Publications by authors named "P F Lambert"

1,920 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Inverse probability weighting and doubly robust standardization in the relative survival framework.

Stat Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Biostatistics Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

A commonly reported measure when interested in the survival of cancer patients is relative survival. Relative survival circumvents issues with inaccurate cause of death information by incorporating the expected mortality rates of cancer individuals from population lifetables of the general population. A summary of the cancer population prognosis can be obtained using the marginal relative survival. To explore differences between exposure groups, such as socioeconomic groups, the difference in marginal relative survival between exposed and unexposed can be obtained and under assumptions is interpreted as the average causal effect of exposure to survival. In a modeling context, this is usually estimated by applying regression standardization as the average of the individual-specific estimates after fitting a relative survival model. Regression standardization yields an estimator that consistently estimates the causal effect under standard causal inference assumptions and if the relative survival model is correctly specified. We extend inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust standardization methods in the relative survival framework as additional valuable tools for obtaining average causal effects when correct model specification might not hold for the relative survival model. IPW yields an unbiased estimate of the average causal effect if a correctly specified model has been fitted for the exposure (propensity score) whereas doubly robust standardization requires that at least one of the propensity score model or the relative survival model is correctly specified. An example using data on melanoma is provided and a simulation study is conducted to investigate how sensitive are the methods to model misspecification, including different ways for obtaining standard errors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.9171DOI Listing
September 2021

The measure of spatial position within groups that best predicts predation risk depends on group movement.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Sep 15;288(1958):20211286. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Both empirical and theoretical studies show that an individual's spatial position within a group can impact the risk of being targeted by predators. Spatial positions can be quantified in numerous ways, but there are no direct comparisons of different spatial measures in predicting the risk of being targeted by real predators. Here, we assess these spatial measures in groups of stationary and moving virtual prey being attacked by three-spined sticklebacks (). In stationary groups, the limited domain of danger best predicted the likelihood of attack. In moving groups, the number of near neighbours was the best predictor but only over a limited range of distances within which other prey were counted. Otherwise, measures of proximity to the group's edge outperformed measures of local crowding in moving groups. There was no evidence that predators preferentially attacked the front or back of the moving groups. Domains of danger without any limit, as originally used in the selfish herd model, were also a poor predictor of risk. These findings reveal that the collective properties of prey can influence how spatial position affects predation risk, via effects on predators' targeting. Selection may therefore act differently on prey positioning behaviour depending on group movement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.1286DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of metals and persistent organic pollutants on the fitness and health of juveniles of the endangered european sturgeon Acipenser sturio Exposed to W1ater and sediments of the garonne and dordogne rivers.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 8;225:112720. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Univ. Bordeaux, UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France.

The last remaining population of European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) lives in the Gironde-Garonne-Dordogne (France) catchment (GGD). Captive young individuals are released into the GGD hydrosystem each year, as part of a restocking programme. This study aims to assess the health status of juveniles A. sturio to current conditions in the GGD hydrosystem, to evaluate their capacity to survive and grow in a moderately anthropized ecosystems. 3-month-old farmed sturgeons were exposed for one month in experimental conditions that mimic the environmental conditions in the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, followed by five months of depuration. After one month of exposure, fish exposed to Dordogne and Garonne waters bioaccumulated higher levels of metals and persistent organic pollutants, displayed a reduced hepato-somatic index, and had depleted levels of lipids and glycogen content in their liver, when compared with the Reference group. However, metabolic and swimming performance, as well as the costs of swimming were not impaired. After the 5 months depuration, a significant decrease of K was observed for all exposure conditions. HSI also decreased with time. The overall health status and adaptive capacity of juvenile A. sturio appeared to be maintained over the experimental 6 months' period. Juveniles of A. sturio seem to have the adaptive capacity to survive and grow in the GGD hydrosystem, after being released as part of a restocking programme.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112720DOI Listing
September 2021

Goffin's cockatoos discriminate objects based on weight alone.

Biol Lett 2021 09 8;17(9):20210250. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Comparative Cognition Unit, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Paying attention to weight is important when deciding upon an object's efficacy or value in various contexts (e.g. tool use, foraging). Proprioceptive discrimination learning, with objects that differ only in weight, has so far been investigated almost exclusively in primate species. Here, we show that while Goffin's cockatoos learn faster when additional colour cues are used, they can also quickly learn to discriminate between objects on the basis of their weight alone. Ultimately, the birds learned to discriminate between visually identical objects on the basis of weight much faster than primates, although methodological differences between tasks should be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2021.0250DOI Listing
September 2021

The Mus musculus Papillomavirus Type 1 E7 Protein Binds to the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor: Implications for Viral Pathogenesis.

mBio 2021 Aug 31;12(4):e0227721. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The species specificity of papillomaviruses has been a significant roadblock for performing pathogenesis studies in common model organisms. The Mus musculus papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1) causes cutaneous papillomas that can progress to squamous cell carcinomas in laboratory mice. The papillomavirus E6 and E7 genes encode proteins that establish and maintain a cellular milieu that allows for viral genome synthesis and viral progeny synthesis in growth-arrested, terminally differentiated keratinocytes. The E6 and E7 proteins provide this activity by binding to and functionally reprogramming key cellular regulatory proteins. The MmuPV1 E7 protein lacks the canonical LXCXE motif that mediates the binding of multiple viral oncoproteins to the cellular retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, RB1. Our proteomic experiments, however, revealed that MmuPV1 E7 still interacts with RB1. We show that MmuPV1 E7 interacts through its C terminus with the C-terminal domain of RB1. Binding of MmuPV1 E7 to RB1 did not cause significant activation of E2F-regulated cellular genes. MmuPV1 E7 expression was shown to be essential for papilloma formation. Experimental infection of mice with MmuPV1 expressing an E7 mutant that is defective for binding to RB1 caused delayed onset, lower incidence, and smaller sizes of papillomas. Our results demonstrate that the MmuPV1 E7 gene is essential and that targeting noncanonical activities of RB1, which are independent of RB1's ability to modulate the expression of E2F-regulated genes, contribute to papillomavirus-mediated pathogenesis. Papillomavirus infections cause a variety of epithelial hyperplastic lesions, or warts. While most warts are benign, some papillomaviruses cause lesions that can progress to squamous cell carcinomas, and approximately 5% of all human cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. The papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins are thought to function to reprogram host epithelial cells to enable viral genome replication in terminally differentiated, normally growth-arrested cells. E6 and E7 lack enzymatic activities and function by interacting and functionally altering host cell regulatory proteins. Many cellular proteins that can interact with E6 and E7 have been identified, but the biological relevance of these interactions for viral pathogenesis has not been determined. This is because papillomaviruses are species specific and do not infect heterologous hosts. Here, we use a recently established mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) model to investigate the role of the E7 protein in viral pathogenesis. We show that MmuPV1 E7 is necessary for papilloma formation. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB1) is targeted by many papillomaviral E7 proteins, including cancer-associated HPVs. We show that MmuPV1 E7 can bind RB1 and that infection with a mutant MmuPV1 virus that expresses an RB1 binding-defective E7 mutant caused smaller and fewer papillomas that arise with delayed kinetics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02277-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406179PMC
August 2021
-->