Publications by authors named "Ouafaa Fassi Fihri"

32 Publications

Seroprevalence of Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and Equine Herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) in the Northern Moroccan Horse Populations.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Medicine, Surgery, and Reproduction, Agronomy and Veterinary Institute Hassan II, Rabat 10000, Morocco.

This study reports the first equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) and equine herpesvirus-4 (EHV-4) seroprevalence investigation in horse populations of Morocco in 24 years. It also aims to determine antibody titers in horses vaccinated under field conditions with a monovalent EHV-1 vaccine. Blood samples were collected from 405 horses, including 163 unvaccinated and 242 vaccinated animals. They were tested using a commercial type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a virus neutralization test (VNT). Overall, 12.8% unvaccinated, and 21.8% vaccinated horses were positive for EHV-1. All samples were positive for EHV-4 when tested with the type-specific ELISA. In the vaccinated group, the VNT revealed a mean antibody titer of 1:49 for EHV-1 and 1:45 for EHV-4. The present study demonstrates that EHV-1 and EHV-4 are endemic in the horse populations in the north of Morocco, with prevalence differences between regions. Furthermore, horses vaccinated with a monovalent EHV-1 vaccine had low antibodies titers. This study highlights the necessity to establish and/or support efficient biosecurity strategies based on sound management of horses and characterize further and potentially improve the efficiency of the EHV vaccines and vaccination protocol used in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11102851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532652PMC
September 2021

Biological and molecular characterization of a sheep pathogen isolate of and leukotoxin production kinetics.

Vet World 2021 Aug 7;14(8):2031-2040. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Contagious Diseases, Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco.

Background And Aim: (Mha) is a common agent of pneumonia in ruminants globally, causing economic losses by morbidity, mortality, and treatment costs. Infection by Mha is often associated with or promoted by respiratory viral pathogens and environmental conditions. Infections due to Mha have rarely been described in small ruminants. This study reports the biological and molecular characteristics of a new Moroccan Mha isolate from small ruminants presenting typical respiratory symptoms. We also studied the cultural parameters, growth kinetics, and Lkt excretion of the isolate and its pathogenicity on laboratory animals and small ruminants.

Materials And Methods: Suspected pasteurellosis cases in sheep and goat flocks in Morocco were investigated. A local strain of Mha was isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Polymerase chain reaction-targeting specific genes were used for serotyping and phylogenetic analyses; further, leukotoxin production, cytotoxicity, and pathogenicity of the isolate in mice, goats, and sheep were investigated.

Results: Phylogeny analysis revealed 98.76% sequence identity with the USA isolate of 2013; the strain growth with a cycle of 9-10 h with leukotoxin secretion was detected by NETosis and quantified by cytotoxicity and mortality of mice. Goat and sheep infections cause hyperthermia, with characteristic postmortem lesions in the trachea and lung.

Conclusion: A local isolate of Mha from sheep that died of pneumonia was characterized for the 1 time in North Africa using biological and molecular methods. Although growth on appropriate culture media is accompanied by intense leukotoxin secretion, experimental infections of sheep and goats cause hyperthermia and typical lesions of pneumonia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2021.2031-2040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448628PMC
August 2021

Draft Genome Sequence of the Capripoxvirus Vaccine Strain KSGP 0240, Reisolated from Cattle.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 29;10(30):e0044021. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Research and Development Department, Multi-Chemical Industry, Mohammedia, Morocco.

Control of lumpy skin disease in cattle is based on vaccination with live attenuated vaccines. The Kenyan strain KSGP 0240 is commonly used to vaccinate ruminants against capripox infections, but the conferred protection is still controversial. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of the vaccine strain KSGP 0240, reisolated from cattle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00440-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320456PMC
July 2021

Investigation of Post Vaccination Reactions of Two Live Attenuated Vaccines against Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

MCI Santé Animale, Mohammedia 28810, Morocco.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an economically important disease in cattle. The only method for successful control is early diagnosis and efficient vaccination. Adverse effects of vaccination such as local inflammation at the injection site and localized or generalized skin lesions in some vaccinated animals have been reported with live vaccines. The aim of this work was to compare the safety of two lumpy skin disease (LSD) vaccine strains, Kenyan (Kn) Sheep and Goat Pox (KSGP O-240) and LSDV Neethling (Nt) strain, and to determine the etiology of the post-vaccination (pv) reactions observed in cattle. Experimental cattle were vaccinated under controlled conditions with Nt- and KSGP O-240-based vaccines, using two different doses, and animals were observed for 3 months for any adverse reactions. Three out of 45 cattle vaccinated with LSDV Nt strain (6.7%) and three out of 24 cattle vaccinated with Kn strain (12.5%) presented LSD-like skin nodules, providing evidence that the post-vaccination lesions may not be strain-dependent. Lesions appeared 1-3 weeks after vaccination and were localized in the neck or covering the whole body. Animals recovered after 3 weeks. There is a positive correlation between the vaccine dose and the appearance of skin lesions in vaccinated animals; at the 105 dose, 12% of the animals reacted versus 3.7% at the 104 dose. Both strains induced solid immunity when protection was measured by neutralizing antibody seroconversion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226854PMC
June 2021

Phenotypic and genetic characterization of MERS coronaviruses from Africa to understand their zoonotic potential.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 06;118(25)

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong (HKU), Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China;

