Publications by authors named "P Garnier"

273 Publications

Migrating grass awn within the intraconal part of the retrobulbar space in a dog.

J Small Anim Pract 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

*Clinique vétérinaire Olliolis, 414a chemin des Canniers, Quartier Lagoubran, Ollioules, 83140, France.

A 1.5-year-old MC Cardigan Welsh Corgi was presented for a right oral fistula associated with left tonsil enlargement that responded to medical treatment. A first computed tomography scan was performed and showed no signs of a foreign body. Medical treatment was continued for 2 additional weeks and the dog was free of clinical signs for 3 months. The dog was presented again for a 3-day history of anorexia and marked pain when opening the jaw. The repeat computed tomography scan revealed a migrating foreign body near the optic canal of the right eye, and surgical exploration confirmed that it was trapped within the intraconal part of the retrobulbar space, abutting the optic nerve. The foreign body was surgically removed through an osteotomy of the zygomatic bone. The dog fully recovered with no vision loss. Based on the literature search, this is the first published report describing a migrating grass awn located in the intraconal part of the retrobulbar space, abutting the optic nerve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsap.13317DOI Listing
March 2021

SERENA: Particle Instrument Suite for Determining the Sun-Mercury Interaction from BepiColombo.

Space Sci Rev 2021 12;217(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Institute of Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy.

The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric particle dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with solar wind, solar radiation, and interplanetary dust. The particle instrument suite SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) is flying in space on-board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and is the only instrument for ion and neutral particle detection aboard the MPO. It comprises four independent sensors: ELENA for neutral particle flow detection, Strofio for neutral gas detection, PICAM for planetary ions observations, and MIPA, mostly for solar wind ion measurements. SERENA is managed by a System Control Unit located inside the ELENA box. In the present paper the scientific goals of this suite are described, and then the four units are detailed, as well as their major features and calibration results. Finally, the SERENA operational activities are shown during the orbital path around Mercury, with also some reference to the activities planned during the long cruise phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00787-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803725PMC
January 2021

Prediction of Early Neurological Deterioration in Individuals With Minor Stroke and Large Vessel Occlusion Intended for Intravenous Thrombolysis Alone.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Mar;78(3):321-328

Neurology Department, GHU Paris psychiatrie et neurosciences, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris, INSERM U1266, Université de Paris, FHU Neurovasc, Paris, France.

Importance: The best reperfusion strategy in patients with acute minor stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown. Accurately predicting early neurological deterioration of presumed ischemic origin (ENDi) following intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in this population may help to select candidates for immediate transfer for additional thrombectomy.

Objective: To develop and validate an easily applicable predictive score of ENDi following IVT in patients with minor stroke and LVO.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicentric retrospective cohort included 729 consecutive patients with minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score of 5 or less) and LVO (basilar artery, internal carotid artery, first [M1] or second [M2] segment of middle cerebral artery) intended for IVT alone in 45 French stroke centers, ie, including those who eventually received rescue thrombectomy because of ENDi. For external validation, another cohort of 347 patients with similar inclusion criteria was collected from 9 additional centers. Data were collected from January 2018 to September 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: ENDi, defined as 4 or more points' deterioration on NIHSS score within the first 24 hours without parenchymal hemorrhage on follow-up imaging or another identified cause.

Results: Of the 729 patients in the derivation cohort, 335 (46.0%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 70 (15) years; of the 347 patients in the validation cohort, 190 (54.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 69 (15) years. In the derivation cohort, the median (interquartile range) NIHSS score was 3 (1-4), and the occlusion site was the internal carotid artery in 97 patients (13.3%), M1 in 207 (28.4%), M2 in 395 (54.2%), and basilar artery in 30 (4.1%). ENDi occurred in 88 patients (12.1%; 95% CI, 9.7-14.4) and was strongly associated with poorer 3-month outcomes, even in patients who underwent rescue thrombectomy. In multivariable analysis, a more proximal occlusion site and a longer thrombus were independently associated with ENDi. A 4-point score derived from these variables-1 point for thrombus length and 3 points for occlusion site-showed good discriminative power for ENDi (C statistic = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70-0.82) and was successfully validated in the validation cohort (ENDi rate, 11.0% [38 of 347]; C statistic = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70-0.86). In both cohorts, ENDi probability was approximately 3%, 7%, 20%, and 35% for scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3 to 4, respectively.

Conclusions And Relevance: The substantial ENDi rates observed in these cohorts highlights the current debate regarding whether to directly transfer patients with IVT-treated minor stroke and LVO for additional thrombectomy. Based on the strong associations observed, an easily applicable score for ENDi risk prediction that may assist decision-making was derived and externally validated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.4557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802007PMC
March 2021

A reconciling hypothesis centred on brain-derived neurotrophic factor to explain neuropsychiatric manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Apr;60(4):1608-1619

INSERM U1093, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, F-21000, France.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovitis leading to joint destruction, pain and disability. Despite efficient antirheumatic drugs, neuropsychiatric troubles including depression and cognitive dysfunction are common in RA but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. However, converging evidence strongly suggests that deficit in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling contributes to impaired cognition and depression. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on BDNF in RA, proposes possible mechanisms linking RA and brain BDNF deficiency including neuroinflammation, cerebral endothelial dysfunction and sedentary behaviour, and discusses neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an attractive therapeutic option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa849DOI Listing
April 2021

Catheter-related bacteremia with endocarditis caused by Kocuria rhizophila.

