Publications by authors named "P Auffret"

15 Publications

Dual RNAseq highlights the kinetics of skin microbiome and fish host responsiveness to bacterial infection.

Anim Microbiome 2021 May 7;3(1):35. Epub 2021 May 7.

Ifremer, IRD, Institut Louis-Malardé, Univ Polynésie Française, EIO, F-98719 Taravao, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.

Background: Tenacibaculum maritimum is a fish pathogen known for causing serious damage to a broad range of wild and farmed marine fish populations worldwide. The recently sequenced genome of T. maritimum strain NCIMB 2154 provided unprecedented information on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in the virulence of this species. However, little is known about the dynamic of infection in vivo, and information is lacking on both the intrinsic host response (gene expression) and its associated microbiota. Here, we applied complementary omic approaches, including dual RNAseq and 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding sequencing using Nanopore and short-read Illumina technologies to unravel the host-pathogen interplay in an experimental infection system using the tropical fish Platax orbicularis as model.

Results: We showed that the infection of the host is characterised by an enhancement of functions associated with antibiotic and glucans catabolism functions but a reduction of sulfate assimilation process in T. maritimum. The fish host concurrently displays a large panel of immune effectors, notably involving innate response and triggering acute inflammatory response. In addition, our results suggest that fish activate an adaptive immune response visible through the stimulation of T-helper cells, Th17, with congruent reduction of Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Fish were, however, largely sensitive to infection, and less than 25% survived after 96 hpi. These surviving fish showed no evidence of stress (cortisol levels) or significant difference in microbiome diversity compared with controls at the same sampling time. The presence of T. maritimum in resistant fish skin and the total absence of any skin lesions suggest that these fish did not escape contact with the pathogen, but rather that some mechanisms prevented pathogens entry. In resistant individuals, we detected up-regulation of specific immune-related genes differentiating resistant individuals from controls at 96 hpi, which suggests a possible genomic basis of resistance, although no genetic variation in coding regions was found.

Conclusion: Here we focus in detail on the interplay between common fish pathogens and host immune response during experimental infection. We further highlight key actors of defence response, pathogenicity and possible genomic bases of fish resistance to T. maritimum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42523-021-00097-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106148PMC
May 2021

Tracing key genes associated with the Pinctada margaritifera albino phenotype from juvenile to cultured pearl harvest stages using multiple whole transcriptome sequencing.

BMC Genomics 2020 Sep 25;21(1):662. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Ifremer, UMR EIO 241, Centre du Pacifique, BP 49, 98719, Taravao, Tahiti, Polynéise française, France.

Background: Albino mutations are commonly observed in the animal kingdom, including in bivalves. In the black-lipped pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, albino specimens are characterized by total or partial absence of colouration resulting in typical white shell phenotype expression. The relationship of shell colour with resulting cultured pearl colour is of great economic interest in P. margaritifera, on which a pearl industry is based. Hence, the albino phenotype provides a useful way to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying pigmentation.

Results: Whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing analysis comparing albino and black wild-type phenotypes at three stages over the culture cycle of P. margaritifera revealed a total of 1606, 798 and 187 differentially expressed genes in whole juvenile, adult mantle and pearl sac tissue, respectively. These genes were found to be involved in five main molecular pathways, tightly linked to known pigmentation pathways: melanogenesis, calcium signalling pathway, Notch signalling pathway, pigment transport and biomineralization. Additionally, significant phenotype-associated SNPs were selected (N = 159), including two located in the Pif biomineralization gene, which codes for nacre formation. Interestingly, significantly different transcript splicing was detected between juvenile (N = 1366) and adult mantle tissue (N = 313) in, e.g., the tyrosinase Tyr-1 gene, which showed more complex regulation in mantle, and the Notch1 encoding gene, which was upregulated in albino juveniles.

Conclusion: This multiple RNA-seq approach provided new knowledge about genes associated with the P. margaritifera albino phenotype, highlighting: 1) new molecular pathways, such as the Notch signalling pathway in pigmentation, 2) associated SNP markers with biomineraliszation gene of interest like Pif for marker-assisted selection and prevention of inbreeding, and 3) alternative gene splicing for melanin biosynthesis implicating tyrosinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07015-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517651PMC
September 2020

Supplementation of live yeast based feed additive in early life promotes rumen microbial colonization and fibrolytic potential in lambs.