Coronaviruses are pathogens of pandemic potential. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a zoonotic respiratory disease of global public health concern, and dromedary camels are the only proven source of zoonotic infection. More than 70% of MERS-CoV-infected dromedaries are found in East, North, and West Africa, but zoonotic MERS disease is only reported from the Arabian Peninsula. We compared viral replication competence of clade A and B viruses from the Arabian Peninsula with genetically diverse clade C viruses found in East (Egypt, Kenya, and Ethiopia), North (Morocco), and West (Nigeria and Burkina Faso) Africa. Viruses from Africa had lower replication competence in ex vivo cultures of the human lung and in lungs of experimentally infected human-DPP4 (hDPP4) knockin mice. We used lentivirus pseudotypes expressing MERS-CoV spike from Saudi Arabian clade A prototype strain (EMC) or African clade C1.1 viruses and demonstrated that clade C1.1 spike was associated with reduced virus entry into the respiratory epithelial cell line Calu-3. Isogenic EMC viruses with spike protein from EMC or clade C1.1 generated by reverse genetics showed that the clade C1.1 spike was associated with reduced virus replication competence in Calu-3 cells in vitro, in ex vivo human bronchus, and in lungs of hDPP4 knockin mice in vivo. These findings may explain why zoonotic MERS disease has not been reported from Africa so far, despite exposure to and infection with MERS-CoV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2103984118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237650PMC
June 2021

Genome Sequence of MHA.Sh.MOR19 Serotype 1, a Moroccan Sheep Isolate.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 May 27;10(21):e0035921. Epub 2021 May 27.

Research and Development Department, Multi-Chemical Industry, Mohammedia, Morocco.

Mannheimia haemolytica is the principle bacterial pathogen in ruminants associated with respiratory disease. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Mannheimia haemolytica MHA.Sh.MOR19 strain that was recently isolated in the northwest of Morocco from the lung of a lamb that died from pneumonia. The genome size is 2,434,458 bp.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00359-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201628PMC
May 2021

Capripoxvirus Infections in Ruminants: A Review.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 23;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Contagious Diseases, Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II, Madinat Al Irfane, Rabat 6202, Morocco.

Lumpy skin disease, sheeppox, and goatpox are notifiable diseases of cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively, caused by viruses of the Capripoxvirus genus. They are responsible for both direct and indirect financial losses. These losses arise through animal mortality, morbidity cost of vaccinations, and constraints to animals and animal products' trade. Control and eradication of capripoxviruses depend on early detection of outbreaks, vector control, strict animal movement, and vaccination which remains the most effective means of control. To date, live attenuated vaccines are widely used; however, conferred protection remains controversial. Many vaccines have been associated with adverse reactions and incomplete protection in sheep, goats, and cattle. Many combination- and recombinant-based vaccines have also been developed. Here, we review capripoxvirus infections and the immunity conferred against capripoxviruses by their respective vaccines for each ruminant species. We also review their related cross protection to heterologous infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145859PMC
April 2021

An Evaluation of Three Different Primary Equine Influenza Vaccination Intervals in Foals.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 04 3;99:103397. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Reproduction, Hassan II Institute for Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine - B.P 6202 Rabat-Institutes, Rabat, Morocco.

In order to evaluate the effect of three different primary vaccination intervals on EI vaccine response, 21 unvaccinated thoroughbred foals were randomly divided into three groups of 7 and vaccinated with three different intervals of primary immunization (i.e., with 1, 2 or 3 months intervals between V1 and V2, respectively). The antibody response was measured for up to 1 year after the third immunization V3 (administered 6 months after V2) by single radial hemolysis (SRH) assay. All weanlings had seroconverted and exceeded the clinical protection threshold 2 weeks after V2 and 1 month after V3 until the end of the study. Significant differences were measured at the peak of immunity after V2 and for the duration of the immunity gap between V2 and V3. The group with one month primary vaccination interval had a lower immunity peak after V2 (158.05 ± 6.63 mm) and a wider immunity gap between V2 and V3 (18 weeks) when compared with other groups (i.e., 174.72 ± 6.86 mm and 16 weeks for a two months interval, 221.45 ± 14.48 mm and 12 weeks for a 3-month interval). The advantage observed in the group with 1 month primary vaccination interval, which induces an earlier protective immunity, is counterbalance with a lower peak of immunity and a wider immunity gap after V2, when compared with foals vaccinated with 2- and 3-month intervals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2021.103397DOI Listing
April 2021

Experimental infection of indigenous North African goats with goatpox virus.

Acta Vet Scand 2021 Mar 4;63(1). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Research and Development, Multi-Chemical Industry Santé Animale, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P.: 278, 28810, Mohammedia, Morocco.

Background: Goatpox is a viral disease caused by infection with goatpox virus (GTPV) of the genus Capripoxvirus, Poxviridae family. Capripoxviruses cause serious disease to livestock and contribute to huge economic losses. Goatpox and sheeppox are endemic to Africa, particularly north of the Equator, the Middle East and many parts of Asia. GTPV and sheeppox virus are considered host-specific; however, both strains can cause clinical disease in either goats or sheep with more severe disease in the homologous species and mild or sub-clinical infection in the other. Goatpox has never been reported in Morocco, Algeria or Tunisia despite the huge population of goats living in proximity with sheep in those countries. To evaluate the susceptibility and pathogenicity of indigenous North African goats to GTPV infection, we experimentally inoculated eight locally bred goats with a virulent Vietnamese isolate of GTPV. Two uninfected goats were kept as controls. Clinical examination was carried out daily and blood was sampled for virology and for investigating the antibody response. After necropsy, tissues were collected and assessed for viral DNA using real-time PCR.

