Publications by authors named "Ozgur Yalcinbayir"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A rare case of recurrence presenting with bilateral exudative retinal detachment in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Aug 16:e29291. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Bursa Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29291DOI Listing
August 2021

SD-OCT assessment of macular and optic nerve alterations in patients recovered from COVID-19.

Can J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Bursa Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Chest Diseases, Bursa, Turkey.

Objective: To quantify microstructutal alterations in the macula and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

Design: Retrospective, observational.

Participants: This comparative, cross-sectional study included patients who recovered from COVID-19 (Group 1) and age- and sex-matched normal controls (Group 2).

Methods: A comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and biomicroscopic anterior and posterior segment examination was performed. SD-OCT analysis of the macula and peripapillary RNFL was obtained for each participant. In addition, patient demographics and comorbidities were recorded.

Results: 238 eyes of 122 subjects (Group 1: n = 63; Group 2: n = 59) were included. The incidence of coexisting comorbidity was higher in Group 1 (n = 26/63, 41.3%) compared with Group 2 (n = 12/59, 20.3%) (p = 0.013). The central foveal thickness (CFT) was significantly higher in Group 1 (271.0±26.8 µm) than Group 2 (263.2±22.0 µm) (p = 0.015). The average outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness at central fovea in Group 1 (85.4±13.3 µm) was significantly thicker than that in Group 2 (81.4±15.2 µm) (p = 0.035). The mean peripapillary RNFL thickness of Group 1 (102.6±8.8 µm) and Group 2 (100.9±8.3 µm) were similar (p = 0.145). The mean choroidal thickness of groups at the fovea and at 1500 µm nasal and temporal to the fovea were not significantly different (p > 0.05 for all).

Conclusion: Significant thickness alterations in individual retinal layers and CFT was detected in post-COVID-19 patients. The increase in CFT and ONL thickness might be attributed to direct infection or viral-induced inflammatory response of retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2021.06.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255111PMC
July 2021

Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Treatment in the Management of Pediatric Noninfectious Uveitis: Infliximab Versus Adalimumab.

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2021 05 28;37(4):236-240. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Uludag University School of Medicine, Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology, Bursa, Turkey.

Management of uveitis displays a particular challenge in childhood. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) in pediatric noninfectious uveitis that were refractory to conventional immunosuppresives. This retrospective single-center study included 33 patients who were treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents (16 with IFX and 17 with ADA). Patients had diverse etiologies, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis, idiopathic uveitis, and Behçet's disease. Demographic characteristics, systemic diagnosis, findings of the ophthalmological examination, control of ocular inflammation, response to treatment, and the rate of clinical remission were studied. Fourteen (87.5%) patients receiving IFX and 10 (58.8%) patients receiving ADA achieved response to treatment during the follow-up ( = 0.118). The agents were discontinued with complete clinical remission in 6 (37.5%) patients receiving IFX and in 2 (11.8%) patients receiving ADA ( = 0.118). Baseline visual acuities and parameters of inflammation improved significantly in both groups after anti-TNF therapy. Both IFX and ADA are safe and effective for pediatric noninfectious uveitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jop.2020.0081DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of choroidal thickness in children with type 1 diabetes: the role of optical coherence tomography in diabetic retinopathy screening.

Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2021 5;30(1):41-47. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Bursa, Turkey.

The present study aimed to evaluate choroidal changes and alternations within the structure of the retina prior to visible morphologic signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) cases. Two hundred and six eyes of 103 pediatric patients with T1D without DR and 88 eyes of 44 healthy controls were enrolled. They underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and optical coherence tomography evaluation. Choroidal thickness (ChT) measurements were performed manually on macular and peripapillary regions. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, intraocular pressure, and axial length (p > 0.05). ChT measurements of subfoveal, nasal, and temporal macula were slightly thinner in the diabetic group, and no statistical significance was found (p = 0.835, p = 0.305, and p = 0.054, respectively). Peripapillary ChT of eight sectors were also thinner in T1D; however, superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, and inferior sector values were significantly different (p = 0.010, p = 0.020, p = 0.019, and p = 0.018, respectively). In conclusion; this study demonstrated evidence of peripapillary choroidal thinning in pediatric diabetic patients without visible signs of retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1297/cpe.30.41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783126PMC
January 2021

Laser photocoagulation, intravitreal anti-VEGF, and vitreous surgery for the treatment of juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2019 12;67(12):2104-2106

Department of Ophthalmology, Ozel Jimer Hastanesi, Bursa, Turkey.

Juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangiomas (JRCHs) are benign vascular tumors located on or adjacent to the optic nerve head. A 19-year-old girl presented with epiretinal membrane (ERM) associated with an elevated and round vascular tumoral mass located in the juxtapapillary region of her left eye. She was subsequently diagnosed with isolated JRCH. A combined approach with laser photocoagulation and intravitreal bevacizumab injection was used to facilitate shrinkage of the tumor preoperatively and pars plana vitrectomy was used to remove the tumor and ERM. A small remnant of tumoral mass remained intact and did not show any growth for 7 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1799_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896561PMC
December 2019

Assessment of neuron-specific enolase, S100B and malondialdehyde levels in serum and vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Int Ophthalmol 2020 Jan 30;40(1):227-234. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Purpose: To assess the vitreous and serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100B and malondialdehyde (MDA) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) cases and investigate the correlation between preoperative and postoperative anatomical and clinical features.

Materials And Methods: The study group included patients who had pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for PDR. The control group included non-diabetic individuals who underwent PPV surgery for vitreoretinal interface disorders. Samples of serum were taken from all participants preoperatively, while vitreous samples were taken during the PPV. Vitreous and serum levels of NSE, S100B and MDA were measured, and comparisons were made between the groups.

Results: The study group consisted of 56 eyes of 56 cases with PDR. The control group consisted of 20 eyes of 20 cases. The concentrations of vitreous NSE, S100B and MDA were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). Serum levels were statistically different for NSE and S100B (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our results clearly show that vitreous levels of S100B, NSE and MDA and serum concentrations of NSE and S100B increased significantly in patients with PDR. The findings may possibly indicate neurodegeneration and oxidative stress; therefore, these markers may have a diagnostic value in patients with PDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-019-01175-9DOI Listing
January 2020

Ocular Involvement in Muckle-Wells Syndrome.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 17;28(1):70-78. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

: To present the ocular findings of the members of a family that has the diagnosis of Muckle Wells syndrome, a form of cryopyrin associated periodic syndrome (CAPS).: Nine patients with MWS were included in this study. Each study participant underwent a systemic evaluation, comprehensive ophthalmic examination, and auxillary testings.: In this study, conjunctivitis was the most prominent ocular finding. Other relatively common ocular findings included band keratopathy, clinical signs of past uveitis, and corneal topography abnormalities. Nystagmus, corneal leukoma, and optic nerve pallor with epiretinal membrane were also detected. Rare ocular manifestations were posterior stromal corneal opacification with edema, anterior iris snychecia, and mild cataract.: MWS is a rare systemic autoinflammatory disorder that presents with a variety of ocular findings. Exacerbation of systemic and ocular findings with cold is a hallmark of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2018.1552305DOI Listing
December 2020

Efficacy of Dexamethasone Implants in Uveitic Macular Edema in Cases with Behçet Disease.

Ophthalmologica 2019 21;241(4):190-194. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Purpose: Investigation of the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone implants (0.7 mg) in patients with Behçet disease (BD) who had cystoid macular edema (CME) despite immunomodulatory treatment.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-seven eyes of 20 patients who had intravitreal dexameth-asone implant injections and follow-up for more than 6 months were included in this study. Best corrected visual acuities (BCVA), intraocular pressures (IOP), and central macular thicknesses (CMT) were recorded. Systemic immunomodulatory treatment was noted. Injection-related complications and the need for recurrent injections were recorded.