Med Mal Infect 2020 Oct 1. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Infectious diseases, Nord Franche-Comté Hospital, 100, route de Moval, Trevenans, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2020.09.007DOI Listing
October 2020

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a full endothelium-derived factor in rats.

Vascul Pharmacol 2020 May - Jun;128-129:106674. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

INSERM UMR1093-CAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR des Sciences de Santé, F-21000 Dijon, France.

Most of what is known on vascular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) derived from experiments on cultured endothelial cells. Therefore, the present study compared BDNF levels/localization in artery (aorta) vs vein (vena cava) from a same territory in rats either sedentary (SED) or exposed to treadmill exercise (EX) as a mean to stimulate endogenous endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. In SED rats, for both artery and vein, BDNF was strongly expressed by endothelial cells, while only a faint and scattered expression was observed throughout the media. Endothelial and muscular BDNF staining as vascular BDNF protein levels were however higher in artery than in vein, while BDNF mRNA levels did not differ between vessels. Irrespective of the vessels, EX resulted in an increase (+50%) in BDNF protein levels with no change in BDNF mRNA levels, a selective endothelial BDNF overexpression (x4) and an increase in vascular levels of tropomyosin related kinase B receptors (TrkB) phosphorylated at tyrosine 816 (p-TrkB). Endothelial expressions of BDNF and p-TrkB were positively associated when SED and EX rats were simultaneously examined. The results incite to consider endothelial BDNF as a full and NO-dependent endothelium-derived factor that exerts autocrine effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2020.106674DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevalence Estimate of Blood Doping in Elite Track and Field Athletes During Two Major International Events.

Front Physiol 2020 25;11:160. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Athletics Integrity Unit, Antidoping and Medical Department, Monaco, Monaco.

In elite sport, the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was invented to tackle cheaters by monitoring closely changes in biological parameters, flagging atypical variations. The hematological module of the ABP was indeed adopted in 2011 by World Athletics (WA). This study estimates the prevalence of blood doping based on hematological parameters in a large cohort of track and field athletes measured at two international major events (2011 and 2013 WA World Championships) with a hypothesized decrease in prevalence due to the ABP introduction. A total of 3683 blood samples were collected and analyzed from all participating athletes originating from 209 countries. The estimate of doping prevalence was obtained by using a Bayesian network with seven variables, as well as "blood doping" as a variable mimicking doping with low-doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), to generate reference cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for the Abnormal Blood Profile Score (ABPS) from the ABP. Our results from robust hematological parameters indicate an estimation of an overall blood doping prevalence of 18% in 2011 and 15% in 2013 (non-significant difference) in average in endurance athletes [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 14-22 and 12-19% for 2011 and 2013, respectively]. A higher prevalence was observed in female athletes (22%, CI 16-28%) than in male athletes (15%, CI 9-20%) in 2011. In conclusion, this study presents the first comparison of blood doping prevalence in elite athletes based on biological measurements from major international events that may help scientists and experts to use the ABP in a more efficient and deterrent way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052379PMC
February 2020

Boundary and vulnerability estimation of the internal borderzone using ischemic stroke lesion mapping.

Sci Rep 2020 02 3;10(1):1662. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint Etienne, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France.

Distinction between deep and superficial middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories and their junctional vascular area (the internal borderzone or IBZ) constitutes a predictor of stroke patient outcome. However, the IBZ boundaries are not well-defined because of substantial anatomical variance. Here, we built a statistical estimate of the IBZ and tested its vulnerability to ischemia using an independent sample. First, we used delineated lesions of 122 patients suffering of chronic ischemic stroke grouped in deep, superficial and territorial topographies and statistical comparisons to generate a probabilistic estimate of the IBZ. The IBZ extended from the insular cortex to the internal capsule and the anterior part of the caudate nucleus head. The IBZ showed the highest lesion frequencies (~30% on average across IBZ voxels) in our chronic stroke patients but also in an independent sample of 87 acute patients. Additionally, the most important apparent diffusion coefficient reductions (-6%), which reflect stroke severity, were situated within our IBZ estimate. The IBZ was most severely injured in case of a territorial infarction. Then, our results are in favour of an increased IBZ vulnerability to ischemia. Moreover, our probabilistic estimates of deep, superficial and IBZ regions can help the everyday spatial classification of lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58480-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997399PMC
February 2020

Influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and psychosocial functioning in patients with first episode psychosis.

Psychol Med 2020 12 22;50(16):2702-2710. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Centre for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.