Results: Following the experimental infection, all inoculated goats displayed clinical signs characteristic of goatpox including varying degrees of hyperthermia, loss of appetite, inactivity and cutaneous lesions. The infection severely affected three of the infected animals while moderate to mild disease was noticed in the remaining goats. A high antibody response was developed. High viral DNA loads were detected in skin crusts and nodules, and subcutaneous tissue at the injection site with cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 14.6 to 22.9, while lower viral loads were found in liver and lung (Ct = 35.7 and 35.1). The results confirmed subcutaneous tropism of the virus.

Conclusion: Clinical signs of goatpox were reproduced in indigenous North African goats and confirmed a high susceptibility of the North African goat breed to GTPV infection. A clinical scoring system is proposed that can be applied in GTPV vaccine efficacy studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00574-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931584PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of integrated control of three dog transmitted zoonoses: Rabies, visceral leishmaniasis and cystic echinococcosis, in Morocco.

Acta Trop 2020 Dec 7;212:105689. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Pathology and Veterinary Public Health, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, BP: 6202, Rabat-Instituts, Rabat, Morocco.

The present study is a component of a major European research project, ICONZ (Integrated Control of Neglected Zoonoses). The objective of this component was to implement, and then evaluate an Integrated Control Intervention (ICI) against three dog transmitted zoonoses, namely rabies, visceral leishmaniasis, and cystic echinococcosis. This was undertaken in Sidi Kacem Province (northwestern Morocco) where 22 control and 22 treated douars (villages) were randomly allocated to two control and one evaluation interventions over a period of 13 months. Across the 44 douars, an overall total of 6922 dogs were registered, 4519 were vaccinated against rabies, and 2885 persons attended the complementary health education campaigns; whereas, within the 22 treated douars, 466 dogs received anti-sandfly collars (deltamethrin-impregnated) and 2487 were dewormed (praziquantel). Evaluation of the ICI, revealed that (i) a canine rabies vaccination coverage of 65.0% was achieved, (ii) the use of deltamethrin-impregnated collars for dogs provided highly significant protection (p = 0.01) against leishmaniasis infection of more than 44%, and up to 100% for dogs that had kept the collar until the end of the intervention, (iii) despite a non-significant difference (p>0.05), dog-deworming with praziquantel yielded a reduction in the rate of Echinococcus granulosus infection, and (iv) health education was successful in improving respondents' knowledge; However, the target communities remained unconvinced of the necessity of changing some of their risky behaviours. Lastly, the estimated total cost of the global intervention, including its research components, was US$ 143,050, of which 67% was for disease control work with clear evidence of significant economies of scale due to targeting three diseases together. It appears from this study that the integrated control approach against the three zoonoses was effective on both economic and logistical levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105689DOI Listing
December 2020

Experimental evaluation of the cross-protection between Sheeppox and bovine Lumpy skin vaccines.

Sci Rep 2020 06 1;10(1):8888. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Research and Development Virology, Multi-Chemical Industry, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P.: 278, Mohammedia, 28810, Morocco.

The Capripoxvirus genus includes three agents: Sheeppox virus, Goatpox virus and Lumpy skin disease virus. Related diseases are of economic importance and present a major constraint to animals and animal products trade in addition to mortality and morbidity. Attenuated vaccines against these diseases are available, but afforded cross-protection is controversial in each specie. In this study, groups of sheep, goats and cattle were vaccinated with Romania SPPV vaccine and challenged with corresponding virulent strains. Sheep and cattle were also vaccinated with Neethling LSDV vaccine and challenged with both virulent SPPV and LSDV strains. Animals were monitored by clinical observation, rectal temperature as well as serological response. The study showed that sheep and goats vaccinated with Romania SPPV vaccine were fully protected against challenge with virulent SPPV and GTPV strains, respectively. However, small ruminants vaccinated with LSDV Neethling vaccine showed only partial protection against challenge with virulent SPPV strain. Cattle showed also only partial protection when vaccinated with Romania SPPV and were fully protected with Neethling LSDV vaccine. This study showed that SPPV and GTPV vaccines are closely related with cross-protection, while LSDV protects only cattle against the corresponding disease, which suggests that vaccination against LSDV should be carried out with homologous strain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65856-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264126PMC
June 2020

Development and Evaluation of an Inactivated Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccine for Cattle.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jun 18;245:108689. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Research and development Virology, Multi-Chemical Industry, Lot. 157, ZI Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P: 278, Mohammedia 28810, Morocco.

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle is caused by a virus within Capripoxvirus genus. It leads to huge economic losses in addition to trade and animal movement limitation. Vaccination is the only economically feasible way to control this vector-borne disease. Only live attenuated vaccines have been used so far and no inactivated vaccine has been developed nor tested in cattle. In this study, we developed an inactivated oily adjuvanted vaccine based on Neethling strain and tested it on cattle. Selected criteria of appreciation were safety, antibody response by Virus Neutralization and protection through challenge. A field trial was also performed in Bulgaria. The vaccine was safe and did not cause any adverse reaction, high level of specific antibodies was obtained starting from day 7 post-vaccination and protection against virulent challenge strain that caused typical disease in control animals was total. Induced protection was similar to that obtained with live vaccine, without any adverse effect. In addition, the field study confirmed safety and efficacy of the vaccine, which did not show any adverse reaction and induced a high level of antibodies for up to one year. General prophylaxis based on inactivated vaccine could be of great benefit in endemic countries or at risk regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108689DOI Listing
June 2020