Sci Rep 2019 12 16;9(1):19216. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 454 MEDIS, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Rumen microbiota is of paramount importance for ruminant digestion efficiency as the microbial fermentations supply the host animal with essential sources of energy and nitrogen. Early separation of newborns from the dam and distribution of artificial milk (Artificial Milking System or AMS) could impair rumen microbial colonization, which would not only affect rumen function but also have possible negative effects on hindgut homeostasis, and impact animal health and performance. In this study, we monitored microbial communities in the rumen and the feces of 16 lambs separated from their dams from 12 h of age and artificially fed with milk replacer and starter feed from d8, in absence or presence of a combination of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 and selected yeast metabolites. Microbial groups and targeted bacterial species were quantified by qPCR and microbial diversity and composition were assessed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing in samples collected from birth to 2 months of age. The fibrolytic potential of the rumen microbiota was analyzed with a DNA microarray targeting genes coding for 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. In Control lambs, poor establishment of fibrolytic communities was observed. Microbial composition shifted as the lambs aged. The live yeast supplement induced significant changes in relative abundances of a few bacterial OTUs across time in the rumen samples, among which some involved in crucial rumen function, and favored establishment of Trichostomatia and Neocallimastigaceae eukaryotic families. The supplemented lambs also harbored greater abundances in Fibrobacter succinogenes after weaning. Microarray data indicated that key cellulase and hemicellulase encoding-genes were present from early age in the rumen and that in the Supplemented lambs, a greater proportion of hemicellulase genes was present. Moreover, a higher proportion of GH genes from ciliate protozoa and fungi was found in the rumen of those animals. This yeast combination improved microbial colonization in the maturing rumen, with a potentially more specialized ecosystem towards efficient fiber degradation, which suggests a possible positive impact on lamb gut development and digestive efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55825-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914811PMC
December 2019

Procyanidin-Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro.

Nutrients 2019 Mar 19;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 0454 MEDIS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

B-type oligomeric procyanidins in apples constitute an important source of polyphenols in the human diet. Their role in health is not known, although it is suggested that they generate beneficial bioactive compounds upon metabolization by the gut microbiota. During apple processing, procyanidins interact with cell-wall polysaccharides and form stable complexes. These interactions need to be taken into consideration in order to better assess the biological effects of fruit constituents. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of these interactions on the microbial metabolization of cell walls and procyanidins, and to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the resulting metabolome, in addition to analyzing the taxonomical changes which the microbiota undergo. In vitro fermentation of three model apple matrices with microbiota from 4 healthy donors showed that the binding of procyanidins to cell-wall polysaccharides, whether covalently or non-covalently, substantially reduced procyanidin degradation. Although cell wall-unbound procyanidins negatively affected carbohydrate fermentation, they generated more hydroxyphenylvaleric acid than bound procyanidins, and increased the abundance of and genera. The best results in terms of production of anti-inflammatory bioactive metabolites were observed from the apple matrix with no bonds between procyanidins and cell wall polysaccharides, although the matrix with non-covalent bonds was not far behind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6471247PMC
March 2019

Whole transcriptome sequencing and biomineralization gene architecture associated with cultured pearl quality traits in the pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera.

BMC Genomics 2019 Feb 6;20(1):111. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Ifremer, UMR 241 Ecosystèmes Insulaires Océaniens (EIO), Labex Corail, Centre Ifremer du Pacifique, BP 49, 98719, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Background: Cultured pearls are unique gems produced by living organisms, mainly molluscs of the Pinctada genus, through the biomineralization properties of pearl sac tissue. Improvement of P. margaritifera pearl quality is one of the biggest challenges that Polynesian research has faced to date. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of the complex mechanisms related to nacre and pearl formation is essential and can now be approached through the use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. The aim of this study was to use RNA-seq to compare whole transcriptome expression of pearl sacs that had producing pearls with high and low quality. For this purpose, a comprehensive reference transcriptome of P. margaritifera was built based on multi-tissue sampling (mantle, gonad, whole animal), including different living stages (juvenile, adults) and phenotypes (colour morphotypes, sex).

Results: Strikingly, few genes were found to be up-regulated for high quality pearls (n = 16) compared to the up-regulated genes in low quality pearls (n = 246). Biomineralization genes up-regulated in low quality pearls were specific to prismatic and prism-nacre layers. Alternative splicing was further identified in several key biomineralization genes based on a recent P. margaritifera draft genome.

Conclusion: This study lifts the veil on the multi-level regulation of biomineralization genes associated with pearl quality determination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5443-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366105PMC
February 2019