Methods: The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.

Results: At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (-10.215 to -0.337) and (-4.731 to -0.605) respectively).

Conclusions: Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719002794DOI Listing
December 2020

Monitoring of biological response to clopidogrel after treatment for non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Am J Transl Res 2019 15;11(9):5332-5337. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

University of Lyon, UJM - Saint-Etienne, Inserm Sainbiose U1089, Saint-Etienne F-42023, France.

Background And Purpose: Biological response to clopidogrel prescribed after a non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) has been little studied. The aim of our study (AAPIX) was to assess this response and investigate the agreement between different biological assays in revealing poor responders.

Methods: Patients hospitalized following a non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and prescribed clopidogrel were consecutively included from September 2013 to November 2015 in the Stroke Center of Saint-Etienne Hospital. Blood was drawn after 5 to 8 days of standard-dose clopidogrel. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and flow cytometric assays, using vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein [VASP] and CD62P, were accomplished for all patients. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed for a poor clopidogrel-responder and for a patient with discordant platelet assay results (platelet reactivity index (PRI) >50% and maximum platelet aggregation <70%), after activation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 10 µM.

Results: 72 patients were included. According to LTA, VASP assay and CD62P test results, 65%, 71% and 0% of patients, respectively, had a low response to clopidogrel, indicating poor agreement between these assays. Images of ADP-activated platelet samples from a patient manifesting a low response to clopidogrel and from a patient with discordant platelet assay results showed an ultrastructural pattern typical of activation and a state of slight activation, respectively.

Conclusions: Platelet function results obtained using different assays for patients having experienced a non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA were discordant. Transmission electron microscopy could be useful in certain clinical contexts when platelet function assay results disagree.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789282PMC
September 2019

The effect of exercise on memory and BDNF signaling is dependent on intensity.

Brain Struct Funct 2019 Jul 14;224(6):1975-1985. Epub 2019 May 14.

INSERM UMR1093-CAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR des Sciences de Santé, 7 boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, 21000, Dijon, France.

The aims of the present study were to investigate in brain of adult rats (1) whether exercise-induced activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway is dependent on exercise intensity modality and (2) whether exercise-induced improvement of memory is proportional to this pathway activation. Wistar rats were subjected to low (12 m/min) or high (18 m/min) exercise intensity on horizontal treadmill (30 min/day, 7 consecutive days) that corresponds to ~ 40 and 70% of maximal aerobic speed, respectively. Animals treated with scopolamine to induce memory impairment were subjected to novel object recognition test to assess potential improvement in cognitive function. Expressions of BDNF, phosphorylated TrkB receptors, synaptophysin (a marker of synaptogenesis), c-fos (a neuronal activity marker) and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (a cerebral blood flow marker) were measured in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of different groups of rats. In terms of cognition, our data reported that only the most intense exercise improves memory performance. Our data also revealed that BDNF pathway is dependent on intensity modality of exercise with a gradual effect in hippocampus whereas only the highest intensity leads to this pathway activation in prefrontal cortex. Our study revealed that memory improvement through BDNF pathway activation is dependent on exercise intensity. While reporting that our protocol is sufficient to improve cognition in animals with impaired memory, our data suggest that prefrontal cortex is possibly a more suitable structure than hippocampus when neuroplastic markers are used to mirror potential improvement in memory performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-019-01889-7DOI Listing
July 2019

Soil aggregates as biogeochemical reactors: Not a way forward in the research on soil-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 07 29;25(7):2205-2208. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

UMR ECOSYS, Université Paris-Saclay, AgroParisTech, Thiverval-Grignon, France.

The goal of this comment is to show that the "aggregate reactor" framework recently proposed in an article published in this journal is severely limited by two kinds of indeterminacy. The first is related to the size of aggregates, which is not defined precisely. The second issue is with the impossibility to replicate boundary conditions that are identical to what chunks of soils would have experienced in their natural state. We suggest that the study of GHG release in undisturbed soil samples is a better way to proceed forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14640DOI Listing
July 2019

Fate of C-acetyl sulfamethoxazole during the activated sludge process.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 8;26(10):9832-9841. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

UMR ECOSYS, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78850, Thiverval-Grignon, France.

Compared to antibiotic parent molecule, human metabolites are generally more polar and sometimes not less toxic in wastewater. However, most researches focus on the fate of parent molecule. Therefore, behaviors of human metabolites are little known. Moreover, though much has been done on the fate of antibiotics during activated sludge process, there are still some limitations and gaps. In the present study, [Ring-C] acetyl sulfamethoxazole (C-Ac-SMX) was used to investigate the fate of human metabolite of SMX during activated sludge process at environmentally relevant concentration. At the end of 216 h, 3.1% of the spiked activity in the initial aqueous phase was mineralized, 50% was adsorbed onto the solid phase, and 36.5% still remained in the aqueous phase, indicating that adsorption, not biodegradation, was the main dissipation pathway. In the existence of microbial activities, accumulation into the solid phase was much higher, which was less bioavailable by chemical sequential extraction. The multimedia kinetic model simultaneously depicted the fate of Ac-SMX in the gas, aqueous, and solid phases, and demonstrated that microbially accelerated accumulation onto the solid phase was attributed to lower desorption rate from the solid phase to the aqueous phase, where adsorption rate was not the key factor. Therefore, Ac-SMX cannot be efficiently mineralized and remain in the aqueous or the solid phases. The accumulation in the solid phase is less bioavailable and is hard to be desorbed in the existence of microbial activities, and should not be easily degraded, and may lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes after discharge into the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04360-6DOI Listing
April 2019

Routine surveillance endoscopy before and after sleeve gastrectomy?

