Publications by authors named "P Aravinthasamy"

13 Publications

Investigation of health risks related with multipath entry of groundwater nitrate using Sobol sensitivity indicators in an urban-industrial sector of south India.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 21:111726. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Punjab Remote Sensing Centre, Ludhiana, India.

In the present study, we used a variance decomposition based global sensitivity index to evaluate the sensitivity of input variables and their contribution for non-carcinogenic health risks via intake and dermal pathways. Groundwater samples were collected from an industrial sector (Tiruppur region) of south India during the month of January 2020. These samples were analysed for nitrate, which varied from 10 to 290 mg L having the mean of 87 mg L. Nearly 58% of the samples surpassed the permissible limit (45 mg L) defined by the World Health Organization. Total hazard index (THI) ranged from 0.29 to 8.52 for children, 0.28 to 8.26 for women, and 0.24 to 6.99 for men. The first-order effect (FOE) and second-order effect (SOE) were derived for the three different age groups using Sobol sensitivity approach. The FOE scores showed that nitrate concentration in groundwater is the most sensitive parameter followed by exposure frequency for children, men and women via oral pathway. The SOE scores showed that nitrate concentration along with ingestion rate had greater sensitiveness in the oral input model. The higher SOE was obtained for the interaction of nitrate with skin surface area for children via dermal pathway, but it was not significant for women and men. These results suggest that epidemiology due to nitrate risk should be studied taking into account of concentration of nitrate, exposure frequency, fraction of contact and body weight. Additionally, ingestion rate and skin surface area were considered for the assessment of health risks for children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111726DOI Listing
July 2021

Chromium contamination in groundwater and Sobol sensitivity model based human health risk evaluation from leather tanning industrial region of South India.

Environ Res 2021 08 17;199:111238. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Civil Engineering, Saveetha Engineering College (Autonomous), Chennai, 602105, India.

The present investigation was conducted to find the possible chromium contamination in groundwater and the related health risks in a leather industrial region of south India using Sobol sensitivity modeling. Thirty-five groundwater samples were sampled from the field sites and were analyzed for pH, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), EC (Electrical Conductivity), F (Fluoride), NO (Nitrate) and Cr (Chromium). The concentration of nitrate varied from 3 to 81 mg/L with a mean of 48.6 mg/L. About 57% (n = 20) of the wells surpassed the drinkable limit (45 mg/L) for NO as per World Health Organization (WHO). The fluoride ion ranged from 0.1 to 2.7 mg/L with a mean of 1.5 mg/L. Around 51% (n = 18) of the samples crossed the recommended limit of WHO for F (1.5 mg/L). The chromium varied from 0.01 to 0.19 mg/L in groundwater with a mean of 0.1 mg/L. About 66% (n = 23) of the samples overshoot the permissible limit of WHO standards (0.05 mg/L) for Cr. The spatial distribution map of chromium in the groundwater showed that 271.76 km area is under risk. Based on total hazard index (THI), 66%, 46%, and 43% of the groundwater samples surpassed the allowable limit (THI > 1) for children, women and men, correspondingly. Children pose severe health risks than women and men in this region. Using Sobol sensitivity indices, three different categories of risk effects were assessed: first order effect (FOE), total effect (TE) and second order effect (SOE). In the oral sensitivity model, concentration of Cr (C) in water and ingestion rate (IR) had the dominant role, whereas in the dermal model, skin surface area (SA) and contact fraction by skin (F) had vital role in addition to the concentration (C). Further, the outcome of this study insists the responsibilities of industrial, municipal and agricultural sectors to keep the environment pollution free and to ensure the supply of potable water to the people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111238DOI Listing
August 2021

Groundwater Pollution and Human Health Risks in an Industrialized Region of Southern India: Impacts of the COVID-19 Lockdown and the Monsoon Seasonal Cycles.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jan 4;80(1):259-276. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Applied Geology, School of Applied Natural Science, Adama Science and Technology University, P.O. Box 1888, Adama, Ethiopia.