Complete genome analysis and time scale evolution of very virulent infectious bursal disease viruses isolated from recent outbreaks in Morocco.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 01 31;77:104097. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, IHAP, F- 31076 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Emerging of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) genotype in poultry flocks in Morocco were characterized. VP2 sequence analysis showed that the strains of Moroccan vvIBDV genotypes clustered separately from classic and vaccine strains reference of IBDV. The full-length genome of four Moroccan vvIBDV strains was determined, in order to get a more exhaustive molecular characterization allowing to conduct the evolution time scale and speculations on their origin. In a phylogenetic tree, nucleotide sequences of segment A and B formed a common branch with those vvIBDV references strains published in GenBank, but they clearly grouped into a distinct subcluster. An alignment of deduced amino acid sequences segment B, confirmed the presence of the conserved TDN tripeptide found in all of the vvIBDV genotype and revealed the presence of 2 substitutions I472L and E688D specific for the vvIBDV Moroccan isolates. The deduced amino acid sequences of segment A genes showed the presence of the "signature" typical of the vvIBDV genotype and revealed the presence of 7 aa substitutions specific for the vvIBDV Moroccan strains. The evolution rate for IBDV VP2 gene was estimated at 5.875 × 10 substitutions/site/year. The estimation of the time to most common recent ancestor of Moroccan vvIBDV based on the VP2 sequences available was 31 years, corresponding to 3 years earlier than the first vvIBDV case detection in layers in the country.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104097DOI Listing
January 2020

Sheep pestivirus in Morocco: sero-epidemiological and molecular study.

Vet Rec Open 2019 3;6(1):e000324. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Surgery and Reproduction, Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco.

The present study is the first to investigate Border disease caused by the sheep pestivirus (SPV) in sheep herds in Morocco. Sero-epidemiological investigations were carried out in six regions of the Kingdom, known as important in terms of sheep breeding. A total of 760 blood samples were collected including aborted ewes from 28 randomly selected farms. The samples were analysed, for the determination of anti-pestivirus antibodies, using indirect ELISA technique. Next, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted on serologically negative samples to identify possible persistently infected (PI) animals, through detection of specific RNA fragment. The results revealed an overall SPV seroprevalence in studied areas of 28.9%. The difference in seroprevalence between the six investigated regions was not statistically significant (p>0.05) and varied slightly from 20.9% to 37.5%. Furthermore, 93% of investigated farms were affected with an average seroprevalence of 22.7% (with a variation of 1%-74%). RT-PCR results were all negative, indicating the absence of PI animals in the tested samples. Nevertheless, the present study revealed that SPV is endemic in Morocco.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vetreco-2018-000324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746540PMC
September 2019

Diversity of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus HKU23 in African Camels Revealed Multiple Recombination Events among Closely Related Betacoronaviruses of the Subgenus Embecovirus.

J Virol 2019 12 13;93(23). Epub 2019 Nov 13.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Republic of China

Genetic recombination has frequently been observed in coronaviruses. Here, we sequenced multiple complete genomes of dromedary camel coronavirus HKU23 (DcCoV-HKU23) from Nigeria, Morocco, and Ethiopia and identified several genomic positions indicative of cross-species virus recombination events among other betacoronaviruses of the subgenus Embecovirus (clade A beta-CoVs). Recombinant fragments of a rabbit coronavirus (RbCoV-HKU14) were identified at the hemagglutinin esterase gene position. Homolog fragments of a rodent CoV were also observed at 8.9-kDa open reading frame 4a at the 3' end of the spike gene. The patterns of recombination differed geographically across the African region, highlighting a mosaic structure of DcCoV-HKU23 genomes circulating in dromedaries. Our results highlighted active recombination of coronaviruses circulating in dromedaries and are also relevant to the emergence and evolution of other betacoronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Genetic recombination is often demonstrated in coronaviruses and can result in host range expansion or alteration in tissue tropism. Here, we showed interspecies events of recombination of an endemic dromedary camel coronavirus, HKU23, with other clade A betacoronaviruses. Our results supported the possibility that the zoonotic pathogen MERS-CoV, which also cocirculates in the same camel species, may have undergone similar recombination events facilitating its emergence or may do so in its future evolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01236-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854494PMC
December 2019

Co-infections of chickens with avian influenza virus H9N2 and Moroccan Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus: effect on pathogenesis and protection conferred by different vaccination programmes.

Avian Pathol 2020 Feb 3;49(1):21-28. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INRA, UMR IHAP, Toulouse, France.

Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific-pathogen-free chickens. Most common field vaccine programmes were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco/SF1/2016 (Mor-H9N2) were thus inoculated to commercial chickens. We showed that vaccination with two heterologous IBV vaccines (H120 at day one and 4/91 at day 14 of age) reduced the severity of clinical signs as well as macroscopic lesions after simultaneous experimental challenge. In addition, LPAI H9N2 vaccination was more efficient at day 7 than at day 1 in limiting disease post simultaneous challenge. Simultaneous challenge with IBV and AIV H9N2 induced higher pathogenicity in SPF birds than inoculation with IBV or AIV H9N2 alone.Recommended vaccination programme in commercial broilers to counter Mor-IT02 IBV and LPAIV H9N2 simultaneous infections: IB live vaccine H120 (d1), AIV H9N2 inactivated vaccine (d7), IB live vaccine 4-91 (d14).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2019.1656328DOI Listing
February 2020

Identification of Eilat virus and prevalence of infection among Culex pipiens L. populations, Morocco, 2016.