World J Gastrointest Endosc 2019 Jan;11(1):1-4

Department of Gastroenterology, CHU Félix Guyon, La Réunion, Saint Denis 97400, France.

There is no consensus when it comes to the necessity of an oeso-gastroduodenal fibroscopy (OGDF) before and after bariatric surgery. Many reports expressed the preoccupations about a gastroesophagal reflux disease (an acute risk of Barrett's esophagus) and its consequences after a sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and the risk of leaving a premalignant lesion in an excluded stomach after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders recommends a surveillance endoscopy, routinely after a SG. After review of the literature, we set out the arguments in favor of performing a systematic preoperative and post-operative OGDF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4253/wjge.v11.i1.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354110PMC
January 2019

Corrigendum to "Vascular brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis: Effect of anti-rheumatic drugs" [Atherosclerosis 274 (July 2018) 77-85].

Atherosclerosis 2019 Jan 6;280:201. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

INSERM UMR1093-CAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR des Sciences de Santé, F-21000, Dijon, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.09.036DOI Listing
January 2019

16p13.11 microduplication in 45 new patients: refined clinical significance and genotype-phenotype correlations.

J Med Genet 2020 05 4;57(5):301-307. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Histology Embryology and Cytogenetics, Jean Verdier Hospital; Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR SMBH Bobigny; PROTECT, INSERM, Paris Diderot University, Bondy, France.

Background: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents.

Results: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype.

Conclusion: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105389DOI Listing
May 2020

Environmental availability of sulfamethoxazole and its acetylated metabolite added to soils via sludge compost or bovine manure.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 8;651(Pt 1):506-515. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

UMR ECOSYS, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France. Electronic address:

The fate of antibiotics and their metabolites in soils after application of organic waste depends on their environmental availability, which depends on the quality and biodegradability of the added exogenous organic matter (EOM). This study aimed at better understanding the fate of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (AcSMX) metabolite added to soils via sludge compost or cow manure application, during a 28-day incubation. Experimental results obtained for mineralized, extractable, and non-extractable fractions as well as EOM mineralization were used to couple SMX and AcSMX dynamics to the EOM evolution using the COP-Soil model. According to various mechanisms of extraction, CaCl, EDTA and cyclodextrin solutions extracted contrasted available fractions (31-96% on day 0), resulting in different sets of parameter values in the model. CaCl extraction was the best method to assess the sulfonamide availability, leading to low relative root mean squared errors and best simulations of SMX and AcSMX dynamics. The decrease of SMX and AcSMX availability over time went with the formation of non-extractable residues, mostly of physicochemical origin. Using the COP-Soil model, the co-metabolism was assumed to be responsible for the formation of biogenic non-extractable residues and the low mineralization of SMX and AcSMX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.100DOI Listing
February 2019

Role of platelet α2-adrenoreceptor in biological low response to Clopidogrel for patients with non cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Am J Transl Res 2018 15;10(8):2712-2721. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Vascular and Therapeutic Medicine Department, Saint-Etienne University Hospital Center, North Hospital Saint-Etienne F-42055, France.

Background And Purpose: Low biological response to Clopidogrel prescribed after non cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a major clinical problem and could explain the recurrence of vascular events. Platelet α2-adrenoreceptors are involved in the high residual platelet reactivity in stable coronary artery disease patients on dual antiplatelet therapy. In the present study we investigated the impact of platelet α2-adrenoreceptors on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and on ADP-induced platelet membrane CD62P (P-selectin) expression, a marker of platelet activation on blood samples from patients hospitalized at the acute phase of a non cardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA.

Methods: 72 consecutive patients were prospectively recruited over the course of two years in a monocentric study. Patients received a daily 75 mg-dose of Clopidogrel. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was measured alone, with low dose epinephrine or with atipamezole, a selective α blocker of α2-adrenoreceptors, by Light Transmittance Aggregometry (LTA). Platelet membrane expression of P-selectin was measured by flow cytometry with either ADP alone or combined with epinephrine.

