065. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Material Innovation Research Center (MIRC) and Department of Advanced Materials Science Graduate School of Frontier Sciences The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha Kashiwa Chiba 277-8561 Japan.

A highly periodic electrostatic potential, even though established in van der Waals bonded organic crystals, is essential for the realization of a coherent band electron system. While impurity doping is an effective chemical operation that can precisely tune the energy of an electronic system, it always faces an unavoidable difficulty in molecular crystals because the introduction of a relatively high density of dopants inevitably destroys the highly ordered molecular framework. In striking contrast, a versatile strategy is presented to create coherent 2D electronic carriers at the surface of organic semiconductor crystals with their precise molecular structures preserved perfectly. The formation of an assembly of redox-active molecular dopants via a simple one-shot solution process on a molecularly flat crystalline surface allows efficient chemical doping and results in a relatively high carrier density of 10 cm at room temperature. Structural and magnetotransport analyses comprehensively reveal that excellent carrier transport and piezoresistive effects can be obtained that are similar to those in bulk crystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856890PMC
February 2021

Three Cases of Translunate Perilunate Injury Treated with Wrist Arthroscopy.

J Wrist Surg 2021 Feb 17;10(1):58-63. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.

 An acute fracture of the lunate is an uncommon injury with the reported incidence ranging from 0.5 to 1% of all carpal bone fractures. The combination of lunate fracture and perilunate injury is even rarer and Bain et al first introduced the "translunate arc concept" in 2008. We reported three cases of translunate perilunate injury treated with wrist arthroscopy.  All the three cases had been treated successfully with the use of wrist arthroscopy. A novel technique of arthroscopic reduction and fixation of a volar pole of lunate fracture was illustrated. The lunate fracture healed in all cases with normal carpal alignment.  All patients achieved a painless and functional joint with good range of motion at an average follow-up of 15 months. There was no radiological evidence of avascular necrosis of the lunate in all three cases.  Translunate perilunate injury is rare and a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. There was no consensus on the surgical approach to this kind of injury. Wrist arthroscopy had proven to be successful in treating the greater and lesser arc perilunate injury. For translunate perilunate injury, wrist arthroscopy is also a feasible option with the advantages of lower risk of arthrofibrosis and avascular necrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1712518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850803PMC
February 2021

Validation of milk mid-infrared spectroscopy for predicting the metabolic status of lactating dairy cows in Australia.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia; School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia.

Increased concentrations of some serum biomarkers are known to be associated with impaired health of dairy cows. Therefore, being able to predict these biomarkers, especially in the early stage of lactation, would enable preventive management decision. Some health biomarkers may also be used as phenotypes for genetic improvement for improved animal health. In this study, we validated the accuracy and robustness of models for predicting serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), fatty acids, and urea nitrogen, using milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The data included 3,262 blood samples of 3,027 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows from 19 dairy herds in Southeastern Australia, collected in the period from July 2017 to April 2020. The models were developed using partial least squares regression and were validated using 10-fold random cross-validation, herd-year by herd-year external validation, and year by year validation. The coefficients of determination (R) for prediction of serum BHB, fatty acids, and urea obtained through random cross-validation were 0.60, 0.42, and 0.87, respectively. For the herd-year by herd-year external validation, the prediction accuracies held up comparatively well, with R values of 0.49, 0.33, and 0.67 for of serum BHB, fatty acids, and urea, respectively. When the models were developed using data from a single year to predict data collected in future years, the R remained comparable, however, the root mean squared errors increased substantially (4-10 times larger than compared with that of herd-year by herd-year external validation) which could be due to machine differences in spectral response, the change in spectral response of individual machines over time, or other differences associated with farm management between seasons. In conclusion, the mid-infrared equations for predicting serum BHB, fatty acids, and urea have been validated. The prediction equations could be used to help farmers detect cows with metabolic disorders in early lactation in addition to generating novel phenotypes for genetic improvement purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19603DOI Listing
February 2021

3D printing of four-in-one oral polypill with multiple release profiles for personalized delivery of caffeine and vitamin B analogues.

Int J Pharm 2021 Feb 4;598:120360. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Craft Health Pte Ltd., 21 Bukit Batok Crescent, #10-75, WCEGA Tower, Singapore 658065, Singapore; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Block S4A, Level 3, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore. Electronic address:

Personalized supplementation has found recent momentum with an estimated global market size of USD 1.6 billion in 2019 and an expected CAGR of 8.5% between 2020 and 2028. Alongside this rising trend, a simple, accurate, inexpensive and flexible method to produce personalized dosage forms of a wide variety of supplements would be beneficial to both the industry players and individual consumers. Here, we present a 3D printing method to fabricate a four-in-one oral polypill with multiple release profiles for personalized delivery of caffeine and vitamin B analogues. The 3D printable formulations were fabricated and optimized from existing FDA GRAS excipients based on their viscosity, shear thinning properties, recovery of paste and mechanical strength. In the polypill, vitamin B analogues and caffeine were used as the model dietary ingredients. We performed a standard 2 stage USP in vitro dissolution test of the polypill, and demonstrated that vitamin B1, B3 and B6 could be immediately released within 30 min, while caffeine could be slowly released over a period of 4 h. This demonstrated the ability dietary supplement containing different ingredients with varying release profiles, all within a single polypill. Throughout the formulation and 3D printing process, there were no detectable changes to the dietary ingredients nor any interactions with the excipients. This method serves as an intriguing complement to traditional manufacturing of oral tablets, especially when flexibility in design, dose, volume and release profiles of each dietary ingredient is required, as exemplified in personalized supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120360DOI Listing
February 2021

Quantification of injury burden using multiple data sources: a longitudinal study.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 4;11(1):3078. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Room 123, New Clinical Building, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong, China.

Quantification of injury burden is vital for injury prevention, as it provides a guide for setting policies and priorities. This study generated a set of Hong Kong specific disability weights (DWs) derived from patient experiences and hospital records. Patients were recruited from the Accident and Emergency Department (AED) of three major trauma centers in Hong Kong between September 2014 and December 2015 and subsequently interviewed with a focus on health-related quality of life at most three times over a 12-month period. These patient-reported data were then used for estimation of DWs. The burden of injury was determined using the mortality and inpatient data from 2001 to 2012 and then compared with those reported in the UK Burden of Injury (UKBOI) and global burden of diseases (GBD) studies. There were 22,856 mortality cases and 817,953 morbidity cases caused by injuries, in total contributing to 1,027,641 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the 12-year study timeframe. Estimates for DALYs per 100,000 in Hong Kong amounted to 1192, compared with 2924 in UKBOI and 3459 in GBD. Our findings support the use of multiple data sources including patient-reported data and hospital records for estimation of injury burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82799-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862366PMC
February 2021

Evaluation of bronchial challenge test results for use in assessment of paediatric eczema: a retrospective series.

Hong Kong Med J 2021 Feb 4;27(1):27-34. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and allergic rhinitis are associated diseases involved in the atopic march. The bronchial challenge test (BCT) is a tool that evaluates airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma. This study aimed to evaluate whether a positive BCT result is useful in assessment of paediatric AD.

Methods: This retrospective case series included 284 patients with AD who had BCT results. Clinical information and laboratory parameters were reviewed, including AD severity (using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis [SCORAD]), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss.

Results: Of the 284 patients who had BCT, 106 had positive BCT results and 178 had negative BCT results. A positive BCT result was associated with a history of asthma (P<0.0005), sibling with asthma (P=0.048), serum immunoglobulin E (P=0.045), eosinophil count (P=0.017), and sensitisation to food allergens in the skin prick test (P=0.027). There was no association between a positive BCT result and personal allergic rhinitis, parental atopy, sibling allergic rhinitis or AD, skin prick response to dust mites, objective SCORAD score, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, exposure to smoking, incense burning, cat or dog ownership, or AD treatment aspects (eg, food avoidance and traditional Chinese medicine). Logistic regression showed significant associations of a positive BCT result with a history of asthma (adjusted odds ratio=4.05; 95% confidence interval=1.92-8.55; P<0.0005) and sibling atopy (adjusted odds ratio=2.25; 95% confidence interval=1.03-4.92; P=0.042).

Conclusions: In patients with paediatric AD, a positive BCT result was independently and positively associated with personal history of asthma and sibling history of atopy, but not with any other clinical parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12809/hkmj208453DOI Listing
February 2021

A 3D printed human upper respiratory tract model for particulate deposition profiling.

Int J Pharm 2021 Feb 1;597:120307. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Pharmacy and Bank Building A15, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

Pulmonary route is the main route of drug delivery for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, offering several advantages over the oral route. Determining the amount of drug deposited onto various parts of the respiratory tract allows for a good correlation to clinical efficacy of inhalation drug devices. However, current in vitro cascade impactors measure only the aerodynamic particle size distribution, which does not truly represent the in vivo deposition pattern in human respiratory tract. In this study, a human upper respiratory tract model was fabricated using a 3D printer and subsequently characterized for its dimensional accuracy, surface finishing and air leaking. The effects of using a spacer and/or various airflow rates were also investigated. To assess this in vitro model, the deposition pattern of a model drug, namely, salbutamol sulphate, was tested. The resultant deposition pattern of salbutamol sulphate from a metered dose inhaler at 15 L per minute with the spacer, showed no significant difference from that of a published radiological in vivo study performed in adult humans. In addition, it was also found that the deposition pattern of salbutamol at 35 L per minute was comparable to the results of another published study in human. This in vitro model, showing reasonable in vitro-in vivo correlation, may provide opportunities for personalized medicine in special populations or disease states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120307DOI Listing
February 2021

Understanding Quality of Life for Palliative Patients With Dysphagia Using the Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) Questionnaire.

Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2021 Feb 3:1049909121992532. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Geriatric Medicine and Palliative Care, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Objective: There are few studies concerning the differences in quality-of-life (QOL) between palliative care patients with and without dysphagia to date. We aimed to compare the QOL and symptoms in palliative patients with and without dysphagia using Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL).

Methods: Eighty-one palliative patients with and without dysphagia underwent the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. A series of Mann Whitney U tests were performed between non-dysphagic and dysphagic groups for the total SWAL-QOL score and the 11 SWAL-QOL domains.

Results: Dysphagia significantly impacted patients' QOL in the dysphagic group (mean, 69.5; SD 21.9) than non-dysphagic group (mean, 83.2; SD 14.8) ( = 0.006). Significant differences were observed between both groups for the domains of burden, eating desire, eating duration, symptoms, food selection, communication and mental health. The results also showed that the dysphagic group had lower symptom score across all symptoms, suggesting higher symptom burdens.

Conclusions: This study is the first to examine QOL and swallow symptoms in palliative care patients with and without dysphagia. Dysphagia causes significantly worse QOL in palliative care patients. Screening for dysphagia and managing its impact on symptoms and QOL domains is important in palliative care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049909121992532DOI Listing
February 2021

Thoracic aorta stent grafts design in terms of biomechanical investigations into flexibility.

Math Biosci Eng 2020 12;18(1):800-816

School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The present study aimed to design and optimize thoracic aorta stent grafts (SGs) based on the influence of geometric parameters on flexibility and durability. Five geometric parameters were selected, including strut height, strut number, strut radius, wire diameter, and graft thickness. Subsequently, 16 finite element (FE) models were established with an orthogonal design consisting of five factors and four levels. The influences of a single factor and all the geometric parameters' influence magnitude on the device flexibility were then determined. The results showed that all the other parameters had an opposite effect on global and local flexibility except for the wire diameter. The graft thickness exhibited the most remarkable impact on the global flexibility of SGs, while the strut radius influenced flexibility slightly. However, for the local flexibility analysis, the graft thickness became the least significant factor, and the wire diameter exerted the most significant influence. The SG with better global flexibility can be guided easily in the tortuous vessels, and better local flexibility improves the sealing effect between the graft and aortic arch. In conclusion, this study's results indicated that these geometric parameters exerted different influences on flexibility and durability, providing a strategy for designing thoracic aorta SGs, especially for the thoracic aortic arch diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021042DOI Listing
December 2020

How to go viral: A COVID-19 model with endogenously time-varying parameters.

J Econom 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Indiana University, Wylie Hall, 100 South Woodlawn Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States of America.

We estimate a panel model with endogenously time-varying parameters for COVID-19 cases and deaths in U.S. states. The functional form for infections incorporates important features of epidemiological models but is flexibly parameterized to capture different trajectories of the pandemic. Daily deaths are modeled as a spike-and-slab regression on lagged cases. Our Bayesian estimation reveals that social distancing and testing have significant effects on the parameters. For example, a 10 percentage point increase in the positive test rate is associated with a 2 percentage point increase in the death rate among reported cases. The model forecasts perform well, even relative to models from epidemiology and statistics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconom.2021.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833926PMC
January 2021

Neurovascular Island Flap for Pulp and Nail Augmentation in Thumb Duplication Reconstruction: A Surgical Method With Long-Term Follow-Up.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Purpose: Pulp and nail atrophy and asymmetry are commonly seen in thumb duplication. In hypoplasia of both digits, conventional reconstruction or Bilhaut-Cloquet procedure and its modifications may not be possible or may lead to a poor cosmetic outcome. The purpose of the study was to review a reconstruction technique with a neurovascular island flap developed to improve the aesthetic and functional results of treatment.

Methods: Fourteen patients with thumb duplication aged 8 to 18 months were operated between 2002 and 2013 in our center. All patients had significant hypoplasia and asymmetry of the pulp and nail of the digit planned to be retained. A neurovascular island flap including part of the pulp tissue, nail bed, with or without the associated phalangeal bone, was raised from the planned ablated digit base on its single neurovascular bundle. The nail bed, nail fold, and pulp tissue from the 2 digits were apposed with fine sutures under magnification. All patients were followed to monitor the aesthetic, functional, and radiological outcome.

Results: The mean follow-up period was 7 years, 11 months. Thirteen patients underwent the flap procedure and all flaps survived. In 1 patient, the flap procedure was aborted because the vascular pedicle was not well formed. The nail width and pulp circumference were restored to a similar size as the contralateral thumb.

Conclusions: In selected cases of thumb duplication with significant pulp hypoplasia and nail asymmetry, the neurovascular island flap is a safe and effective means to restore size and symmetry.

Type Of Study/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.09.012DOI Listing
January 2021