Virology 2019 04 12;530:85-88. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of animal pathology and public health. Hassan II Agronomy & Veterinary Medicine Institute, Rabat, Morocco. Electronic address:

Eilat virus (EILV) is described as one of the few alphaviruses restricted to insects. We report the record of a nearly-complete sequence of an alphavirus genome showing 95% identity with EILV during a metagenomic analysis performed on 1488 unblood-fed females and 1076 larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens captured in Rabat (Morocco). Genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses placed the EILV-Morocco as a variant of EILV. The observed infection rates in both larvae and adults suggested an active circulation of the virus in Rabat and its maintenance in the environment either through vertical transmission or through horizontal infection of larvae in breeding sites. This is the first report of EILV out of Israel and in Culex pipiens populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.02.007DOI Listing
April 2019

The value of camels as sentinels for bluetongue virus in Morocco.

Vet Ital 2018 12 31;54(4):343-348. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Agronomy and Veterinary Institute (IAV) Hassan II, Al Irfane, Rabat, Morocco.

A  serosurvey  was  conducted  to  determine  the  value  of  camels  (Camelus  dromedaries)  as sentinel animals for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Morocco. Between 2010 and 2013, camels from various localities in Morocco were randomly tested for antibodies against BTV  serotypes‑1,  ‑4,  ‑6,  ‑8,  ‑11,  ‑14,  and  ‑16.  Antibodies  against  1  or  more  serotypes  were detected in 41.8% of 537 camels tested with a competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay  (ELISA)  diagnostic  test.  Of  the  7  tested  serotypes,  only  BTV‑11  antibodies  were  not detected with serum neutralisation assays. This study not only confirms the epidemiological presence of BTV‑1, ‑4, and ‑8 in Morocco, but also presents the first evidence of BTV‑6, ‑14, and ‑16 in the country. As such, we conclude that camels would be ideal sentinel animals to determine the potential risk of BTV in Morocco.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1502.8097.1DOI Listing
December 2018

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus circulating in Morocco during 2016-2017.

Arch Virol 2019 Feb 26;164(2):381-390. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Unité de Pathologie Aviaire, Département de Pathologie et Santé Publique Vétérinaire, IAV Hassan II, BP 6202, Rabat-Instituts, 10000, Rabat, Morocco.

Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV), the cause of significant economic losses in many poultry-producing areas, has been present in Morocco since 1991. In spite of the introduction of vaccination, disease outbreaks are frequently observed. To ascertain if vaccines failure may be due to the emergence of new strains, the aim of this study was to perform for the first time the molecular characterization of vvIBDV strains circulating in Morocco by focusing on the hypervariable region (HVR) of the VP2 protein, which is frequently used for molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies. Field samples of haemorrhagic bursae of Fabricius were collected for molecular characterization in different parts of the country during 2016-2017 from 48 chicken flocks showing symptoms of disease. In a phylogenetic tree, nucleotide sequences containing the VP2 HVR of 13 samples that were positive for vvIBDV formed a common branch with those of vvIBDV references strains published in GenBank, but they clearly grouped into a distinct subcluster. An alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences, in addition to confirming the presence of the "signature" typical of the vvIBDV HVR, also revealed the presence of substitutions in hydrophilic loops that are known to be involved in the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies. One of these substitutions is unique to the Moroccan isolates. These results represent the first molecular characterization of vvIBDV isolates in Morocco and may indicate that one of the causes of vaccine ineffectiveness is antigenic drift.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-4076-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of Mixed Equine Influenza Vaccination on Correlate of Protection in Horses.

Vaccines (Basel) 2018 Oct 4;6(4). Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Contagious Diseases, Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II-B.P 6202 Rabat-Institutes, Rabat-Institutes 10101, Morocco.

To evaluate the humoral immune response to mixed Equine Influenza vaccination, a common practice in the field, an experimental study was carried out on 42 unvaccinated thoroughbred weanling foals divided into six groups of seven. Three groups were vaccinated using a non-mixed protocol (Equilis Prequenza-Te, Proteqflu-Te or Calvenza-03) and three other groups were vaccinated using a mix of the three vaccines mentioned previously. Each weanling underwent a primary EI vaccination schedule composed of two primary immunisations (V1 and V2) four weeks apart followed by a third boost immunisation (V3) six months later. Antibody responses were monitored until one-year post-V3 by single radial haemolysis (SRH). The results showed similar antibody responses for all groups using mixed EI vaccination and the group exclusively vaccinated with Equilis Prequenza-TE, which were significantly higher than the other two groups vaccinated with Proteqflu-TE and Calvenza-03. All weanlings (100%) failed to seroconvert after V1 and 21% (9/42) still had low or no SRH antibody titres two weeks post-V2. All weanlings had seroconverted and exceeded the clinical protection threshold one month after V3. The poor response to vaccination was primarily observed in groups exclusively vaccinated with Proteqflu-Te and Calvenza-03. A large window of susceptibility (3⁻4.5-month duration) usually called immunity gap was observed after V2 and prior to V3 for all groups. The SRH antibody level was maintained above the clinical protection threshold for three months post-V3 for the groups exclusively vaccinated with Proteqflu-Te and Calvenza-03, and six months to one year for groups using mixed EI vaccination or exclusively vaccinated with Equilis Prequenza-Te. This study demonstrates for the first time that the mix of EI vaccines during the primary vaccination schedule has no detrimental impact on the correlate of protection against EIV infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6040071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313876PMC
October 2018

Serological investigation of racehorse vaccination against equine influenza in Morocco.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Sep 11;223:153-159. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Contagious Diseases, Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II- B.P 6202 Rabat-Institutes, Morocco.