Results: Epinephrine at low dose stimulated ADP-induced platelet membrane expression of CD62P whereas Atipamezole significantly inhibited 10 µM ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

Conclusions: Our study showed the role of platelet α2-adrenoreceptors in biological low response to Clopidogrel for patients hospitalized for a non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA. Atipamezole could improve the status of biological response to Clopidogrel.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6129516PMC
August 2018

Emergent Properties of Microbial Activity in Heterogeneous Soil Microenvironments: Different Research Approaches Are Slowly Converging, Yet Major Challenges Remain.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:1929. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Soil System Science, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.

Over the last 60 years, soil microbiologists have accumulated a wealth of experimental data showing that the bulk, macroscopic parameters (e.g., granulometry, pH, soil organic matter, and biomass contents) commonly used to characterize soils provide insufficient information to describe quantitatively the activity of soil microorganisms and some of its outcomes, like the emission of greenhouse gasses. Clearly, new, more appropriate macroscopic parameters are needed, which reflect better the spatial heterogeneity of soils at the microscale (i.e., the pore scale) that is commensurate with the habitat of many microorganisms. For a long time, spectroscopic and microscopic tools were lacking to quantify processes at that scale, but major technological advances over the last 15 years have made suitable equipment available to researchers. In this context, the objective of the present article is to review progress achieved to date in the significant research program that has ensued. This program can be rationalized as a sequence of steps, namely the quantification and modeling of the physical-, (bio)chemical-, and microbiological properties of soils, the integration of these different perspectives into a unified theory, its upscaling to the macroscopic scale, and, eventually, the development of new approaches to measure macroscopic soil characteristics. At this stage, significant progress has been achieved on the physical front, and to a lesser extent on the (bio)chemical one as well, both in terms of experiments and modeling. With regard to the microbial aspects, although a lot of work has been devoted to the modeling of bacterial and fungal activity in soils at the pore scale, the appropriateness of model assumptions cannot be readily assessed because of the scarcity of relevant experimental data. For significant progress to be made, it is crucial to make sure that research on the microbial components of soil systems does not keep lagging behind the work on the physical and (bio)chemical characteristics. Concerning the subsequent steps in the program, very little integration of the various disciplinary perspectives has occurred so far, and, as a result, researchers have not yet been able to tackle the scaling up to the macroscopic level. Many challenges, some of them daunting, remain on the path ahead. Fortunately, a number of these challenges may be resolved by brand new measuring equipment that will become commercially available in the very near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119716PMC
August 2018

Assessment of a flow cytometry technique for studying signaling pathways in platelets: Monitoring of VASP phosphorylation in clinical samples.

Pract Lab Med 2018 Jul 16;11:10-18. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Laboratoire d'Immunologie Clinique CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne, France.

A recently released kit (PerFix EXPOSE) was reported to improve the measurement of the degree of phosphorylation of proteins in leukocytes by flow cytometry. We tested its adaptation for platelets to monitor vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, which is the basis of a currently used test for the assessment of the pharmacological response to P2Y12 antagonists (PLT VASP/P2Y12). The PerFix EXPOSE kit was compared to the PLT VASP/P2Y12 kit by using blood samples drawn at 24 h post clopidogrel dose from 19 patients hospitalized for a non-cardio-embolic ischemic stroke and treated with clopidogrel monotherapy for at least five days in an observational study. The platelet PerFix method was based on adaptation of the volume of the sample, the centrifugation speed and the incubation temperature. Poor agreement between prevention by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) of PGE-induced cAMP-mediated VASP phosphorylation and ADP induced aggregation assessed by Light Transmittance Aggregometry was found. We found a significant correlation between the PLT VASP/P2Y12 kit and the PerFix EXPOSE kit. The PerFix EXPOSE kit may also be helpful to monitor adverse effects of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors on platelets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plabm.2018.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128249PMC
July 2018

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Pathway after Downhill and Uphill Training in Rats.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2019 01;51(1):27-34

INSERM U1093 CAPS, Burgundy and Franche-Comté University, Dijon, FRANCE.

Introduction: The elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain and the subsequent phosphorylation of its cognate tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptors at tyrosine 816 (pTrkB) are largely involved in the positive effect of aerobic exercise on brain functioning. Although BDNF levels were reported to increase in proportion with exercise intensity, the effect of the type of contraction is unknown. Therefore, the cerebral BDNF/TrkB pathway was investigated after uphill and downhill treadmill activities at equivalent intensity to preferentially induce eccentric and concentric contractions, respectively.

Methods: A treadmill activity (30 min·d for seven consecutive days) either in a horizontal position at two different speeds to modulate intensity (experiment 1) or at three different inclinations (null, -10%, and +5%) but at equivalent intensity to modulate the type of contraction (experiment 2) was induced in rats. Both experiments included sedentary rats. Levels of BDNF, pTrkB, synaptophysin (marker of synaptogenesis), endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylated at serine 1177 (peNOS), and c-fos levels (indicators of elevation in blood flow in the cerebrovasculature and neuronal activity, respectively) were measured in motor- and cognition-related brain regions using Western blotting analysis.

