Publications by authors named "P A Adamson"

791 Publications

Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis in Men Who Have Sex With Men in an HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Program in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Population and Public Health Sciences, Keck School of Medicine at USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac618DOI Listing
July 2022

Rates of laboratory adverse events by course in paediatric leukaemia ascertained with automated electronic health record extraction: a retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group.

Lancet Haematol 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Adverse events are often misreported in clinical trials, leading to an incomplete understanding of toxicities. We aimed to test automated laboratory adverse event ascertainment and grading (via the ExtractEHR automated package) to assess its scalability and define adverse event rates for children with acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Methods: For this retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group (COG), we included patients aged 0-22 years treated for acute myeloid leukaemia or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (Atlanta, GA, USA) from Jan 1, 2010, to Nov 1, 2018, at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014, and at the Texas Children's Hospital (Houston, TX, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014. The ExtractEHR automated package acquired, cleaned, and graded laboratory data as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5 for 22 commonly evaluated grade 3-4 adverse events (fatal events were not evaluated) with numerically based CTCAE definitions. Descriptive statistics tabulated adverse event frequencies. Adverse events ascertained by ExtractEHR were compared to manually reported adverse events for patients enrolled in two COG trials (AAML1031, NCT01371981; AALL0932, NCT02883049). Analyses were restricted to protocol-defined chemotherapy courses (induction I, induction II, intensification I, intensification II, and intensification III for acute myeloid leukaemia; induction, consolidation, interim maintenance, delayed intensification, and maintenance for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia).

Findings: Laboratory adverse event data from 1077 patients (583 from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 200 from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and 294 from the Texas Children's Hospital) who underwent 4611 courses (549 for acute myeloid leukaemia and 4062 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) were extracted, processed, and graded. Of the 166 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, 86 (52%) were female, 80 (48%) were male, 96 (58%) were White, and 132 (80%) were non-Hispanic. Of the 911 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 406 (45%) were female, 505 (55%) were male, 596 (65%) were White, and 641 (70%) were non-Hispanic. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia had the most adverse events during induction I and intensification II. Hypokalaemia (one [17%] of six to 75 [48%] of 156 courses) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased (13 [10%] of 134 to 27 [17%] of 156 courses) were the most prevalent non-haematological adverse events in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, as identified by ExtractEHR. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had the greatest number of adverse events during induction and maintenance (eight adverse events with prevalence ≥10%; induction and maintenance: anaemia, platelet count decreased, white blood cell count decreased, neutrophil count decreased, lymphocyte count decreased, ALT increased, and hypocalcaemia; induction: hypokalaemia; maintenance: aspartate aminotransferase [AST] increased and blood bilirubin increased), as identified by ExtractEHR. 187 (85%) of 220 total comparisons in 22 adverse events in four AAML1031 and six AALL0923 courses were substantially higher with ExtractEHR than COG-reported adverse event rates for adverse events with a prevalence of at least 2%.

Interpretation: ExtractEHR is scalable and accurately defines laboratory adverse event rates for paediatric acute leukaemia; moreover, ExtractEHR seems to detect higher rates of laboratory adverse events than those reported in COG trials. These rates can be used for comparisons between therapies and to counsel patients treated on or off trials about the risks of chemotherapy. ExtractEHR-based adverse event ascertainment can improve reporting of laboratory adverse events in clinical trials.

Funding: US National Institutes of Health, St Baldrick's Foundation, and Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00168-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Resistance-Guided Therapy for Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 Jul 12. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Population and Public Health Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are a threat to public health. Novel strategies for combating such resistance include the development of molecular assays to facilitate real-time prediction of antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to ciprofloxacin is determined by the presence of a single mutation at codon 91 of the gyrase A gene; molecular assays to guide therapy are commercially available. Resistance to cefixime is conferred via 1 of 6 critical mutations in either the mosaic penA gene or specific loci in the nonmosaic region. Resistance to ceftriaxone is conferred through mutations in 1 of 4 genes: penA, ponA, penB, and mtr; however, the ability to predict reduced susceptibility based on those genes varies by geographic region. Here, we highlight the work done toward the development of 3 such assays for ciprofloxacin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone, discuss the status of our current understanding and ongoing challenges, and suggest future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac371DOI Listing
July 2022

Comparative evaluation of a prototype deep learning algorithm for autosegmentation of normal tissues in head and neck radiotherapy.

Radiother Oncol 2022 Jul 9;174:52-58. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To introduce and validate a newly developed deep-learning (DL) auto-segmentation algorithm for head and neck (HN) organs at risk (OARs) and to compare its performance with a published commercial algorithm.

Methods: A total of 864 HN cancer cases were available to train and evaluate a prototype algorithm. The algorithm is based on a fully convolutional network with combined U-Net and V-net. A Dice loss plus Cross-Entropy Loss function with Adam optimizer was used in training. For 75 validation cases, OAR sets were generated with three DL-based models (A: the prototype model trained with gold data, B: a commercial software trained with the same data, and C: the same software trained with data from another institution). The auto-segmented structures were evaluated with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff distance (HD), voxel-penalty metric (VPM) and DSC of area under dose-volume histograms. A subjective qualitative evaluation was performed on 20 random cases.

Results: Overall trend was for the prototype algorithm to be the closest to the gold data by all five metrics. The average DSC/VPM/HD for algorithms A, B, and C were 0.81/84.1/1.6 mm, 0.74/62.8/3.2 mm, and 0.66/46.8/3.3 mm, respectively. 93% of model A structures were evaluated to be clinically useful.

Conclusion: The superior performance of the prototype was validated, even when trained with the same data. In addition to the challenges of perfecting the algorithms, the auto-segmentation results can differ when the same algorithm is trained at different institutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2022.06.024DOI Listing
July 2022

The Current State of Care for Black and Hispanic Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022 Jul 11. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Color of Crohn's and Chronic Illness, Glenarden, MD, USA.

Research on the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients has been primarily in populations of European ancestry. However, the incidence of IBD, which comprises Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is increasing in different populations around the world. In this comprehensive review, we examine the epidemiology, clinical presentations, disease phenotypes, treatment outcomes, social determinants of health, and genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of IBD in Black and Hispanic patients in the United States. To improve health equity of underserved minorities with IBD, we identified the following priority areas: access to care, accurate assessment of treatment outcomes, incorporation of Black and Hispanic patients in therapeutic clinical trials, and investigation of environmental factors that lead to the increase in disease incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izac124DOI Listing
July 2022
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