In order to evaluate the vaccination status against equine influenza (EI) in Moroccan racehorses, a serological investigation was carried out on 509 racehorses using three serological tests: an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), the Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test and the Single Radial Haemolysis (SRH) assay. The serological analysis showed 56% of seropositivity by ELISA, 67% by HI and 89.4% by SRH (with 69.9% above the clinical protection threshold). Using the Kappa test, the SRH and HI assays showed a strong agreement, the SRH and ELISA assays had a moderate agreement and the HI and ELISA assays showed a poor agreement. Seropositivity was positively correlated with the age of horses and the number of immunisation received. EI vaccines used during the last immunisation before the study had a weak influence on the serological status. This effect was observed when the vaccines Calvenza and Fluvac Innovator® were used, with 94.1% and 100% of seropositivity when measured by HI, and with 100% and 94.7% exceeding the clinical protection threshold when measured by SRH, respectively. No effect was found when other EI vaccines, including Prequenza-Te® (67% coverage (342/509) and Proteqflu-Te® (22% coverage (114/509) were used; with 64% and 67.5% seropositivity (HI) and with 66.4% and 72.8% above the clinical threshold (SRH), respectively. The location and the time since last vaccination have no influence on the serological result. Overall, levels of protective antibody against EI in Moroccan racehorses remain a concern despite mandatory vaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.08.014DOI Listing
September 2018

Consumption of antibacterial molecules in broiler production in Morocco.

Vet Med Sci 2018 05 8;4(2):80-90. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Avian Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Public Health, Agronomy and Veterinary Institute Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco.

Monitoring the use of antibacterial agents in food-producing animals is crucial in order to reduce antimicrobial resistance, selection and dissemination of resistant bacterial strains, and drug residues in the animal food products. The broiler production sector is considered a great consumer of antibacterials and incriminated in the rise of antimicrobial resistance level in zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Following recommendations from the OIE and WHO, a survey was conducted about the use and consumption of several antibacterial agents in Moroccan broiler flocks. More than 5 million broilers were randomly surveyed at the prescriber level, that is, via the veterinary clinics involved in their health management. The results showed that 93% of the flocks received at least one antibacterial treatment of minimum 3 days duration. Enrofloxacin, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphonamides were the most used antibacterials followed by oxytetracycline, florfenicol and amoxicillin. Oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and colistin were overdosed in most of the administration, while amoxicillin and the combination of trimethoprim/sulphonamides were under-dosed. The total amount of antibacterial consumed in the survey was 63.48 mg/kg and the Animal Level of Exposure to Antimicrobials (ALEA) was 94.45%. The reasons for this frequent use were related mainly to the poor quality of broiler production management. Chicks and animal feed provided to producers were of variable quality. Management of rearing stock density was often poor and biosecurity inadequate, and broilers were challenged by a high prevalence of infectious diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.89DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5979618PMC
May 2018

MERS coronaviruses from camels in Africa exhibit region-dependent genetic diversity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 03 5;115(12):3144-3149. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Republic of China;

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a zoonotic respiratory disease of global public health concern, and dromedary camels are the only proven source of zoonotic infection. Although MERS-CoV infection is ubiquitous in dromedaries across Africa as well as in the Arabian Peninsula, zoonotic disease appears confined to the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoVs from Africa have hitherto been poorly studied. We genetically and phenotypically characterized MERS-CoV from dromedaries sampled in Morocco, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. Viruses from Africa (clade C) are phylogenetically distinct from contemporary viruses from the Arabian Peninsula (clades A and B) but remain antigenically similar in microneutralization tests. Viruses from West (Nigeria, Burkina Faso) and North (Morocco) Africa form a subclade, C1, that shares clade-defining genetic signatures including deletions in the accessory gene Compared with human and camel MERS-CoV from Saudi Arabia, virus isolates from Burkina Faso (BF785) and Nigeria (Nig1657) had lower virus replication competence in Calu-3 cells and in ex vivo cultures of human bronchus and lung. BF785 replicated to lower titer in lungs of human DPP4-transduced mice. A reverse genetics-derived recombinant MERS-CoV (EMC) lacking elicited higher type I and III IFN responses than the isogenic EMC virus in Calu-3 cells. However, deletions may not be the major determinant of the reduced replication competence of BF785 and Nig1657. Genetic and phenotypic differences in West African viruses may be relevant to zoonotic potential. There is an urgent need for studies of MERS-CoV at the animal-human interface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1718769115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866576PMC
March 2018

Efficacy of Massachusetts and 793B Vaccines Against Infectious Bronchitis Moroccan-Italy 02 Virus in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens and Commercial Broilers.

Avian Dis 2017 12;61(4):466-471

A Unité de Pathologie Aviaire, Département de Pathologie et Santé Publique Vétérinaire, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, BP 6202, Rabat- Instituts, Rabat, Morocco 10000.