Results: Experiment 1 indicated that treadmill activity induces an intensity-dependent increase in peNOS, c-fos, and BDNF levels. Experiment 2 showed that intensity of exercise as well as activation of the cerebral BDNF pathway, and synaptogenesis did not differ among horizontal, uphill, and downhill treadmill activities.

Conclusion: The cerebral response of the BDNF pathway to a treadmill activity is dependent on exercise intensity, but not on the type of contraction (eccentric vs concentric).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001771DOI Listing
January 2019

Microscale Heterogeneity of the Spatial Distribution of Organic Matter Can Promote Bacterial Biodiversity in Soils: Insights From Computer Simulations.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:1583. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

UMR ECOSYS, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.

There is still no satisfactory understanding of the factors that enable soil microbial populations to be as highly biodiverse as they are. The present article explores the hypothesis that the heterogeneous distribution of soil organic matter, in addition to the spatial connectivity of the soil moisture, might account for the observed microbial biodiversity in soils. A multi-species, individual-based, pore-scale model is developed and parameterized with data from 3 sp. strains, known to be, respectively, competitive, versatile, and poorly competitive. In the simulations, bacteria of each strain are distributed in a 3D computed tomography (CT) image of a real soil and three water saturation levels (100, 50, and 25%) and spatial heterogeneity levels (high, intermediate, and low) in the distribution of the soil organic matter are considered. High and intermediate heterogeneity levels assume, respectively, an amount of particulate organic matter (POM) distributed in a single (high heterogeneity) or in four (intermediate heterogeneity) randomly placed fragments. POM is hydrolyzed at a constant rate following a first-order kinetic, and continuously delivers dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the liquid phase, where it is then taken up by bacteria. The low heterogeneity level assumes that the food source is available from the start as DOC. Unlike the relative abundances of the 3 strains, the total bacterial biomass and respiration are similar under the high and intermediate resource heterogeneity schemes. The key result of the simulations is that spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of organic matter influences the maintenance of bacterial biodiversity. The least competing strain, which does not reach noticeable growth for the low and intermediate spatial heterogeneities of resource distribution, can grow appreciably and even become more abundant than the other strains in the absence of direct competition, if the placement of the resource is favorable. For geodesic distances exceeding 5 mm, microbial colonies cannot grow. These conclusions are conditioned by assumptions made in the model, yet they suggest that microscale factors need to be considered to better understand the root causes of the high biodiversity of soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079633PMC
July 2018

Mulch of plant residues at the soil surface impact the leaching and persistence of pesticides: A modelling study from soil columns.

J Contam Hydrol 2018 07 31;214:54-64. Epub 2018 May 31.

INRA, UMR ECOSYS, Université Paris-Saclay, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France.

Crop residues left on the soil surface as mulch greatly influence the fate of pesticides in conservation agricultural practices because most of the applied pesticide is intercepted by mulch before passing to the soil. Modelling of pesticide losses from wash-off and leaching will greatly improve our understanding of the environmental consequences of pesticides in these systems. The PASTIS model, which simulates water transfer, mulch decomposition, and pesticide dynamics, was adapted in this new version to model the interactions between pesticides and mulch in order to simulate the impact of mulch on pesticide dynamic. Parameters of mulch dynamics and pesticide degradation and retention processes were estimated using independent incubation experiments. The PASTIS model was tested with experimental laboratory data that were obtained from two pesticides (Glyphosate and s-metolachlor) applied to soil columns where mulch composed of maize and dolichos was placed at the soil surface impacted by two rain intensities (a high and infrequent intensity and a light and frequent intensity). Simulations indicated good agreement between simulated and experimental values. After 1 day, 45-46% of the pesticides leached from the mulch and 54-55% remained in the mulch for both pesticides and both rain intensities. During the experiment, pesticide wash-off was greater for the high and infrequent rain (56-57%) compare to light and frequent rain (39-45%) for both pesticides. A smaller amount of S-metolachlor washed off with the light and frequent rain intensity (39%) than glyphosate (45%) because of its lower desorption rate from mulch residues. Glyphosate was more degraded (37-45%) than s-metolachlor (17-37%), which agrees with preliminary incubation experiments that were used for parameter estimation. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the saturation index of mulch at which pesticides started their diffusion in the rainwater and the time of the first rainfall were the two parameters that influenced the most output variables of our model. This study suggests that the PASTIS model developed for pesticide dissipation in mulch is a useful tool to evaluate the potential risk of pesticide leaching to the groundwater in conservation agriculture systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2018.05.008DOI Listing
July 2018

The localisation of the heparin binding sites of human and murine interleukin-12 within the carboxyterminal domain of the P40 subunit.

Cytokine 2018 10 10;110:159-168. Epub 2018 May 10.