Results: Statistically significant anatomical and functional success was achieved with a single injection. BCVA increased from 0.85 ± 0.72 to 0.45 ± 0.52 logMAR, while the mean CMT decreased from 406 ± 190 to 243 ± 101 µm at the sixth month. The peak of visual acuity gain was reached within the first 2 months and a substantial proportion of the patients gained 3 or more lines. There was no complication other than transient IOP elevation in 4 eyes and cataract surgery in 2 eyes.

Conclusion: Adjuvant intravitreal dexamethasone implant injections offer promising results in cases of BD with CME. It is effective in preserving the macular anatomy and vision particularly in transition to biological agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000490674DOI Listing
May 2019

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings of patients under treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

J AAPOS 2017 Apr 14;21(2):131-135.e1. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients.

Methods: Children that were diagnosed with precursor B-cell ALL and classified as belonging to the medium-risk group for relapse were selected for this study. Individuals who were in continuous remission and on maintenance therapy were included in the study group. Cases that had central nervous system involvement were excluded. Age-matched, otherwise healthy children were selected for the control group. Each study participant underwent a comprehensive eye examination and SD-OCT evaluation. Thickness measurements were made within the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), central macula, posterior polar, and peripapillary choroid.

Results: A total of 112 eyes of 56 children were included: 54 eyes in the study group and 58 in the control group. Compared to the control group, subfoveal and temporal choroidal thicknesses of the posterior pole were significantly thinner in the study group (P < 0.005). Similarly, peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner in most sectors of the study group (P < 0.005). There were no major differences between groups in terms of central macular thicknesses and overall RNFL thicknesses.

Conclusions: Evidence of choroidal attenuation was found in this subgroup of pediatric ALL patients. Further studies are warranted to clarify the utility of SD-OCT in detecting subclinical ocular involvement and monitoring treatment response and risk of relapse in patients with pediatric leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2016.12.002DOI Listing
April 2017

RETINAL METASTASIS FROM SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE LUNG: A CASE PRESENTATION.

Retin Cases Brief Rep 2019 Spring;13(2):141-144

Departments of Ophthalmology, and.

Background/purpose: To present a case with retinal metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

Methods: Case report.

Results: A 54-year-old man presented with blurry vision in his left eye. His medical history was significant for Stage IV squamous lung carcinoma. He was undergoing chemotherapy and had a known metastasis. He had a slightly elevated whitish lesion associated with retinal hemorrhages in the left posterior pole. Optical coherence tomography showed a full-thickness retinal mass. No involvement of the choroid could be detected. Further investigation demonstrated a de novo metastasis in the right frontal lobe of the brain.

Conclusion: The lesion showed remarkable regression with subsequent systemic chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICB.0000000000000553DOI Listing
May 2019

Amino acid and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

Mol Vis 2014 21;20:1357-65. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Department of Ophthalmology. Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Purpose: To study the concentrations of amino acids and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in subretinal fluid (SRF) of cases with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The relevance of the results with postoperative anatomic and functional success in RRD was investigated.

Methods: Fifty-three patients were included in this prospective study. The study group consisted of 46 patients who had scleral buckling surgery with the diagnosis of RRD, and SRF was obtained during the surgery. The control specimens consisted of vitreous samples of seven patients who were diagnosed with pars plana vitrectomy without RRD. Study cases were divided into three groups, corresponding to the duration of retinal detachment. Clinical characteristics, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomic status at month 6, were recorded. Concentrations of 15 selected amino acids were quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography, and VEGF levels were measured with enzyme immunoassay.

Results: When compared with the control group, SRF concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and glycine increased significantly in the study group (p<0.05). Statistical analysis showed that concentrations of alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine decreased (p<0.05). SRF levels of glutamine, taurine, and serine had no significant change. SRF VEGF levels were significantly higher than the vitreous samples of the controls (p<0.001). Time-dependent changes and interactions between VEGF and amino acids were observed. There was no correlation between the concentrations of amino acids or VEGF with the parameters of BCVA and anatomical success.

Conclusions: Significant changes occur in concentrations of amino acids and VEGF in SRF of cases with RRD. Our results suggest that several mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4169890PMC
June 2015

Correlation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings and visual acuity in central serous chorioretinopathy.