The ability of commercial vaccines H120 and 4/91 to protect against Moroccan-Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus (Mor-It02) was investigated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and commercial broiler chickens. Commercial broiler chicks (Experiment 1) were vaccinated at the hatchery with H120 vaccine at Day 1, and challenged at Day 21 with 10 50% egg-infective dose (EID) of Mor-It02. All chicks were observed daily for clinical signs attributable to Mor-It02 infection during the 10 days postchallenge (pc). At 5 and 10 days pc, chicks were humanely sacrificed for necropsy examination, and tissues were collected for histopathology evaluation. To better understand the findings on commercial broilers, day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups in a second experiment: Group Mass/4-91, vaccinated with H120 and 4/91 respectively at Days 1 and 15 of age; Group Mass/Mass, vaccinated by H120 at Days 1 and 15; Group Mass, vaccinated with H120 at Day 1; Group NV, kept unvaccinated; and Group NC, kept as a negative control (unchallenged). At Day 24 of age, Groups Mass/4-91, Mass/Mass, Mass, and NV were challenged with 10 EID of Mor-It02. In both experiments, blood samples were collected at different periods for serologic analyses. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virus detection by reverse-transcription PCR. In Experiments 1 and 2, respiratory signs started as early as 24 hr pc and maximum severity was observed on Days 3 and 4 pc. The viral shedding rate was significantly lower in Group Mass/4-91 compared to other challenged groups. Serologic analysis in both experiments showed that the sera of challenged group exhibited significantly higher antibody titers than sera collected before challenge. Histopathologic investigations in SPF birds showed deciliation and hyperplasia in Group NV and less-pronounced lesions in Groups Mass/Mass and Mass. In commercial broilers vaccinated with H120 alone, hyperplasia and deciliation were observed in 90% of the tracheas. These experiments illustrated that Mor-It02 is pathogenic for chickens and a combination of live H120 and 4/91 vaccines given respectively at Day 1 and Day 15 of age confer a good protection against Mor-It02.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11686-060817-Reg.1DOI Listing
December 2017

Susceptibility of Moroccan sheep and goat breeds to peste des petits ruminants virus.

Acta Vet Scand 2017 Sep 7;59(1):56. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Research and Development, MCI Santé Animale, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC), B.P. 278, 28810, Mohammedia, Morocco.

Background: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Asia and Africa. In 2008, a PPR outbreak was reported for the first time in Morocco and a mass vaccination campaign allowed control of the disease. In this study, the susceptibility of four Moroccan local breeds of small ruminants to PPR virus was investigated by experimental infections. The objective was to make recommendations for improved epidemiological surveillance in Morocco by evaluating the susceptibility of the dominant Moroccan small ruminant breeds. Three parameters were studied: hyperthermia, clinical scoring and virus excretion. The outcome was compared to Alpine goats, which are considered one of the most sensitive breeds.

Results: The study showed that the local goat breed was the most sensitive breed with a susceptibility rate of 67%, followed by Timahdit, Beni Guil and Sardi sheep with 48, 29 and 26%, respectively. Serological testing including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and viral neutralization showed that the Timahdit breed developed a stronger antibody response compared to the other breeds. Although the clinical signs observed in the sheep were mild, evidence of viral excretion was detected by means of a polymerase chain reaction assay.

Conclusions: It is recommended that effective surveillance should focus on susceptible breeds complemented with serological surveillance of the sheep population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-017-0323-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590148PMC
September 2017

A Century Spent Combating Rabies in Morocco (1911-2015): How Much Longer?

Front Vet Sci 2017 2;4:78. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Department of Pathology and Veterinary Public Health, Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco.

Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease's vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s. Indeed, from 1986 to 2010, three rabies control plans have been conducted based on free of charge rabies vaccination of owned dogs through mass campaigns. The geographical distribution of rabies is stable over the years with highest cases number in rich rural areas and around cities. Human rabies cases are decreasing over the time (1976-2015) thanks to the opening of new antirabic treatment centers in the last decade which permit the administration of more PEPs. After a century of rabies control, Morocco registered an average of 301 animal cases and 21 human cases annually for the last decade (2005-2015). Few reasons led to those limited results. The lack in law enforcement and, moreover, the fact that the law do not take into account responsible dog ownership aspect are of importance. Lack of dog population knowledge and management and intersectoral coordination deficiency are additional failure reasons. The gathered data will help to build a new strategy with a focus on a "One Health" approach. Dog population ecology parameters' study is of primary importance. We estimated dog population to be 2.8 million dogs based on human:dog ratio. Enhancing vaccination coverage of dog population is feasible by combining parenteral vaccination and complementary oral vaccination. Updating legislation by inclusion of responsible dog ownership and law enforcement are crucial. Over the last century, Morocco registered a slow decreasing tendency in the number of animal and human rabies cases. Urgent strategy need to be implemented because rabies elimination is an achievable goal in Morocco.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2017.00078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454081PMC
June 2017

Use of FTA card methodology for sampling and molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Africa.

Exp Parasitol 2017 Feb 23;173:29-33. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

ANSES, Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp., Wildlife Surveillance and Eco-epidemiology Unit, Technopôle Agricole et Vétérinaire, CS 40009, 54220 Malzéville, France.

Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus widely distributed in Africa. Monitoring of this parasite requires access to cyst samples on intermediate hosts observed at the slaughterhouse. In order to facilitate sampling in the field and analysis, the French National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp. has developed a tissue derived from DNA sampling with FTA card technology. The DNA samples were taken by applying the FTA paper on the germinal layer after opening the cysts. The sampling technique was validated using frozen cysts (n = 76) stored in the laboratory and from field samples (n = 134) taken at the slaughterhouse by veterinarian technicians during meat inspection in Morocco, Mali and Mauritania. DNA was extracted after several weeks of storage at room temperature. PCR assays were performed using primers for generic cestode (cox1) and amplified fragments were sequenced. All samples taken in the lab and 80% of field samples were capable of molecular characterization. Cyst-derived DNA from FTA samples can be useful for easy sampling, storage and rapid, safe and cheap shipment. The use of the FTA methodology will facilitate studies in the field to investigate the presence and genetic characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in African countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2016.12.016DOI Listing
February 2017

ZOONOTIC ENCOUNTERS AT THE SLAUGHTERHOUSE: PATHWAYS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR THE CONTROL OF CYSTIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS IN NORTHERN MOROCCO.