Centre for Biomedical Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham Hill, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK. Electronic address:

We have previously shown that the heterodimeric cytokine interleukin-12, and the homodimer of its larger subunit p40, both bind to heparin and heparan sulfate with relatively high affinity. In the present study we characterised these interactions using a series of chemically modified heparins as competitive inhibitors. Human interleukin-12 and p40 homodimer show indistinguishable binding profiles with a panel of heparin derivatives, but that of murine interleukin-12 is distinct. Heparin markedly protects the human and murine p40 subunits, but not the p35 subunits, from cleavage by the bacterial endoprotease LysC, further implicating the larger subunit as the location of the heparin binding site. Moreover the essential role of the carboxyterminal D3 domain in heparin binding is established by the failure of a truncated construct of the p40 subunit lacking this domain to bind. Predictive docking calculations indicate that a cluster of basic residues at the tip of the exposed C'D' loop within D3 is important in heparin binding. However since the human and murine C'D' loops differ considerably in length, the mode and three dimensional orientation of heparin binding are likely to differ substantially between the human and murine p40s. Thus overall the binding of IL-12 via its p40 subunit to heparin-related polysaccharides of the extracellular matrix appears to be functionally important since it has been conserved across mammalian species despite this structural divergence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2018.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109204PMC
October 2018

Vascular brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis: Effect of anti-rheumatic drugs.

Atherosclerosis 2018 07 2;274:77-85. Epub 2018 May 2.

INSERM UMR1093-CAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR des Sciences de Santé, F-21000, Dijon, France. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: In rheumatoid arthritis, the control of both disease activity and standard cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is expected to attenuate the increased CV risk. Evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in vascular biology led us to investigate the vascular BDNF pathway in arthritis rats as well as the interaction between endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and BDNF production.

Methods: The aortic BDNF pathway was studied in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis, (AIA) using Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Control of arthritis score was achieved by administration (for 3 weeks) of an equipotent dosage of etanercept, prednisolone, methotrexate, celecoxib or diclofenac. Aortas were exposed to an NO donor or an NO synthase inhibitor and vasoreactivity experiments were performed using LM22A-4 as a TrkB agonist.

Results: Vascular BDNF and full length tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB-FL) were higher in AIA than in control rats. These changes coincided with decreased endothelial immunoreactivity in BDNF and pTrkB and were disconnected from arthritis score. Among anti-rheumatic drugs, only prednisolone and methotrexate prevented AIA-induced vascular BDNF loss. The effect of AIA on aortic BDNF levels was reversed by an NO donor and reproduced by an NOS inhibitor. Finally, LM22A-4 induced both NO-dependent vasodilation and phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase at serine 1177.

Conclusions: Our study identified changes in the BDNF/TrkB pathway as a disease activity-independent component of AIA-associated changes in endothelial phenotype. It provides new perspectives in the understanding and management of the high CV risk reported in rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.05.004DOI Listing
July 2018

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor secreted by the cerebral endothelium: A new actor of brain function?

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 06 20;38(6):935-949. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

3 EA4267 PEPITE, FHU INCREASE, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

Low cerebral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in many brain functions, have been implicated in neurodegenerative, neurological and psychiatric diseases. Thus, increasing BDNF levels in the brain is considered an attractive possibility for the prevention/treatment of various brain diseases. To date, BDNF-based therapies have largely focused on neurons. However, given the cross-talk between endothelial cells and neurons and recent evidence that BDNF expressed by the cerebral endothelium largely accounts for BDNF levels present in the brain, it is likely that BDNF-based therapies would be most effective if they also targeted the cerebral endothelium. In this review, we summarize the available knowledge about the biology and actions of BDNF derived from endothelial cells of the cerebral microvasculature and we emphasize the remaining gaps and shortcomings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X18766772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998997PMC
June 2018

The Cerebral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Pathway, Either Neuronal or Endothelial, Is Impaired in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis. Connection with Endothelial Dysfunction.

Front Physiol 2017 9;8:1125. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

INSERM UMR1093-CAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR des Sciences de Santé, Dijon, France.

Cognitive abilities are largely dependent on activation of cerebral tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors (TrkB) by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that is secreted under a bioactive form by both neurons and endothelial cells. In addition, there is mounting evidence for a link between endothelial function and cognition even though the underlying mechanisms are not well known. Therefore, we investigated the cerebral BDNF pathway, either neuronal or endothelial, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that combines both endothelial dysfunction (ED) and impaired cognition. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats was used as a model of RA. Clinical inflammatory symptoms were evaluated from an arthritis score and brains were collected at day 31 ± 2 post-immunization. Neuronal expression of BDNF and TrkB phosphorylated at tyrosine 816 (p-TrkB) was examined in brain slices. Endothelial BDNF and p-TrkB expression was examined on both brain slices (hippocampal arterioles) and isolated cerebral microvessels-enriched fractions (vessels downstream to arterioles). The connection between endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and BDNF production was explored on the cerebrovascular fractions using endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) levels as a marker of NO production, -Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) as a NOS inhibitor and glyceryl-trinitrate as a slow releasing NO donor. Brain slices displayed lower BDNF and p-TrkB staining in both neurons and arteriolar endothelial cells in AIA than in control rats. For endothelial cells but not neurons, a strong correlation was observed between BDNF and p-TrkB staining. Of note, a strong correlation was also observed between neuronal p-TrkB and endothelial BDNF staining. In cerebral microvessels-enriched fractions, AIA led to decreased BDNF and eNOS levels with a positive association between the 2 parameters. These effects coincided with decreased BDNF and p-TrkB staining in endothelial cells. The exposure of AIA cerebrovascular fractions to GTN increased BDNF levels while the exposure of control fractions to L-NAME decreased BDNF levels. Changes in the cerebral BDNF pathway were not associated with arthritis score. The present study reveals that AIA impairs the endothelial and neuronal BDNF/TrkB pathway, irrespective of the severity of inflammatory symptoms but dependent on endothelial NO production. These results open new perspectives for the understanding of the link between ED and impaired cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.01125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767301PMC
January 2018