Retina 2014 Apr;34(4):705-12

Departments of *Ophthalmology, and †Biostatistics, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate the correlation between spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to determine the visual prognostic factors.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 56 eyes of 49 patients who had the diagnosis of CSC. Patients were categorized into subgroups depending on symptoms and clinical findings. Together with the overall foveal integrity of inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) and external limiting membrane, several features of CSC including hyperreflective dots and hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium were investigated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Thickness measurements within the retina and choroid were performed.

Results: Best-corrected visual acuity was closely associated with IS/OS line integrity (P < 0.001). The length of IS/OS disruption also had significant correlation with BCVA (r = -0.324, P = 0.016). Loss of foveal IS/OS and external limiting membrane line integrity was related to low BCVA (P < 0.001 for both). Presence of hyperreflective dots (P < 0.001) and retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy (P = 0.011) had significant association with visual status. In cases with sequelae of CSC, BCVA was correlated with parameters of outer retinal damage.

Conclusion: Besides the overall integrity of IS/OS line and the length of disruption, loss of foveal IS/OS and external limiting membrane integrity are also noteworthy in cases with CSC. Hyperreflective dots and retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy are closely associated with BCVA in cases with CSC. Analysis of the subgroups has shown that morphologic changes that persist until the late phases of the disease could potentially affect the visual outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000000001DOI Listing
April 2014

S100b protein levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

Curr Eye Res 2012 Nov 6;37(11):1030-5. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate the relevance of the concentration of S100B in subretinal fluid (SRF) with the postoperative anatomical and functional success and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) formation parameters in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).

Methods: Fifty-three patients (34 male, 19 female) were included in this prospective study. Study group consisted of 46 patients who had scleral buckling (SB) surgery with the diagnosis of RRD. Control group consisted of six patients who had pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for either full-thickness macular hole or subluxated intraocular lens. SRFs were obtained during SB surgery. Study cases were divided into three groups, corresponding to the duration of retinal detachment (DRD). Clinical characteristics including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anatomical status at 6 months, the presence of postoperative PVR that resulted in recurrent detachment and any possible re-operations were recorded. The concentration of S100B was quantified by using an enzyme immunoassay test kit.

Results: The concentration of S100B in SRF increased significantly after RRD. And, S100B levels were evidently elevated in concordance with DRD. There was no correlation between the concentration of SRF - S100B with preoperative or postoperative BCVA. Again, S100B levels were not related to the extent of RRD or postoperative PVR formation.

Conclusion: Concentration of S100B in SRF is good marker of retinal stress and increases in concordance with DRD. However it would not help to predict the possible anatomical and functional success or postoperative PVR formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2012.696769DOI Listing
November 2012

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and lateral rectus palsy in an elderly patient.

Case Rep Ophthalmol 2011 Sep 28;2(3):333-7. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, Uludağ University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Acquired palsy of the lateral rectus presents with horizontal diplopia and has a broad differential. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus- (HZO) related cranial nerve palsy is a transient and self-limiting condition. Systemic antiviral treatment is administered in order to prevent sight-threatening complications. In suspected cases, zosteriform rash should be questioned. One should keep in mind that acquired esotropia in the elderly may sometimes present following HZO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000334236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3224518PMC
September 2011

Intravitreal versus sub-tenon posterior triamcinolone injection in bilateral diffuse diabetic macular edema.

Ophthalmologica 2011 10;225(4):222-7. Epub 2011 Mar 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Uludağ University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intravitreal and sub-Tenon (ST) posterior triamcinolone injection in the treatment of bilateral diabetic diffuse macular edema (DDME).

Methods: 28 eyes of 14 diabetic patients with bilateral DDME were included in this prospective randomized study. One eye of each individual received a sub-Tenon (ST) posterior triamcinolone injection (ST group), whereas the fellow eye received an intravitreal triamcinolone injection (IV group). All eyes were treated with supplementary focal laser after the injections. Cases were evaluated 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after the initial treatment.