J Biosoc Sci 2016 09;48 Suppl 1:S92-S115

*Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences,University of Edinburgh,UK.

This study traces the biosocial dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus - a zoonotic tapeworm spread between dogs, livestock and people - at slaughterhouses in Morocco. One of the most important parasitic zoonoses worldwide, this neglected cestode is responsible for a debilitating, potentially life-threatening, human disease and significant livestock production losses. Transmission can be interrupted, among other ways, by restricting dogs from eating cyst-infected livestock viscera. Recent epidemiological studies in Sidi Kacem province, northern Morocco, found that government-operated slaughterhouses were 'hotspots' for hydatid cysts in livestock and infection in dogs. An ethnographic approach was used to compliment these studies, exploring 'how' and 'why' cysts were being openly discarded. All seven visited slaughterhouses had low levels of hygiene, oversight and infrastructure. This was described locally as perpetuating a sense of 'chaos' that normalized (un)hygienic practices and justified the ignoring of state rules and regulations. However deference to 'poor' infrastructure, both physically and symbolically, served to under-emphasize local institutional logics, which were mediated by prevailing risk perceptions, economic practices and local socio-political norms. These included inter-departmental government relationships, the motivation of veterinary technicians, the political lobbying of butchers and market-based mitigation strategies. The study shows the importance of understanding E. granulosus from a biosocial perspective, and the need for more long-term, participatory and integrated 'One Health' approaches for neglected zoonotic diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932015000486DOI Listing
September 2016

Immunogenicity and efficacy of Rabivac vaccine for animal rabies control in Morocco.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2016 Jan 27;5(1):60-9. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Nancy OIE/WHO/EU Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, Technopôle Agricole et Vétérinaire de Pixérécourt, Malzéville, France.

Purpose: To fight animal rabies, Moroccan veterinary authorities organize annual dog mass vaccination campaigns using Rabivac vaccine, an inactivated adjuvanted cell culture veterinary rabies vaccine. Two experiments were undertaken to assess the efficacy and immunogenicity of Rabivac.

Materials And Methods: The first experiment involved 13 caged dogs (8 vaccinated and 5 negative controls). Dogs were bled at day 0 (D0) and at days D7, D14, D21, D28, D35, D49, D56, D64, D70, D77, D84, D91, D98, D105, D112, and D119 post-vaccination. At D121, a virulent challenge was performed. After 70 days monitoring period, seven out of eight vaccinated dogs survived the challenge (one dog succumbed to a mesenteric torsion accident) and four out of five controls succumbed. All vaccinated dogs seroconverted and the control dogs remained negative. The second experiment consisted in a field study involving 919 owned dogs randomly selected in eight Moroccan districts located in different parts of the country. The dogs were identified and vaccinated by the parenteral route and bled on the vaccination day (D0) and on D30.

Results: Ninety-two percent of dogs developed a positive rabies virus neutralizing antibody response to vaccination and 24% were positive at D0, suggesting that dogs were previously vaccinated. The increase in rabies antibody titers was highly significant in all districts. No significant difference seemed occurring between the geographical status (rural, semiurban, or urban) of the districts on the results obtained.

Conclusion: Rabivac is efficacious both in experimental and field conditions. This supports its use in dog mass vaccination campaigns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2016.5.1.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4742601PMC
January 2016

First trials of oral vaccination with rabies SAG2 dog baits in Morocco.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2014 Jul 20;3(2):220-6. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Management in Zoonoses Control, OIE Reference Laboratory for Rabies, European Union Reference Laboratory for Rabies, European Union Reference Laboratory for Rabies Serology, Technopôle agricole et vétérinaire, Malzéville Cedex, France.

Purpose: Canine rabies is a serious health problem in Morocco and about 22 human deaths are reported yearly. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, Moroccan authorities evaluated oral rabies vaccine baits specially designed for dogs.

Materials And Methods: The study was performed in Tiflet area. The vaccine strain was SAG2, a modified live oral rabies vaccine strain. Each bait contained an aluminium/PVC capsule filled with a liquid. Two kinds of baits were used: placebo baits containing methylene blue as a topical marker and vaccine baits containing vaccine suspension. The study was performed according to recommended WHO strategies, i.e., door to door model (DDDM), hand-out and wildlife immunization model (WIM). The DDDM was performed in the rural area of Tiflet on 60 owned dogs. The hand-out strategy was tested on 15 stray dogs. The WIM was performed on 4 transects lines near Tiflet slaughterhouse and near the weekly traditional market location.

Results: Using the DDDM, 100% of owned dogs were attracted by the baits and 77% ate the bait. Using the hand-out model, 100% of dogs showed interest in baits and 46.7% took the baits. Using the WIM in stray dogs, up to 73% of baits disappeared and 68% of the capsules containing the SAG2 vaccine were found pierced, depending on the sites of distribution.

Conclusion: This pilot study showed that baits have a good palatability and that oral vaccination of both owned and stray dogs is feasible with baits specifically developed for dogs and with adapted strategy of distribution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2014.3.2.220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4083075PMC
July 2014
-->