Publications by authors named "P H Crandall"

213 Publications

You Eat How You Think: A Review on the Impact of Cognitive Styles on Food Perception and Behavior.

Foods 2022 Jun 25;11(13). Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Sensory perception is understood to be a complex area of research that requires investigations from a variety of different perspectives. Although researchers have tried to better understand consumers' perception of food, one area that has been minimally explored is how psychological cognitive theories can help them explain consumer perceptions, behaviors, and decisions in food-related experiences. The concept of cognitive styles has existed for nearly a century, with the majority of cognitive style theories existing along a continuum with two bookends. Some of the more common theories such as individualist-collectivist, left-brain-right-brain, and convergent-divergent theories each offered their own unique insight into better understanding consumer behavior. However, these theories often focused only on niche applications or on specific aspects of cognition. More recently, the analytic-holistic cognitive style theory was developed to encompass many of these prior theoretical components and apply them to more general cognitive tendencies of individuals. Through applying the analytic-holistic theory and focusing on modern cultural psychology work, this review may allow researchers to be able to answer one of the paramount questions of sensory and consumer sciences: how and why do consumers perceive and respond to food stimuli the way that they do?
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11131886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9265608PMC
June 2022

US Consumers' Perceptions of Raw and Cooked Broken Rice.

Foods 2021 Nov 23;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Rice supplies about 20% of the calories to the world's consumers. Milling removes the outer husk and bran, breaking about 20% of the rice kernels during the milling process that equates to almost 100,000,000 tons of rice annually. Broken rice is discounted in price by almost half or relegated to non-human consumption. This study seeks to understand why this large percentage of rice production is discounted for human consumption. Consumers who routinely consume rice evaluated raw and cooked rice with 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels of brokens. Sensory analysis indicated the appearance of raw rice with high levels of brokens affected the price consumers were willing to pay. Panelists were not able to discern sensory differences amongst cooked rice samples with different brokens percentages despite an eight-fold difference in brokens ( < 0.01). From this, we concluded that the price discounts imposed on broken rice are not because of perceived differences in the eating quality of cooked rice. Overall impression and overall texture were the two most significant determinants in willingness to purchase rice. The five cooked-rice samples with different levels of broken rice inclusion did not differ in terms of willingness to purchase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10122899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700941PMC
November 2021

Dry Pet Food Flavor Enhancers and Their Impact on Palatability: A Review.

Foods 2021 Oct 27;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA.

Pet foods are a vital component of the global food industry. Pet food's success depends on its acceptance by both consumers (the pets) and purchasers (the pet owners). Palatability tests using panels of both trained and untrained pets are often used to measure the preference and acceptability of pet foods. Human perception of pet foods is usually determined by descriptive sensory analysis. Since dry pet foods (also known as kibbles), while being the most popular, are the least palatable, palatants as a flavor enhancer are generally added to dry pet foods to increase their acceptability to pets. Pet foods can also be prepared to be more appealing to pet owners if the chosen aromas and flavors are commonly associated with human food. With increasing demand, developing flavor enhancers to meet the needs of both pets and owners is becoming increasingly important. This review summarized the current state of flavor enhancers used in the pet food industry and their influence on food palatability from both animal and human standpoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622411PMC
October 2021

Detection and Potential Virulence of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) : A Review.

Microorganisms 2021 Jan 19;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Houston, 122 Heiman Street, San Antonio, TX 78205, USA.

The detection, enumeration, and virulence potential of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) pathogens continues to be a topic of discussion. While there is a lack of definitive evidence that VBNC (Lm) pose a public health risk, recent studies suggest that Lm in its VBNC state remains virulent. VBNC bacteria cannot be enumerated by traditional plating methods, so the results from routine Lm testing may not demonstrate a sample's true hazard to public health. We suggest that supplementing routine Lm testing methods with methods designed to enumerate VBNC cells may more accurately represent the true level of risk. This review summarizes five methods for enumerating VNBC Lm: Live/Dead BacLight staining, ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide-stained real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA- and PMA-PCR), direct viable count (DVC), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CTC-DAPI) double staining, and carboxy-fluorescein diacetate (CDFA) staining. Of these five supplementary methods, the Live/Dead BacLight staining and CFDA-DVC staining currently appear to be the most accurate for VBNC Lm enumeration. In addition, the impact of the VBNC state on the virulence of Lm is reviewed. Widespread use of these supplemental methods would provide supporting data to identify the conditions under which Lm can revert from its VBNC state into an actively multiplying state and help identify the environmental triggers that can cause Lm to become virulent. Highlights: Rationale for testing for all viable Listeria (Lm) is presented. Routine environmental sampling and plating methods may miss viable Lm cells. An overview and comparison of available VBNC testing methods is given. There is a need for resuscitation techniques to recover Lm from VBNC. A review of testing results for post VBNC virulence is compared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832328PMC
January 2021

Untangling the formation and liberation of water in the lunar regolith.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 06 20;116(23):11165-11170. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822;

The source of water (HO) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), identified on the lunar surface, represents a fundamental, unsolved puzzle. The interaction of solar-wind protons with silicates and oxides has been proposed as a key mechanism, but laboratory experiments yield conflicting results that suggest that proton implantation alone is insufficient to generate and liberate water. Here, we demonstrate in laboratory simulation experiments combined with imaging studies that water can be efficiently generated and released through rapid energetic heating like micrometeorite impacts into anhydrous silicates implanted with solar-wind protons. These synergistic effects of solar-wind protons and micrometeorites liberate water at mineral temperatures from 10 to 300 K via vesicles, thus providing evidence of a key mechanism to synthesize water in silicates and advancing our understanding on the origin of water as detected on the Moon and other airless bodies in our solar system such as Mercury and asteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1819600116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6561281PMC
June 2019
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