Samples of groundwater were collected during a post-monsoon period (January) and a pre-monsoon period (May) in 2020 from 30 locations in the rapidly developing industrial and residential area of the Coimbatore region in southern India. These sampling periods coincided with times before and during the lockdown in industrial activity and reduced agricultural activity that occurred in the region due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of reduced anthropogenic activity on groundwater quality. Approximately 17% of the wells affected by high fluoride concentrations in the post-monsoon period returned to levels suitable for human consumption in samples collected in the pre-monsoon period. This was probably due to ion exchange processes, infiltration of rainwater during the seasonal monsoon that diluted concentrations of ions including geogenic fluoride, as well as a reduction in anthropogenic inputs during the lockdown. The total hazard index for fluoride in the post-monsoon samples calculated for children, adult women, and adult men indicated that 73%, 60%, and 50% of the groundwater samples, respectively, had fluoride levels higher than the permissible limit. In this study, nitrate pollution declined by 33.4% by the pre-monsoon period relative to the post-monsoon period. The chemical facies of groundwater reverted from the Na-HCO-Cl and Na-Cl to the Ca-HCO type in pre-monsoon samples. Various geogenic indicators like molar ratios, inter-ionic relations along with graphical tools demonstrated that plagioclase mineral weathering, carbonate dissolution, reverse ion exchange, and anthropogenic inputs are influencing the groundwater chemistry of this region. These findings were further supported by the saturation index assessed for the post- and pre-monsoon samples. COVID-19 lockdown considerably reduced groundwater pollution by Na, K, Cl, NO, and F ions due to shutdown of industries and reduced agricultural activities. Further groundwater quality improvement during lockdown period there is evidence that the COVID-19 lockdown by increased HCO ion concentration. Overall results illustrate the positive benefits to groundwater quality that could occur as a result of measures to control anthropogenic inputs of pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00797-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781191PMC
January 2021

Human health risks associated with multipath exposure of groundwater nitrate and environmental friendly actions for quality improvement and sustainable management: A case study from Texvalley (Tiruppur region) of India.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 23;265:129083. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Discipline of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 355, India.

The present research was attempted to examine the human health risks due to nitrate contamination in the groundwater of Texvalley (Tiruppur region) of southern India. Groundwater samples (n = 40) were picked up from open wells (shallow aquifer) and tube wells (deep aquifer) during January 2020, and laboratory examination was conducted for various major physicochemical constituents. Nitrate concentration varied from 10 to 290 mg/l with a mean of 83.45 mg/l. About 58% (n = 23) of the wells exceeded the recommended limit (>45 mg/l) of World Health Organisation, which spread over an area of 335.16 km. Among this, 45% of the samples (n = 18) represented shallow aquifers (depth < 15 m), and 13% of them (n = 5) represented deep aquifers (depth > 15 m). Synthetic fertilizers, cow dung and sheep manure, industrial discharge, septic tank leakage and municipal solid waste disposal are the major sources of nitrate pollution in this region. The USEPA health risk assessment model was applied in this study to assess hazard quotients (HQ) according to the NO exposure in various age groups of inhabitants through two different pathways such as drinking (HQ) and skin contact (HQ). Eventually, total hazard index (THI) was obtained for all the groundwater samples for different age groups. According to THI, 87%, 78%, 66%, 60%, 56% and 48% of the samples contain health risks (THI >1) for infants, kids, children, teens, adults and aged people, respectively. The study finally recommended seven environmental friendly actions for the groundwater quality improvements and for the sustainable health management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129083DOI Listing
February 2021

Groundwater quality evolution based on geochemical modeling and aptness testing for ingestion using entropy water quality and total hazard indexes in an urban-industrial area (Tiruppur) of Southern India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16;28(15):18523-18538. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

School of Water and Environment, Chang'an University, No. 126 Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710054, Shaanxi, China.

This study used geochemical modeling to understand the chemical evolution of groundwater, entropy water quality index to assess the aptness of groundwater for human consumption, and total hazard index to determine the possible non-carcinogenic risks among children, women, and men in an urban-industrial area (Tiruppur region) of southern India. For the above purposes, 40 groundwater samples were collected from tube and dug wells, and they were tested for various physicochemical parameters. Fluoride and nitrate levels ranged from 0.10 to 2.70 mg/l and 10 to 290 mg/l, respectively. Nearly, 50% of the fluoride samples and 58% of the nitrate samples exceeded the WHO limits of 1.5 and 45 mg/l, respectively. The majority of the groundwater samples (22.5%) represented Ca-Na-Cl water type while the remaining samples exhibited mixed water types. Approximately, 85% of the samples indicated high levels of salinization since they had Revelle index > 0.5 meq/l. The saturation index (SI) revealed that mineral weathering; dissolution of halite, gypsum, and anhydrite; and precipitation of calcite and dolomite contributed to groundwater chemistry. Based on the entropy water quality index (EWQI), none of the groundwater samples was characterized as excellent or good water quality while 57.5% of the samples had medium water quality, and 32.5% and 10% of the samples exhibited poor and extremely poor water qualities, respectively. The last two categories are designated as unfit for consumption. The cumulative health risk (nitrate and fluoride together) ranged from 0.97 to 11.16 for children, 0.60 to 10.54 for women, and 0.39 to 6.92 for men. These values represent health risks among 88%, 80%, and 73% of the groundwater samples for children, women, and men, respectively. Therefore, proper measures should to be done to reduce the health risks associated with high nitrate and fluoride in the groundwater of the study area, which is used for drinking purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10724-0DOI Listing
April 2021
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