Publications by authors named "P Ismail"

89 Publications

Assessment of Effectiveness of Erbium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser, GentleWave Irradiation, Photodynamic Therapy, and Sodium Hypochlorite in Smear Layer Removal.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Nov 1;21(11):1266-1269. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Private Practitioner, Endodontist and Faculty of Conservative Dentistry, Tamil Nadu, India.

Aim And Objective: To compare the effectiveness of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, GentleWave irradiation, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and sodium hypochlorite in smear layer removal and dentin permeability with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Materials And Methods: Seventy-five recently extracted single-rooted teeth (maxillary second premolars) were randomly divided into 5 groups of 15 each. Group I teeth was the control group in which conventional root canal preparation (RCP) [17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] was done without laser irradiation, group II teeth underwent RCP and GentleWave™ treatment, group III teeth were subjected to Er:YAG laser irradiation, group IV uses low-level 660 nm (PDT), and group V samples were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl. All samples were viewed under the SEM. Images at the coronal, middle, and apical part of the root canal were obtained at ×1000. A scoring system for smear layer removal and debris removal scoring was used for analysis.

Results: Smear layer removal was significantly higher at different points (coronal, middle, and apical area) in group I, followed by V, IV, II, and group III in declining order ( < 0.05). Intercomparison between the groups at different points indicates a significant difference in smear layer removal score between group I and group V at coronal, middle, and apical third. The result was not significant at coronal third and middle third, between group I and V, II and III, II and IV. The result was not significant at apical third between I and V, II and III, and II and IV ( < 0.05). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hypochlorite are effective in smear layer removal followed by the Er-YAG laser technique.

Conclusion: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and NaOCl are effective in smear layer removal. Er:YAG laser-activated RCP was comparatively efficient in cleaning the smear layer and opening dentinal tubules.

Clinical Significance: Er:YAG laser-activated RCP was comparatively efficient in cleaning the smear layer and it can be used for effective removal of smear layer for clinical usage.
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November 2020

A review of studies examining the association between genetic biomarkers (short tandem repeats and single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and risk of prostate cancer: the need for valid predictive biomarkers.

Prostate Int 2020 Dec 2;8(4):135-145. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a challenging polygenic disease because the genes that cause PCa remain largely elusive and are affected by several causal factors. Consequently, research continuously strives to identify a genetic marker which could be used as an indicator to predict the most vulnerable (i.e., predisposed) segments of the population to the disease or for the gene which may be directly responsible for PCa. To enhance the genetic etiology of PCa, this research sought to discover the key studies conducted in this field using data from the main journal publication search engines, as it was hoped that this could shed light on the main research findings from these studies, which in turn could assist in determining these genes or markers. From the research highlighted, the studies primarily used two kinds of markers: short tandem repeats or single-nucleotide polymorphisms. These markers were found to be quite prevalent in all the chromosomes within the research carried out. It also became apparent that the studies differed in both quantity and quality, as well as being conducted in a variety of societies. Links were also determined between the degree and strength of the relationship between these markers and the occurrence of the disease. From the studies identified, most recommended a larger and more diverse survey for the parameters which had not been studied before, as well as an increase in the size of the community (i.e., the population) being studied. This is an indication that work in this field is far from complete, and thus, current research remains committed toward finding genetic markers that can be used clinically for the diagnosis and screening of patients with PCa.
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December 2020

Identification of Potential Genes for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer Susceptibility in Four X-chromosome Regions with High Frequency of Microvariant Alleles.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 08 1;21(8):2271-2280. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: The X-chromosome has been suggested to play a role in prostate cancer (PrCa) since epidemiological studies have provided evidence for an X-linked mode of inheritance for PrCa based on the higher relative risk among men who report an affected brother(s) as compared to those reporting an affected father. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between the forensic STR markers located at four regions Xp22.31, Xq11.2-12, Xq26.2, and Xq28 and the risk of BPH and PrCa to confirm the impact of ChrX in the PrCa incidence. This may be helpful in the incorporation of STRs genetic variation in the early detection of men population at risk of developing PrCa.

Methods: DNA samples from 92 patients and 156 healthy controls collected from two medical centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed for four regions located at X-chromosome using the Investigator® Argus X-12 QS Kit.

Results: The results demonstrated that microvariant alleles of (DXS7132, DXS10146, HPRTB, DXS10134, and DXS10135) are overrepresented in the BPH group (p < 0.00001). Allele 28 of DXS10135 and allele 15 of DXS7423 could have a protective effect, OR 0.229 (95%CI, 0.066-0.79); and OR 0.439 (95%CI, 0.208-0.925). On the other hand, patients carrying allele 23 of DXS10079 and allele 26 of DXS10148 presented an increased risk to PrCa OR 4.714 (95%CI, 3.604-6.166).

Conclusion: The results are in concordance with the involvement of the X chromosome in PrCa and BPH development. STR allele studies may add further information from the definition of a genetic profile of PrCa resistance or susceptibility. As TBL1, AR, LDOC1, and RPL10 genes are located at regions Xp22.31, Xq11.2-12, Xq26.2, and Xq28, respectively, these genes could play an essential role in PrCa or BPH.
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August 2020

Obese communities among the best predictors of COVID-19-related deaths.

Cardiovasc Endocrinol Metab 2020 Sep 11;9(3):102-107. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Clinical Nutrition and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the largest outbreak to strike the world since the Spanish flu in 1918. Visual examination of the world map shows a wide variation of death tolls between countries. The main goal of our series is to determine the best predictors of such discrepancy.

Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the rate of COVID-19 deaths was correlated with each of the following independent variables: total tests per 1 million population, gross domestic product (GDP), average temperatures per country, ultraviolet index, median age, average BMI per country, food supply, Bacille Calmette-Guerin compulsory status, and passenger traffic.

Results: BMI per country proved to be the second best predictor of death rate with an value of 0.43, and GDP being the best predictor with  = 0.65.

Conclusion: This article shows a tight correlation between average BMI, food supply per country, and COVID-19-related deaths. Such predisposing factors might operate by upregulating the inflammation pathway in heavily struck countries, leading to easier triggering of the infamous cytokine storm syndrome. Obesity also increases cardiovascular and respiratory morbidities, which are coupled to increased ICU demand and deaths among infected cases.Video abstract:
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September 2020

Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Granules, CERAMENT™, and Platelet-rich Fibrin in the Management of Endodontic Apical Surgery.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 May 1;21(5):554-557. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Pedodontics, Vyas Dental College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, Phone: +91 8971096312, e-mail:

Aim: The present study compared hydroxyapatite granules, CERAMENT™, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the management of endodontic apical surgery cases.

Materials And Methods: The present study was conducted on 126 patients requiring apical surgery of both genders. Patients were treated with hydroxyapatite granules, CERAMENT™, and PRF and were recalled regularly for assessment of pain, mobility, presence or absence of sinus, and healing site.

Results: The mean days taken for the disappearance of pain in group I was 51.2 days, in group II was 52.3 days, and in group III was 44.7 days. The difference was significant ( < 0.05). There was a less number of draining sinuses in II and III groups. This was statistically significant ( < 0.05). Significantly less area remained after surgical intervention in groups II and III compared to group I recorded at follow-up period. The difference was significant ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Authors found PRF superior in terms of reducing pain, mobility, and sinus and improving the healing site as compared to hydroxyapatite and CERAMENT™.

Clinical Significance: Platelet-rich fibrin is considered more superior in terms of reducing pain, mobility, and sinus and improving the healing site, and it can be advised in clinical practice for endodontic management.
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May 2020