Results: Both groups had visual improvement and macular edema reduction following the injections. This temporary effect was prominent for 24 weeks in the IV group and for 8 weeks in the ST group. Edema resorption and visual improvement were more pronounced in the IV group, although this difference was not statistically significant. No major complications were observed except for moderate and reversible intraocular pressure elevation in some cases.

Conclusion: Both intravitreal and ST injections of triamcinolone appear to yield a significant visual recovery and prompt resolution of DDME. The beneficial outcome appears to be more longstanding with intravitreal injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000324714DOI Listing
August 2011

A clinical comparison of dynamic contour tonometry versus Goldmann applanation tonometry.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2010 Jul-Aug;41(4):437-42

Department of Ophthalmology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Background And Objective: To compare the intraocular pressures (IOP) obtained with dynamic contour tonometry (DCT) and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and to determine the dependency of both devices on corneal structure.

Patients And Methods: One hundred forty eyes of 70 patients were included. Cases with corneal pathologies, former glaucoma diagnosis, and systemic diseases were excluded. All eyes underwent measurements of central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal curvature. IOP measurements were obtained with GAT and DCT. The agreement of measurements was statistically analyzed.

Results: The correlation of IOP values obtained with DCT and GAT was statistically significant. The mean DCT values were 0.46 ± 2.55 mm Hg higher than those of GAT, but this difference was statistically insignificant. Bland-Altman plots showed reasonable inter-method agreement between DCT and GAT measurements. GAT readings were significantly affected by CCT, but DCT measurements were affected by age and corneal curvature.

Conclusion: DCT is a reliable method of assessing IOP and is less dependent on central corneal thickness. This new technology may be a promising step forward in the management of glaucoma. Further studies are required to validate these observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/15428877-20100426-01DOI Listing
July 2011

Replacement of the Lens and its Capsule that Dislocated to the Anterior Chamber by the Posterior Iris Claw Lens.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2010 Mar 9:1-2. Epub 2010 Mar 9.

In a case with retinitis pigmentosa, the intraocular lens that dislocated to the anterior chamber 20 tears after the cataract surgery has been removed via scleral tunnel incision. Then, the iris claw lens was placed behind the iris again by the scleral tunnel. This case was reported as an example for both its existing and rehabilitation method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/15428877-20100215-28DOI Listing
March 2010

SUBCONJUNCTIVAL INTERFERON α-2A APPLICATION IN A CASE WITH SERPIGINOUS CHOROIDOPATHY.

Retin Cases Brief Rep 2009 ;3(2):214-7

From the Department of Ophthalmology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Background: Serpiginous choroidopathy (SC) is a chronic, inflammatory disease which progresses with recurrences leading to visual loss. Diverse immunosuppressive regimens have been used for treatment. In case of an unanticipated side effect with immunosuppressive agents, alternative modalities in SC are limited.

Methods: A 38-year-old woman presented with slight deterioration in visual acuity in her right eye. She had had a visually devastating episode of SC in the left eye 8 months previously. She received combination therapy of prednisone, cyclosporine, and intravitreal triamcinolone for the left eye. With that treatment, vision in her left eye declined to light perception due to macular involvement and renal functions were impaired. Eight months later, she was hospitalized with the diagnosis of SC in the right eye. In the quest for an alternative modality, a combination of antituberculosis medications was given initially, because of the high PPD reading. Despite 10 days of treatment, the lesion persistently progressed. Subsequently, interferon (INF) α-2a therapy was initiated solely as daily injections of 1 million unit (MIU) subconjunctivally. The frequency of injections was tapered within the course. Currently, injections are still being dispensed once a month.

Results: Throughout the 12 months of follow-up, the patient had no major side effects due to INF α-2a therapy. At present, SC in the right eye is inactive and the macula is safe in terms of incurring. The vision is 20/20 in the right eye, whereas it is light perception in the left eye.

Conclusion: Interferon α-2a administration in SC can be an efficient modality and is free of immunosuppression related side effects. Subconjunctival application seems to be a promising and safe tool for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICB.0b013e318166bd57DOI Listing
November 2014
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