Impact of sludge treatments on the extractability and fate of acetyl sulfamethoxazole residues in amended soils.

Chemosphere 2018 Mar 5;194:828-836. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

UMR ECOSYS, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78850, Thiverval-Grignon, France. Electronic address:

Sludge recycled in agriculture may bring antibiotics into cropped soils. The nature, total amount, and availability of the antibiotics in soil partly depend on the sludge treatments. Our paper compares the fate of N-acetyl sulfamethoxazole (AC-SMX) residues between soils incubated with the same sludge but submitted to different processes before being added in soil. The fate of C-AC-SMX residues was studied in mixtures of soil and sludges at different treatment levels: 1) activated and 2) centrifuged sludges, both enriched with C-AC-SMX, and 3) limed and 4) heat-dried sludges obtained by treating the previously contaminated centrifuged sludge. The evolution of the extractability of C residues (CaCl, methanol) and their mineralization were followed during 119 days. More than 80% of the initial C-activity was no longer extractable after 14 days, except in soil with limed sludge. Liming and drying the centrifuged sludge decreased the mineralized C fraction from 5.7-6.4% to 1.2-1.8% and consequently, the corresponding soils contained more C residues after 119 days. Although C residues were more CaCl-extractable in soil with limed sludge, they seemed to be poorly bioavailable for biodegradation. For all solid sludges, the mineralization rate of C-AC-SMX residues was strongly correlated to that of sludge organic carbon, with a coefficient three times lower for the limed and dried sludges than for the centrifuged sludge after 14 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.003DOI Listing
March 2018

In situ long-term modeling of phenanthrene dynamics in an aged contaminated soil using the VSOIL platform.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Apr 14;619-620:239-248. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

INRA, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120, F-54518 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120, F-54518 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Management and remediation actions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated sites require an accurate knowledge of the dynamics of these chemicals in situ under real conditions. Here we developed, under the Virtual Soil Platform, a global model for PAH that describes the principal physical and biological processes controlling the dynamics of PAH in soil under real climatic conditions. The model was applied first to simulate the observed dynamics of phenanthrene in situ field experimental plots of industrial contaminated soil. In a second step, different long-term scenarios of climate change or bioavailability increase were applied. Our results show that the model can adequately predict the fate of phenanthrene and can contribute to clarify some of unexplored aspects regarding the behavior of phenanthrene in soil like its degradation mechanism and stabilization. Tested prospective scenarios showed that bioavailability increase (through the addition of solvent or surfactants) resulted in significant increase in substrate transfer rate, hence reducing remediation time. Regarding climate change effect, the model indicated that phenanthrene concentration decreased by 54% during 40years with a natural attenuation and both scenarios chosen for climatic boundaries provided very similar results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.089DOI Listing
April 2018

Modelling the fate of PAH added with composts in amended soil according to the origin of the exogenous organic matter.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Mar 31;616-617:658-668. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

UMR EcoSys, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France. Electronic address:

A new model that was able to simulate the behaviours of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during composting and after the addition of the composts to agricultural soil is presented here. This model associates modules that describe the physical, biological and biochemical processes involved in PAH dynamics in soils, along with a module describing the compost degradation resulting in PAH release. The model was calibrated from laboratory incubations using three C-PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and three different composts consisting of two mature and one non-mature composts. First, the labelled PAHs were added to the compost over 28days, and spiked composts were then added to the soil over 55days. The model calculates the proportion of biogenic and physically bound residues in the non-extractable compartment of PAHs at the end of the compost incubation to feed the initial conditions of the model for soil amended with composts. For most of the treatments, a single parameter set enabled to simulate the observed dynamics of PAHs adequately for all the amended soil treatments using a Bayesian approach. However, for fluoranthene, different parameters that were able to simulate the growth of a specific microbial biomass had to be considered for mature compost. Processes that occurred before the compost application to the soil strongly influenced the fate of PAHs in the soil. Our results showed that the PAH dissipation during compost incubation was higher in mature composts because of the higher specific microbial activity, while the PAH dissipation in amended soil was higher in the non-mature compost because of the higher availability of PAHs and the higher co-metabolic microbial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.269DOI Listing
March 2018